Crises: Economy, politics, wars, natural disasters and reactions - exposition of countries in Africa, Americas, Antarctica, Arctic, Asia, Western Asia ('Middle East'), Australia/Oceania, European countries A - L, European countries M - Y, and Continental Europe, Council of Europe and European Union EU

(Since April 2011)



Global crises



Late-2000s financial crisis since 2007 - Since 2008 Great Recession, period of general economic decline observed in world markets beginning around the end of the first decade of the 21st century - 2008-2013 Timeline of the Great Recession - Effects of the Great Recession - 2010-present European sovereign debt crisis - The Great Recession in Europe is part of the Great Recession worldwide, which began in the USA - World economy
2012/2013: 9. April 2012: Laut ILO (International Labour Organization) wächst die Arbeitslosigkeit weltweit - 30 April 2012: ILO warns global employment situation is 'alarming' - 22 May 2012: Youth unemployment rising, ILO report warns - 22 January 2013: World unemployment figures set to rise in 2013, claims UN labour agency
October 2015: 13 October 2015: Global inequality is growing, with half the world’s wealth now in the hands of just 1% of the population, according to a new report
January 2016: 19 January 2016: Unemployment worldwide will rise by about 2.3 million this year to 199.4 million, making existing jobs vulnerable and fuelling potential social unrest as the global economy slows, an International Labour Organization's report warns
January 2018: 22 January 2018: Global unemployment in 2018 is projected to remain at a similar high level to last year’s and vulnerable employment is on the rise, according to ILO - Unemployment rate in 2018 by country
Since January 2020 worldwide crisis and recession due to 2019 Chinese coronavirus outbreak: Since January 2020 international socio-economic impact of the 2019 Chinese coronavirus pandemic, by continent and country - Since February 2020 global stock market crash that began on in February 2020 - 2020 Chinese coronavirus worldwide recession, which has been claimed to have started affecting the world economy due to the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, as many economists agree that the recession is already happening, supported by findings from surveys of purchasing managers in the USA, Europe and China, and as the USA currently has almost five times as many unemployment claims as during the previous peak in 1982 - Impact of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic
Since March 2020 daily increase in death rates and expansion of worldwide crisis: 8 March 2020: Economies struggle due to latest Chinese coronavirus developments worldwide, as death toll has surged above 3,500 worldwide, with 105,000 cases recorded in 95 countries and territories - 9 March 2020: New week of the Chinese coronavirus crisis is beginning with another unexpected consequence, an oil price crash driven by the outbreak of relatively unrestricted economic warfare between Saudi Arabia, Russia and the West, as the green revolution in Western and other countries poses an existential threat to the Russian economy, as nations also are shutting borders, ceasing trade and, particularly damaging in an era of global supply chains, locking down supplies within their borders - 9 March 2020: World markets plunge on back of Chinese coronavirus-driven recession fears. as global stock markets suffering their biggest falls since the 2008 financial crisis while the oil price crashed amid panic selling because of the double threat of a coronavirus-driven global recession and an oil price war - Since March 2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war - 30 March 2020: Asian shares with fresh losses as countries reported surging numbers of infections from the coronavirus in many parts of the world
April 2020 expansion of worldwide crisis: 9 April 2020: Half a billion more people could fall into poverty due to covid-19, as Oxfam also warns 'devastating economic fallout of pandemic’ could set back efforts against poverty in some areas of the world by decades - 14 April 2020: Global economy faces worst recession since the Great Depression, IMF says
29 April 2020 1.6 billion people in 'immediate danger of having their livelihoods destroyed': 29 April 2020: 1.6 billion people, almost half the global workforce, are in 'immediate danger of having their livelihoods destroyed' by the economic impact of covid-19, ILO has warned, as of the total global working population of 3.3 billion, about 2 billion work in the 'informal economy', often on short-term contracts or self-employment, and suffered a 60% collapse in their wages in the first month of the crisis
5 June 2020 mining sites around the world hotspots for spread of covid-19: 5 June 2020: Mining sites in Canada, the USA and around the world have become hotspots for the spread of covid-19, and approximately 4,000 mine workers in 18 countries have tested positive, according to a report by an international coalition of non-profit groups
8 October 2020 world’s garment workers face ruin as fashion brands refuse to pay $16bn: 8 October 2020: Powerful USA and European fashion companies have refused to pay overseas suppliers for more than $16bn of goods since the outbreak of covid-19, with devastating implications for garment workers across the world, according to analysis of newly released import data
21 December 2020 Latin America's new 'lost decade' due to covid-19: 21 décembre 2020: La pandémie provoquée par le coronavirus a détruit en 2020 une grande partie de ce que l’Amérique latine était parvenue à réaliser au cours d’années de réformes et d’investissements, la pauvreté a explosé, le chômage a augmenté, et la région doit désormais faire face au spectre d’une nouvelle 'décennie perdue'
30 April 2021 Eurozone falls into double-dip recession: 30 April 2021: Eurozone falls into double-dip recession amid covid-19 pandemic, 'The Guardian' reports live

Capitalist mode of production - Capitalism based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit - Criticism of capitalism
18th/19th centuries establishment of the domination of the capitalist mode of production: During the 18th/19th centuries domination of the capitalist mode of production and 'Industrial Revolution', industrialists replaced merchants as a dominant factor in the capitalist system and effected the decline of the traditional handicraft skills of artisans, guilds and journeymen, as industrial capitalism marked the development of the factory system of manufacturing, characterized by a complex division of labor between and within work process and the routine of work tasks and eventually established the domination of the capitalist mode of production, as the surplus generated by the rise of commercial agriculture encouraged increased mechanization of agriculture - British Agricultural Revolution and an increase in agricultural production due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries - 'Enclosure' in England of consolidating (enclosing) small landholdings into larger farms, as by the 19th century unenclosed commons had become largely restricted
Since the 19th century economic recessions: Working conditions, social structure and standards of living during and since the 18th/19th centuries Industrial Revolution, the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the USA in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840, as economic recessions began and occurred from the late 1830s
1844/1885 'The Condition of the Working Class in England': 'The Condition of the Working Class in England' (Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England), an 1845 book by the German scientist Friedrich Engels written during Engels' 1842–44 stay in Manchester, the city at the heart of the capitalist industrial Revolution and compiled from Engels' own observations and detailed contemporary reports, as an English translation was published in 1885
18th/19th centuries Industrial Revolution's effects on cotton production and expansion of slavery: 18th/19th centuries Industrial Revolution's effects on cotton production and expansion of slavery, as cotton became profitable, leading to the widespread growth of cotton plantations in the emerging USA and Brazil, as American countries' labour shortages resulting from destruction of Native American cultures made slavery even more attractive as cotton plantations became highly efficient and profitable - 1783–1815 expansion and rise of the 'Second' British Empire and Britain's imperial century (1815–1914)
Overseas empires and establishments by colonial empire: Overseas empires, as colonists - following the Roman empire since the Middle Ages - initially came from European kingdoms that had more or less highly developed military, naval, governmental, and entrepreneurial capabilities - Establishments by colonial empire
Since 1929 'Weltwirtschaftskrise' and Great Depression: Since 1929 Great Depression, a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the USA, as the timing of the crisis varied across the world lasting until the late 1930s, and as it was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century, commonly described as an example of how intensely the capitalist mode of production and global economy can decline - Seit 1929 Weltwirtschaftskrise zum Ende der 1920er und im Verlauf der 1930er Jahre beginnend mit dem New Yorker Börsencrash im Oktober 1929

Wage labour - Wage slavery refers to a social relation where a person's livelihood depends on wages or a salary, especially when the dependence is total and immediate
2014/2015 developing world's workers trapped in vulnerable jobs: 27 May 2014: Half of developing world's workers trapped in vulnerable jobs, says ILO - 24 July 2014: More than 2.2 billion people are 'poor or near-poor', amid financial crises, natural disasters, soaring food prices and violent conflicts, UNDP's report says - 19 mai 2015: Une étude de l'Organisation internationale du travail indique que seulement un quart des travailleurs à travers le monde a un emploi stable - 13 October 2015: Global inequality is growing, with half the world’s wealth now in the hands of just 1% of the population, according to a new report
January 2016 vast and growing gap between rich and poor and unemployment: 18 January 2016: The vast and growing gap between rich and poor has been laid bare in a new report showing that the 62 richest billionaires own as much wealth as the poorer half of the world’s population, as a global network of tax havens further enables the richest individuals to hide $7.6 trillion, according to Oxfam - 19 January 2016: Unemployment worldwide will rise by about 2.3 million this year to 199.4 million, making existing jobs vulnerable and fuelling potential social unrest as the global economy slows, an International Labour Organization's report warns
April 2017: 6 April 2017: The risk of human rights tainted tungsten, tin, tantalum and gold (3TG) entering the supply chains of tech firms is extending well beyond the traditional home of 'conflict minerals', DR Congo and the Great Lakes Region of Africa, according to new research from risk analysis firm Verisk Maplecroft - 7 April 2017: Tech companies must do more to avoid using minerals tainted by rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Colombia, Peru, Myanmar and elsewhere, according to Verisk Maplecroft
November 2018: 26 novembre 2018: La croissance des salaires au plus bas en 2017 depuis 2008 et les salaires sont insuffisants pour honorer les besoins de nombreuses personnes dans de nombreuses régions du monde, selon OIT
April 2020 migrant workers are bearing the brunt of the covid-19 in the Middle East: 19 April 2020: Crammed into work camps, stood down from their jobs, facing high rates of infection and with no way home, hundreds of thousands of migrant workers are bearing the brunt of the covid-19 pandemic in the Middle East, migrant advocates and diplomats say

Direct and indirect consequences of colonialism and colonization - History of colonialism - History of European colonialism
Settler colonialism: Settler colonialism - Colonialism and genocide - Genocide of indigenous peoples
Exploitation colonialism: Exploitation colonialism
During late 19th and early 20th centuries colonial expansion by European powers, USA and Japan: During the late 19th and early 20th centuries colonial expansion by European powers, the USA and Japanese empire
Wars of independence, decolonization (withdrawal of colonial powers): Wars of independence, since 18th/19th centuries first successful following revolutions in colonial power states - Mainly since World War II Decolonization, the withdrawal from its colonies of a colonial power, the acquisition of political or economic independence by such colonies
April 2019 debt repayments by the world’s poorest countries have doubled since 2010: 3 April 2019: 'Debt' repayments by the world’s poorest countries have doubled since 2010 to reach their highest level since just before the internationally organised write-off in 2005, campaigners have warned
September 2019 mining companies' human rights abuses: 5 September 2019: Most of the world’s top companies extracting key minerals for electric vehicles, solar panels and wind turbines have been linked with human rights abuses in their mines, according to the international corporate watchdog BHRRC, revealing that 87% of the 23 largest companies mining cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel and zinc – the six minerals essential to the renewable energy industry – have faced allegations of abuse including land rights infringements, corruption, violence or death over the past 10 years

Poverty by country - List of countries by GDP - List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty - List of countries by unemployment rate
Economic inequality
January 2015 fast growing gap between rich and poor: 19 January 2015: The gap between the richest people and the majority of the world's population is widening fast as wealth accumulated by the richest 1% will exceed that of the other 99% in 2016, British Oxfam charity says
January 2016: 18 January 2016: The vast and growing gap between rich and poor has been laid bare in a new Oxfam report showing that the 62 richest billionaires own as much wealth as the poorer half of the world’s population, as the wealth of the poorest 50% dropped by 41% between 2010 and 2015, despite an increase in the global population of 400m - April 2016 'Panama Papers', period of release 1970s–2016
2017 rising inequality: 16 January 2017: The world’s eight richest billionaires control the same wealth between them as the poorest half of the globe’s population, Oxfam says blaming rising inequality on aggressive wage restraint, tax dodging and the squeezing of producers by companies, adding that businesses were too focused on delivering ever-higher returns to wealthy owners and top executives - 28 septembre 2017: Les grosses fortunes ont proliféré dans le monde en 2016, selon Capgemini - 14 décembre 2017: Europe, Afrique, Asie ou continent américain, 'les inégalités ont augmenté dans presque toutes les régions du monde', assure un 'rapport sur les inégalités mondiales', qui compare de façon inédite la répartition des richesses au niveau mondial et son évolution depuis près de quatre décennies
January-June 2018 rising inequality: 22 January 2018: The world’s richest one percent raked in 82% of the wealth created last year while the poorest half of the population received none, according to Oxfam report, calling for action to tackle the growing gap between rich and poor, as report shows that 42 people hold as much wealth as the 3.7 billion who make up the poorest half of the world’s population - 7 April 2018: The world’s richest 1% are on course to control as much as two-thirds of the world’s wealth by 2030, according to an alarming projection produced by the House of Commons library that has lead to a cross-party call for action - 2 June 2018: Citizenship for sale, how tycoons can go shopping for a new passport
October 2018: 26 October 2018: World's billionaires became 20% richer in 2017, making more money in 2017 than in any year in recorded history and increasing their wealth to $8.9tn, according to a report by Swiss bank UBS
January 2019 growing concentration of the world’s wealth: 21 January 2019: The growing concentration of the world’s wealth has been highlighted by a British report, showing that the 26 richest billionaires own as many assets as the 3.8 billion people who make up the poorest half of the planet’s population, and that the 'growing gap between the rich and poor is undermining the fight against poverty, damaging economies and fueling public anger across the globe'
September 2019 ranks of super-rich continue to grow: 25 September 2019: Ranks of super-rich continue to grow despite global turmoil, as economic woes fail to stop further 2,124 people becoming ultra-high net worth people
February 2020 record $1.43tn in dividends to shareholders around the world in 2019: 17 February 2020: Companies paid out a record $1.43tn in dividends to shareholders around the world in 2019, as record-breaking annual dividend payout from listed companies (3.5% higher than in 2018) was driven by strong performances in stock markets in North America and emerging economies, including by some unusually high special dividends, although global economic uncertainty slowed the annual pace of growth
3 February 2021 up to 124 million more people were forecast to be living in extreme poverty in 2020: 3 February 2021: Two decades of progress in the reduction of extreme poverty, the elimination of which is one of the sustainable development goals, have been pushed into a sharp reverse by a combination of the impact of the covid-19 pandemic, the growing climate emergency and increasing debt, as with the World Bank warning of a 'truly unprecedented increase' in levels of poverty this year, and renewing calls for debt forgiveness, experts are warning of a growing crisis in multiple areas from education to employment, likely to be felt for years to come


Diseases of poverty

Hunger, Famine, Starvation, and malnutrition - List of famines
Global Hunger Index: Global Hunger Index
2015-2017 index: 2015 Global Hunger Index map and scores by country - 2017 Global Hunger Index - global, regional and national trends
2016 drought drives global rise in hunger: 5 June 2016: Drought drives global rise in hunger, as millions of people are suffering the impact of severe drought across three continents
2017 world hunger rising: 11 March 2017: The world faces the largest humanitarian crisis since 1945 with more than 20 million people in countries in Africa and the Middle East facing starvation and famine, UN official says - 15 September 2017: World hunger rising for first time this century, sparking concern that conflict and climate change could be reversing years of progress, according to the state of food insecurity and nutrition in 2017, a report produced by five UN agencies
2018 world hunger rising: 22 mars 2018: L'intensification des conflits et la sécheresse persistante dans plusieurs régions du monde ont fait grimper à 124 millions le nombre de personnes jugées à la merci d'une famine à la fin 2017, une augmentation de 15% comparé à l'année précédente, selon UE, FAO et PAM
July 2019 world hunger rising: 15 juillet 2019: La faim dans le monde affectait 821,6 millions de personnes dans le monde en 2018, contre 811 l'année précédente, selon un rapport annuel publié par plusieurs organisations de l'ONU qui déplorent une troisième année consécutive de hausse
12 May 2020 malnutrition leading cause of death and ill health worldwide: 12 May 2020: Malnutrition leading cause of death and ill health worldwide, as covid-19 pandemic highlights weakness of food and health systems, and 'Global Nutrition Report' finds one in nine, or 820 million people, of world’s population is hungry
2020 Global Hunger Index by severity: 2020 Global Hunger Index by Severity, as world is not on track to achieve Zero Hunger by 2030, with areas highly vulnerable to a worsening of food and nutrition insecurity exacerbated by the health, economic, and environmental crises of 2020
13 October 2020 ending world hunger by 2030 would cost $330bn according to study: 13 October 2020: Ending world hunger by 2030 would cost $330bn, study finds, as research suggests that by targeting enhanced aid money more effectively and with greater innovation, a solution is possible
5 May 2021 'Global Report on Food Crises' highlights the high severity and numbers of people in crisis: 5 May 2021: 'Global Report on Food Crises' highlights the remarkably high severity and numbers of people in crisis or worse (IPC/CH Phase 3 or above) or equivalent in 55 countries/territories, driven by persistent conflict, pre-existing and covid-19-related economic shocks, and weather extremes, as the number identified in the 2021 edition is the highest in the report’s five-year existence
8 November 2021 45 million people on the edge of famine according to the UN: 8 November 2021: 45 million people on the edge of famine, as the UN food agency says global hunger spiked by three million within a year, with conflict, climate change and covid-19 main driving factors, and as jump from 42 million people earlier in the year was largely down to a food security assessment that found another three million people facing famine in Afghanistan, WFP said

Use of starvation as weapon in Syria, and 2013 Assad regime's 'starvation until submission campaign': 30 October 2013: Assad regime's 'starvation until submission campaign', blocking food and medicine from entering and people from leaving besieged areas of Syria, causing starvation and death, according to residents and medical staff
March 2014 Assad's army using starvation as a 'weapon of war': 10 March 2014: Assad's army has been using starvation as a 'weapon of war' in its siege of the Yarmuk Palestinian refugee camp on the outskirts of Damascus, according rights group, saying nearly 200 people have died since an army siege was tightened in July 2013 and access to food and medicine cut
Since 2015 starvation as weapon: Use of starvation as weapon during Assad's war against the Syrian people, since 2015 in Madaya
January 2016 siege and starvation in Madaya: 7/8 January 2016: Siege and starvation in Madaya, immediate medical evacuations and medical resupply essential to save lives
November 2017 children starve in siege of Syria's former breadbasket Rif Damashq province: 24 November 2017: Children starve in siege of Syria's former breadbasket Rif Damashq province, as the siege by Assad forces of eastern Ghouta, which also suffered in the deadly 2013 sarin gas attack, has continued for years with conditions getting steadily worse
Since 2016 famine in Yemen: Since 2016 Famine in Yemen
October 2016 starving children fight for lives in hospital: 4 October 2016: Yemen famine feared as starving children fight for lives in hospital
November 2017 extreme hunger and disease: 16 November 2017: International aid group 'Save the Children' says an estimated 130 children or more die every day in war-torn Yemen from extreme hunger and disease
September 2018 more than 5 million children at risk of famine: 19 September 2018: More than five million children are at risk of famine in Yemen as the ongoing war causes food and fuel prices to soar across the country, according to charity 'Save the Children'
October 2018: 15 October 2018: Yemen on brink of 'world's worst famine in 100 years' if war triggered by Iranian-backed Houthis continues, as UN warns that famine could overwhelm country in next three months, with 13 million people at risk of starvation - 23 octobre 2018: Jusqu'à 14 millions de personnes pourraient souffrir de la famine au Yémen si les conditions de vie restent les mêmes, selon l'ONU
February 2019 devastating impact of Yemeni war: 15 February 2019: Starving girl shows devastating impact of Yemeni war
22 July 2020 Yemen on brink of famine again according to UN: 22 July 2020: Yemen on brink of famine again, UN agencies WFP, FAO and Unicef warn, saying millions face devastating hunger if relief efforts are not stepped up in a country ravaged by war, locusts and now covid-19, threatening to reverse recent efforts to stabilise food security in the country
28 October 2020 Yemen on brink of losing entire generation of children to hunger: 28 October 2020: Yemen on brink of losing entire generation of children to hunger, UN warns, as food security crisis means acute malnutrition among under-fives at highest levels since war engulfed the country
3 December 2020 Yemen 'one step away from famine' as donors dry up amid covid-19: 3 December 2020: The window to prevent the return of famine to Yemen is rapidly closing, UN agencies have warned, with a new assessment showing millions could head further into hunger in the coming months as donors dry up amid covid-19
1 March 2021 war and famine could wipe out the next generation of Yemenis: 1 March 2021: War and famine could wipe out the next generation of Yemenis, as after years of violence half the population is going hungry and 400,000 under fives are at risk of dying from malnutrition, 'The Guardian' reports
October 2017 D.R of Congo: 29 October 2017: Millions face starvation in the D.R. of Congo, UN warns
2018 in South Sudan: 10 January 2018: Starvation as a weapon of war in South Sudan
Since 2020 famine in the Tigray War: Since 2020 famine in the Tigray War, an ongoing humanitarian crisis in Ethiopia which resulted from the Tigray War since 2020 leading to death and starvation. As of May 2021 there are 5.5 million people facing acute food insecurity and over 350,000 people experiencing catastrophic famine conditions. It is the worst famine worldwide since the 2011 famine in Somalia
29 September 2021 Ethiopia’s Tigray crisis 'stain on our conscience, as UN humanitarian chief Martin Griffiths calls for urgent action: 29 September 2021: The crisis in Ethiopia that is pushing the war-scarred Tigray region towards starvation is a 'stain on our conscience', UN humanitarian chief says, as Martin Griffiths issued one of the most sharply worded criticisms to date of the worst famine situation in decades, calling on Ethiopia’s incoming new government to lead the country away from 'the abyss that it’s peering into'
2021 Madagascar food crisis linked to climate change: Since summer 2021 Madagascar food crisis, after severe drought in southern Madagascar caused hundreds of thousands of people, with some estimating more than one million people, to suffer from food insecurity and being on the verge of famine, as some organizations have attributed the situation to the impact of climate change aggravated by the covid-19 pandemic
27 October 2021 global community urged to step up relief efforts for Madagascar’s drought-hit south: 27 October 2021: Rights group urges global community and Madagascar’s government to step up relief efforts for the island nation’s drought-hit south, as more than a million people on Madagascar’s parched southern tip are on the brink of famine and some are already dying, the global rights watchdog said in a report released ahead of the UN’s climate conference in Glasgow

Starvation as a weapon of war the new normal due to lack of action and punishment
December 2017 global call to world's presidents 1,000 days since the escalation of war in Yemen: 19 December 2017: A global call to USA's president Trump, UK's PM May, and France's president Macron, as December 2017 marks 1,000 days since the escalation of a war that has turned the Middle East’s poorest country into the world’s largest humanitarian crisis, leaving Yemen ravaged by preventable diseases and on the verge of a historic famine, and as after 1,000 days of war Yemen can't wait, as USA, UK, and France are permanent members of the UN Security Council and at the same time major weapons suppliers to Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, bearing a special responsibility to use the full extent of their leverage to press their partners in the region to end the crisis and to become the brokers of peace, despite Iranian regime's connections with Yemeni Houthis
September 2018 starvation as a weapon of war the new normal: 10 September 2018: Starvation being used as a weapon of war has become the new normal, according to Save the Children, saying that more than half a million infants in conflict zones could die of malnutrition by the end of the year if they do not receive treatment - The impact of conflict-related hunger on children, a lethal weapon of war, 'Save the Children Fund' says in 2018
September 2019 UK, USA and France may be complicit in Yemen war crimes according to UN: 3 September 2019: UK, USA and France may be complicit in Yemen war crimes, UN report says
April/June 2020 Yemen the largest humanitarian crisis in the world according to UN: April 2020: Yemen is the largest humanitarian crisis in the world, with more than 24 million people, some 80% of the population, in need of humanitarian assistance, including more than 12 million children, as since Houthis' 2015 coup and escalation the country has become a living hell for the country’s children, according to UN
23 September 2021: 16 million in Yemen ‘marching towards starvation’: 23 September 2021: 16 million in Yemen ‘marching towards starvation’ as food rations run low, and as UN aid worker describes ‘horrific’ scenes in one hospital where starving and malnourished children ‘look like skeletons’

Women's rights by region (continent) - Women's rights by country - Women's suffrage
2015: 5 June 2015: Women worldwide are the backbone of healthcare with few rewards for $3tn contribution, report says - 9 September 2015: Women’s economic opportunities and working rights still widely subject to restrictive legislation in 155 countries, having at least one law that limits women’s economic opportunities, while 100 states put restrictions on the types of jobs women can do and 18 allow husbands to dictate whether their wives can work at all, World Bank report says
March 2018: 9 March 2018: International Women's Day was celebrated across the world on Wednesday at a time when the women of the Eastern Ghouta are hiding in the cellars with their children to escape a brutal campaign waged by the Russian and Iranian-backed Syrian regime on the area
28 September 2021 female Afghan judges now hunted by the murderers they convicted: 28 September 2021: Female Afghan judges hunted by the murderers they convicted, as more than 220 trailblazers of women's rights in Afghanistan and the staunch defenders of the law and the country's most marginalised now - after the Taliban takeover - are in hiding due to fear of retribution under Taliban rule. Six former female judges spoke to the BBC from secret locations across Afghanistan.
Violence against women - Causes of sexual violence - Violence against women by country - International rape statistics - Domestic violence - Honor killing - Refugee women and children
2013/2014 over one woman in three globally a victim of domestic violence: 20 june 2013: More than one woman in three around the globe is a victim of domestic violence, the WHO says - 10 June 2014: A four-day summit on sexual violence in war is to begin in London - 30 October: UN's Ban Ki-moon backs Guardian’s global media campaign against FGM
2016 at least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone some form of FGM: 5 February 2016: On the eve of the international day of zero tolerance for FGM, UN says that at least 200 million girls and women alive today have undergone some form of FGM, as the countries with the highest prevalence are Somalia 98%, Guinea 97% and Djibouti 93%
2016 Syrian women going through unspeakable suffering: 8 March 2016: Syrian Coalition's Suheir al-Atassi says Syrian women have been going through unspeakable suffering, whether due to displacement, loss of loved ones, detention, sexual violence, and death by starvation or under torture or in bombardment by the Assad regime
2018 Thomson Reuters Foundation survey of violence against women: 28 June 2018: India is the world’s most dangerous country for women due to the high risk of sexual violence and being forced into slave labour, according to a Thomson Reuters Foundation survey of 548 experts, ranking Afghanistan and Syria second and third, followed by Somalia and Saudi Arabia and the the USA the only western nation in the top 10 - 26 November 2018: Of a total of 87,000 women murdered globally in 2017 about 50,000 or 58% were killed by the partner or family members, according to UN
23 November 2020 ahead of 'International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women 25 November': 23 novembre 2020: Flambée des viols au Nigeria ou en Afrique du Sud, hausse des disparitions de femmes au Pérou, augmentation des féminicides au Brésil ou au Mexique, associations débordées en Europe, du Nigeria au Brésil, de la France à l’Inde, aucun pays n’échappe à l’explosion collatérale des agressions subies par les femmes, donnant cette année une résonance particulière à la Journée internationale pour l’élimination des violences, mercredi - 'International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women 25 November'
24 Februar 2021 abused Iranian woman dies of heart attack before execution, still gets hanged: 24 February 2021: Iranian Zahra Ismaili who died of a heart attack, forced to wait behind 16 men who were executed and watch, shortly before her execution, but was hanged anyway to placate her alleged victim’s mother, as Ismaili’s lawyer Omid Moradi, said her husband, who was a high ranking intel official, was abusive and that she killed him out of self-defense, 'The Times' reported
Infant mortality - List of countries by infant mortality rate - Child mortality

Children's rights - Child neglect, a deficit in meeting a child's basic needs, including the failure to provide adequate health care, supervision, clothing, nutrition, housing as well as their physical, emotional, social, educational and safety needs
15 October 2019 malnutrition: 15 octobre 2019: Un jeune enfant sur trois est mal nourri, selon un rapport de l’UNICEF
18 October 2019 lack of education: 18 October 2019: 9 out of 10 children in the world’s poorest countries are unable to read a basic book by the age of 10, according to data compiled by the World Bank and the UN
February 2020 every country worldwide failing to shield children’s health and future: 19 February 2020: Every country in the world is failing to shield children’s health and their futures from intensifying ecological degradation, climate change and exploitative marketing practices, says a new report by the WHO, Unicef, and Lancet, calling for radical changes
2 March 2020 CDU and EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals: 2 March 2020: Child drowns at sea off Greece in first fatality of CDU and EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals
Since March 2020 crisis of education and schools amid covid-19: 27 août 2020: La pandémie de covid-19 et la fermeture des écoles se sont traduites par l’impossibilité pour au moins un tiers des élèves dans le monde, soit 463 millions d’enfants, de bénéficier d’un enseignement, faute de pouvoir le faire virtuellement, selon un rapport de l’Unicef
20 August 2021 a billion children at ‘extreme risk’ from climate impacts, Unicef says: 20 August 2021: A billion children at ‘extreme risk’ from climate impacts, Unicef says, as report launched with youth activists paints ‘unimaginably dire’ picture
6 September 2021 education in quarter of countries at risk of collapse, study warns: 6 September 2021: Education in quarter of countries at risk of collapse, study warns, as covid-19, climate breakdown, poverty and war threaten return to school after pandemic kept 1.5bn children out of classes
Child labour and poverty: Child labour - Child labour by country - - List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor - Child labour law
Child poverty
2014 increase of child poverty: 28 October 2014: Child poverty has increased in 23 countries in the developed world since the start of the global recession in 2008, Unicef says
2017 152 million children subject to child labour: 19 September 2017: The ILO have released a companion estimate of child labour, which confirms that about 152 million children, aged between 5 and 17, were subject to child labour in 2016
June 2019 progress on opposing child labour stalls: 14 June 2019: Progress on ending child labour stalls in countries supplying goods to west, as China, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Cambodia among otherwise thriving countries failing to make headway on issue affecting 152 million minors, a study has found
26 May 2021 child labour in poorest countries rose during covid-19 report says: 26 May 2021: Child labour in poorest countries rose during covid-19, says report, as study finds children in Ghana, Nepal and Uganda in dangerous, exploitative work, with long hours and little pay
10 June 2021 child labour worldwide increased since 2016 amid fears of further increase in 2020/21: 10 June 2021: Child labour worldwide increases for first time in 20 years, and the covid-19 crisis threatens to push millions more youngsters towards the same fate, Unicef has said in a joint report with the International Labour Organization, as UN children’s agency also reports that the number in child labour already stood at 160 million at the start of 2020, following an increase of 8.4 million in four years
Child slavery: Child slavery
Child abduction, laundering and trafficking of children: International child abduction - Child laundering - Trafficking of children
Crimes and violence against children and military use: Crimes and violence against children - Military use of children
2014 violence against children tolerated and even accepted as normal in many parts of the world: 5 September 2014: No country immune from violence against children that is tolerated and even accepted as normal in many parts of the world, Unicef report says - 21 October 2014: One child dies every five minutes as a result of violence, but only a minority die in war zones, Unicef report says
2016 torture of children in Syria etc. and chemical attacks: 28 juillet 2016: En Syrie, en Irak et au Nigéria, des milliers d'enfants sont torturés et détenus sous couvert de lutte contre le terrorisme, selon Human Rights Watch - 8 September 2016: As chemical weapons watchdog chief says Aleppo gas attack disturbing, the UN Security Council is due to discuss a report by the UN and the watchdog group OPCW, blaming Assad regime forces for previous toxic gas attacks
March 2017 5.8 million of Syria’s children are in need of aid: 6 March 2017: Children in Syria are suffering from 'toxic stress', a severe form of psychological trauma that can cause life-long damage, as 5.8 million of the country’s children are in need of aid in Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011, according to a study of 'Save the Children' and its partner agencies in Syria
October 2017 reports on children in armed conflicts: 5 October 2017: Millions of children caught in conflict, victims and targets of despicable harm, as children from countries such as Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Somalia, South Sudan, Syria and Yemen, suffer an unacceptable level of violations by parties to conflict, according to UN's 2016 Annual Report on Children and Armed Conflict - 1 novembre 2017: Trois quarts des enfants âgés entre 2 et 4 ans, environ 300 millions de filles et de garçons dans le monde sont victimes de violences domestiques, selon Unicef
December 2017 children in war zones used as weapons of war, recruited to fight, forced to act as suicide bombers, and used as human shields: 28 December 2017: Children caught in war zones are increasingly being used as weapons of war, recruited to fight, forced to act as suicide bombers, and used as human shields, according to Unicef, summarising 2017 as a brutal year for children caught in conflict and stating that parties to conflicts were blatantly disregarding international humanitarian law
August 2018 4,360 incidents of attacks hitting 1,356 schools in Syria since 2011: 8 August 2018: SNHR said in a report that there were 4,360 incidents of attacks hitting 1,356 schools in Syria since 2011, which caused about half of them to go out of service, documenting the deaths of 528 civilians as a result of attacks on schools and educational institutions, as the Assad regime attacked 996 schools, the Russian forces are responsible for attacking 169 schools and the international coalition forces are responsible for attaching 87 schools - According to SNHR 224,948 Syrian civilians including 29,017 children killed since March 2011
December 2018 Iranian backed Houthis' child soldiers in Yemen: 19 December 2018: Iranian backed Houthis in Yemen have inducted 18,000 child soldiers into their army since the beginning of their war in 2014, a senior Houthi military official acknowledged to the AP, as former child soldiers describe Houthis’ 'efficiency' when it comes to recruitment, deployment and battlefield deaths of young boys and children as young as 10 fight, kill and die
2019/2020 only glimmers of hope to prosecute Assad’s, Iranian and Russian war crimes since 2011 including crimes against Syria's children: 9 March 2019: Facing Russian regime's blocking attempts to investigate Assad’s war crimes, there are only glimmers of hope, due to European and American obsequiousness towards perpetrators - UN Security Council has refused to address war crimes in Syria through ICC since 2011 - 24 December 2019: Justice, Syria and the International Criminal Court, as ally of the Assad regime Russia is vetoing all efforts by the UN Security Council to refer the situation in Syria to the ICC - 19 February 2020: Unicef decried the extremely dire conditions children in northwestern Syria, coming under onslaught by Assad's and Putin's regime, are going through, saying that more than 500,000 children have been displaced in northwest Syria since 1 December 2019
March 2020 el-Sissi forces arrested, forcibly disappeared and tortured children: 23 March 2020: Egyptian security forces under president el-Sissi have arbitrarily arrested, forcibly disappeared and tortured children as young as 12 while prosecutors and judges turned a blind eye, international rights group 'Human Rights Watch' said
21 June 2021 violence against children in conflict and war zones rising: 21 juin 2021: Selon un rapport des Nations Unies publié lundi, les enlèvements d’enfants dans les zones de conflit ont augmenté de 90%, les violences contre les enfants et les viols de mineurs ont explosé
23 November 2021 world’s highest child soldier numbers in West, Central Africa, UNICEF says: 23 November 2021: World’s highest child soldier numbers in West, Central Africa, as more than 21,000 children recruited by government forces and armed groups in conflict-hit region during past five years, UNICEF says
Child abuse: Child abuse
School corporal punishment and corporal punishment in the home: School corporal punishment - Corporal punishment in the home
Street children and orphanages: Street children is a term for children experiencing homelessness who are living on the streets of a city, town, or village - Orphanage, a residential institution devoted to the care of children whose biological parents are deceased or otherwise unable or unwilling to care for them
Child marriage: Child marriage - Child marriage by region and country
2017: 11 October 2017: Early marriage not only deprives girls of education and opportunities, but also increases the risk of death or serious childbirth injuries, as at least 20,000 girls around the world are married off illegally each day, with child marriage often deeply rooted in tradition despite being outlawed in a growing number of countries, according to new analysis

Refugee women and children, facing many of the same issues in refugee camps as they do in urban slums and rural villages, broad issues such as inequality and abuse are seen universally - Refugee camps - Mental health of refugee children
2016: 14 March 2016: No place for children - the impact of five years of war on Syria's children and their childhoods, Unicef report - 7 September 2016: Child refugee figures have jumped by 75% in five years and children now make up more than half of the world’s refugees, Unicef says calling for urgent action to protect the 50 million child migrants worldwide
September 2018: 2 September 2018: 'Home – Drawings by Syrian Children' is a book filled with the truest international language that we big people need to listen to closely and seriously, documenting journeys of escape, fleeing unimaginable horror, murderous men and the end of their homeland
January 2019: 15 January 2019: Winter weather kills 15 displaced children in Syria, according to UN, saying that freezing temperatures and lack of medical care claimed victims, most aged under a year and one just an hour old, thousands continue to flee fighting
2 March 2020 CDU and EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals: 2 March 2020: Child drowns at sea off Greece in first fatality of CDU and EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals
5 March 2020 over 80% of Syria refugees since December are women and children: 5 March 2020: Over 80% of Syria refugees are women and children, according to UN, telling the Arab League that 'more than 900,000 people have been displaced since 1 December, (and) women and children together comprise 81% of the newly displaced population'
8 May 2021 IRC said UK's government had cut 75% of its funding for Syria: 8 May 2021: IRC said UK's government had cut 75% of its funding for Syria, where more than 12 million people have been displaced by conflict, also saying it was particularly concerned about women and girls living in camps in north Syria who will no longer have access to safe spaces or services

Refugee crises - Refugee - Refugees by nationality - Right of asylum - List of countries by refugee population - Refugee camp - Refugee camps
Since 1914-1918: First World War 1914-1918, caused by the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, uprooted millions of European civilians who were made refugees either by enemy occupation or by the state’s forcible deportation, the resulting crisis had profound consequences, not only for the individuals directly affected but also for officials and relief workers who attempted to relieve their suffering and for communities that hosted refugees and not ending in 1918
1933-1945: Between Germany's NSDAP rise to power in 1933 and Germany's surrender in 1945, more than 340,000 Jews emigrated from their country, but after Germany annexed Austria in March 1938 and particularly after the German November pogroms 1938 nations in western Europe and the Americas feared an influx of refugees, placing limits on immigration and often turning back desperate people - MS St. Louis German ocean liner trying to find homes for 908 Jewish refugees from Germany in 1939, but after denied entry to Cuba, Canada, and the USA, the refugees were finally accepted in various European countries, and historians have estimated that approximately a quarter of them died in German death camps during World War II - 'Exodus 1947' was a ship that carried 4,515 Jewish emigrants from France to British Mandatory Palestine in July 1947, mostly Holocaust survivors, but the British Royal Navy seized the ship in a battle and deported all its passengers back to Europe and Germany detaining refugees in camps likened to German concentration camps
1942: 18 April 2017: Allies of World War II Soviet Union, United Kingdom and USA, that together opposed the Axis powers' aggression and war crimes, knew of Holocaust in 1942, 2 years before previously assumed, UN documents prove, shedding damning light on refusal to take in refugees - The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945, and in which Jews were targeted for extermination as part of a larger event involving the persecution and murder of other groups, including in particular the Roma, ethnic Poles, Soviet prisoners of war, as well as political opponents, 'incurably sick', homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses
Since 1945: During World War II, NSDAP ruled Germany deported between seven and nine million Europeans, mostly to Germany and after Germany's surrender in May 1945, the Allies repatriated to their home countries more than six million displaced persons, but most Jewish survivors, who had survived concentration camps or had been in hiding, were unable or unwilling to return to eastern Europe because of postwar antisemitism and the destruction of their communities during the Holocaust
Following World War II and since 1950s: Since 1950s refugee crises in Africa, in the Americas, in Asia, in Europe, in the Near and Middle East - List of UNHCR registered refugees by country/territory of origin between 2006 and 2014
2016/2017: 22 May 2017: Extent of the hidden crises, that forced 31 million people to flee within their countries in 2016, revealed by Norwegian Refugee Council report
June 2018: 19 June 2018: Record 68.5 million people fleeing war or persecution worldwide, including 25.4 million refugees, 40 million internally displaced and 3.1 million asylum seekers, as UNHCR sees five countries accounting for two-thirds of all refugees including Syria (6.3 million), Afghanistan (2.6 million), South Sudan (2.4 million), Myanmar (1.2 million) and Somalia (986,400)
November 2018: 1 November 2018: As migration rises worldwide, so has its toll according to an AP tally, saying tens of thousands of people die or simply disappear during their journeys, barely counted in life, these migrants rarely register in death, almost as if they never lived at all
May 2019: 10 May 2019: Record numbers of people have been forced from their homes by conflict in a crisis that has received 'pitiful' international attention, according to the Norwegian Refugee Council, finding that a total of 41.3 million people were living in a state of internal displacement by the end of 2018 due to violence
June 2019: 19 June 2019: The number of people fleeing conflict and oppression worldwide and forced to flee their homes has exceeded 70 million for the first time since records began, according to the UN’s refugee agency, saying that the figure is a conservative estimate, because the impact of the crisis in Venezuela is still not known, also adding 'year on year the international community is proving unable to make peace'
November 2019 UN accused of trying to starve out refugees: 28 November 2019: The UN has been accused of trying to starve out refugees and asylum seekers who are sheltering for safety inside a centre run by the UN refugee agency in the Libyan capital of Tripoli
18 June 2020 number of refugees worldwide shot up by nearly nine million people last year: 18 June 2020: The UN refugee agency says the number of asylum-seekers, internally displaced people and refugees worldwide shot up by nearly nine million people last year, the biggest rise in its records, as its annual 'Global Trends' report says that the 79.5 million people account for 1% of all humanity amid conflict, repression and upheaval, as 68% of forcibly displaced people come from only 5 countries indluding Myanmar, Afghanistan, Syria, South Sudan and Venezuela
18 June 2021 global displacement hits new record high with 82.4 million in 2020: 18 June 2021: Global displacement hits new high, as the number of people forcibly displaced by conflict, violence and persecution reached a record 82.4 million (48m IDP, 26.4m refugees) in 2020, according to the latest annual 'Global Trends' report released today by UNHCR, as even during a year in which over 160 countries closed their borders at the peak of the pandemic, the world’s population of forcibly displaced people grew by nearly 3 million, a 4% increase from 2019 and the ninth year in a row the figure has risen - June 2021 Global forced displacement at end-year 2020, as Syria comes first with 6,8 million displaced citizens, mostly refugees (92%), as Venezuela comes second followed by Aghanistan, South Sudan and Myanmar - UNHCR reported a whole of 91.9 million forcibly displaced people including people of concern in 2020
17/18 December 2020 EU's containment policies resulted in mental health crisis for refugees: 17 December 2020: Years of entrapment on Aegean islands has resulted in a mental health crisis for thousands of refugees, with one in three contemplating suicide, a report by support experts has revealed, as containment policies pursued by the EU have also spurred ever more people to attempt to end their lives, according to a report released by the International Rescue Committee IRC, ahead of the 'International Migrants Day' observed by all UN member states, committed to Human Rights, on 18 December 2020
Since 1948: Since 1948 Palestinian refugees - Palestinian diaspora - Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to accommodate the Palestinian refugees who fled or were expelled during the 1948 Palestinian exodus
Since 1948: Palestinian refugee camps in Syria - Since 1957 Yarmouk Camp
2014: 17 January 2014: Assad regime’s helicopters dropped barrel bombs on the Palestinian refugee camp Yarmouk, reportedly killing at least 9 people and wounding many - 18 January 2014: Damascus Yarmouk refugee camp receives aid for first time in months after reports that people have died of hunger and lack of medical care - 10 March 2014: According to Lebanese newspaper Al Akhbar Palestine's Mahmoud Abbas told Syrian opposition to trust Russia's Putin regime, not USA - 28 December 2014: 2,589 Palestinian-Syrians had been killed since March 2011, rights group says
2017: 19 April 2017: Human rights watchdog calls for the release of 1,200 Palestinian detainees from Syrian regime prisons held by Assad since 2011, including women with children, as group releases report claiming 461 prisoners have been executed or killed under torture since 2011
2018: 2 April 2018: 23 Palestinians were killed in Syria during March, including 15 victims killed by gunfire, 7 killed as a result of bombardment and one as a result of lack of medical treatment, as 3,685 Palestinians have died since the beginning of Assad's war against the Syrian people seven years ago, according to the Action Group for Palestinians of Syria
Since 2011: Since 2011 Refugees of Assad's war against the Syrian people
Since 2014: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - Border barriers constructed during the European migrant crisis
2014: 29 September 2014: A record 3,072 people had died attempting to reach Europe during the first nine months of 2014, the International Organisation for Migration says, urging the world’s governments to engage to stop this violence against desperate migrants
2015: 15 June 2015: Human rights organisation accuses politicians of shameful failure over worldwide refugee crises and neglect for the deaths of thousands of civilians fleeing wars in the Middle East and Africa - 18 décembre 2015: 2015 marquée par un nombre record de réfugiés et une vague sans précédent de migrants via la mer Méditerranée, dont une grande majorité venait de Syrie
2016: 3 January 2016: A drowned two-year-old boy becomes Europe's first known refugee casualty of 2016 after the crowded dinghy he was travelling in hit rocks off Greece’s Agathonisi island - 26 January 2016: UN warns 2.5 million Syrian children will become refugees by the end of 2016 - 29 January 2016: Refugees are not a crisis, we are human beings, activists in the UK say in a letter, underlining that the world must work together to solve crises also by fighting against racism, murder and war - 4 February 2016: Increasingly intensive Russian airstrikes are pushing tens of thousands of Syrians from Aleppo towards the Turkish border, as Europe is struggling to respond to the existing refugee crisis - 7 February 2016: It was Bashar Assad, his allies and Islamic State terrorists who butchered their families and took their homes, but the USA, Britain and European countries left Syrian refugees in Turkey to face their fate - 9 February 2016: Russian airstrikes in Syria send thousands of more refugees arriving at the Turkish-Syrian border - 16 avril 2016: De violents combats, impliquant tous les protagonistes de la guerre en Syrie, poussent sur les routes des milliers de civils dans le nord - 20 June 2016: As a record 65 million men, women and children are forced from their homes by war and persecution last year, UN refugee agency sounds alarm over failure of nations to find collective solutions - 26 October 2016: A record number of people have died or gone missing while attempting to cross the Mediterranean sea, making 2016 the deadliest year for refugees and migrants trying to reach Europe, according to UNHCR's William Spindler
2017: 30 January 2017: Activists appeal for humanitarian action to save thousands of refugees in camps near Lebanon’s Arsal as snowstorm hits - 30 March 2017: The number of Syrian refugees in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Egypt has passed 5 million for the first time in Syria's six year conflict, according to the UN refugee agency
January 2018: 19 janvier 2018: Le Haut-Commissariat de l'ONU pour les réfugiés a recensé 997'905 réfugiés syriens enregistrés au Liban, en grande majorité des femmes et des enfants, avec 58% des ménages vivant dans une extrême pauvreté - 20 January 2018: Thirteen Syrians, including five children and women, froze to death crossing into Lebanon when an icy storm hit a route in the mountains near a border post with Syria
March 2018: 16 March 2018: Refugees flee Eastern Ghouta - 18 March 2018: Kurds flee Afrin after Turkish troops and Arab forces they sponsor have encircled their home city except for the squeeze point they used to flee, ahead, Shia militants allied to Assad's army man checkpoints deciding who can pass
May 2018: 7 May 2018: Three Spanish firefighters and two Danish volunteers have appeared in court accused of trying to help migrants enter Greece via the island of Lesbos, after working as volunteers to aid thousands of migrants, mostly Syrians, risking their lives to reach Europe via Lesbos and other Greek islands, saying 'humanitarian assistance can not and should not be criminalised'
August 2018: 30 August 2018: Syria's refugees fear for their future after war, saying 'we can’t go back'
November 2018: 1 November 2018: Assad regime delays entry of aid to the al-Rukban Camp, UN says
May 2019: 5 May 2019: Continuous escalation including airstrikes and barrel bombs by Russian and Assad's forces in North Western Syria displaces tens of thousands - 6 May 2019: Russian and Assad's air raids and barrel bombs force more than 300,000 civilians to displace in 6 days, according to SOHR
29 July 2019: 29 July 2019: The population of Rukban camp in a USA-protected desert zone in southeast Syria has dwindled to a quarter of the more than 40,000 who lived there five months ago due to Russian moves to block supplies, Syrian aid workers, diplomats and residents said
July 2019 refugees face forcible return to warzones: 29 July 2019: Syrians living in Istanbul and Beirut have been targeted by immigration authorities in recent weeks, as thousands face forcible return to warzones under air attack - 29 July 2019: As 1,000 Syrians arrested in Turkey, crackdown fears intensify and refugees worry about being returned to the Turkish province they arrived in, or worse, Idlib
August 2019 more than 450,000 new Syrian refugees due to Assad and Putin: 2 August 2019: Bombing and shelling by the Assad regime and Russia on the provinces of Idlib and Hama in the past three months have forced more than 450,000 people to flee their homes for the Turkish borders, MSF says, adding that the aggression has led left hundreds dead and thousands injured
18 December 2019 'International Migrants Day' - Russian and Assad regime's attacks on civilians including a convoy of displaced people: 18 December 2019: The civilian death toll continues to rise with Russian and Assad regime's attacks on towns and villages and a convoy of displaced people being hit on the Aleppo-Damascus highway
27 December 2019 criminal Assad's and Russian regime's Christmas message: 27 December 2019: More than 235,000 people have fled Idlib region in Syria following two weeks of murderous Assad's and Russian regime's air and ground assaults on opposition stronghold, says UN, as Syrian woman fights back tears speaking about the conditions for her family in the city of Maarat al-Nu’man in the Idleb countryside due to the heavy bombardment there - 27 December 2019: 40,000 civilians flee Saraqib in 100 hours as international community turns blind eye to the humanitarian catastrophe in Idlib
January 2020 northern Syria attacked by Russian regime's and Assad's airstrikes forcing 700,000 civilians to flee towards Turkey: 31 January 2020: Northern Syria has been battered with 200 Russian regime's and Assad's airstrikes in the past three days in an assault that has pushed 700,000 civilians to flee towards the Turkish border, sparking fears of an impending international crisis
2 March 2020 CDU and EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals: 2 March 2020: Child drowns at sea off Greece in first fatality of CDU and EU von der Leyen's cronyism with Russian, Iranian and Assad regime's war criminals
2017: 2017 Rohingya refugee crisis following the Rohingya persecution in Myanmar since 2016 - 17 October 2017: UN released aerial footage showing thousands of Rohingya Muslims after they crossed the Naf river into Bangladesh, joining at least 536,000 Rohingya Muslims who have fled Myanmar since Augus - 20 October 2017: More than 300,000 Rohingya refugee children 'outcast and desperate', Unicef says
September 2018: 19 September 2018: ICC's Fatou Bensouda announces investigation into the deportations of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya Muslims from Myanmar into Bangladesh
4 December 2020 Bangladesh begins moving Rohingya families to remote island: 4 December 2020: Bangladesh has begun moving Rohingya families from camps near the Myanmar border to a settlement on a remote island, despite concerns about its safety and a lack of consent from the refugees
Since 20th century Afghan refugees in Pakistan: Afghan citizens temporarily residing in Pakistan as refugees or asylum seekers - Monthly updated 'Registered Afghan Refugees in Pakistan', according to UNHCR
Since 2005 waves of returning Afghan refugees leaving Pakistan for Afghanistan: After in 2005 the government of Pakistan began registering all Afghans, and the number of registered Afghans was reported at 2.15 million in February 2007, after 2010 amid emerging Arab spring, in a first wave a reported 229,000 Afghan refugees returned from Pakistan, and in 2016 a total of 380,884 Afghan refugees left Pakistan for Afghanistan, as most were born and raised in Pakistan but are still counted as citizens of Afghanistan, as the UNHCR reported in December 2020 that about 1.4 million registered Afghans still remained in Pakistan
20 September 2021 Pakistan says it is unable to take any more refugees, deporting new arrivals back to Afghanistan: 20 September 2021: Fleeing Afghan Hazaras face uncertain future in Pakistan, as Pakistan says it is unable to take any more refugees and has begun deporting new arrivals back to Afghanistan
23 September 2021 dozens of Afghan women have escaped Taliban rule with the assistance of Israeli NGO: 23 September 2021: Dozens of Afghan women have escaped Taliban rule with the assistance of an Israeli humanitarian organization working with two Israeli businessmen, according to a Yediot Ahronoth report saying Sylvan Adams and Aaron Frenkel provided the funding for Israel's successful effort to help the women – the Afghan women's national cycling team – leave Afghanistan, where the Taliban has increasingly moved to restrict the rights women gained in the two decades after 9/11 and the group's ouster from power

Internally displaced persons, peopple forced to flee their home but who remain within their country's borders, often referred to as refugees, although they do not fall within the legal definitions of a refugee, as at the end of 2014, it was estimated there were 38.2 million IDPs worldwide, the highest level since 1989, the first year for which global statistics on IDPs are available
2007-2014 IDPs and people in IDP-like situations by country/territory: 2007-2014 UNHCR registered IDPs and people in IDP-like situations by country/territory, as at the end of 2014, it was estimated there were 38.2 million IDPs worldwide, as the countries with the largest IDP populations were Syria (7.6 million), Colombia (6 million), Iraq (3.6 million), the D.R. Congo (2.8 million), Sudan (2.2 million), South Sudan (1.9 million), Pakistan (1.4 million), Nigeria (1.2 million) and Somalia (1.1 million
June 2019 41.3 million internally displaced persons: 19 June 2019: An unprecedented 70.8 million people around the world have been forced from home, among them nearly 25.9 million refugees, over half of whom are under the age of 18, including 41.3 million internally displaced persons, according to UN
Since October/December 2019 UN's panel on Internal Displacement: 3 December 2019: UN's High-Level Panel on Internal Displacement, following statement of 23 October announcing the establishment
April 2020 50.8m people around the world recorded as internally displaced in 2019: 28 April 2020: A total of 50.8 million people around the world were recorded as internally displaced last year, forced from their homes by conflict and disaster. This is the highest number ever, and 10 million more than in 2018, according to IDMC, as covid-19 is likely to impact aid for people forced from their homes by conflict and disaster around the world - 2020 IDMC’s Global Report on Internal Displacement, the official repository of data and analysis on internal displacement, as this year's GRID breaks down data by conflict, violence and disasters across 145 countries
5 May 2020 UN says 19 million children among 46 million displaced in 2019: 5 May 2020: UN children’s agency says that an estimated 46 million people — 19 million of them children — fled violence and conflict last year but remained in their home country, and millions more were displaced by disasters
23 September 2020 internal displacements reach 15m since January with worst 'still to come': as millions of people were uprooted from their homes by conflict, violence and natural disasters in the first six months of this year 2020 according to new research

Causes of refugee crises include war and civil war, human rights violations, environment and climate crises, economic hardship
2008-2016 list of refugees and total population of concern by UN region: 2008-2016 list of refugees and total population of concern by UN region, including 21,288,728 people in Africa in 2016, 31,168,078 people in Asia in 2016, 8,061,269 people in Latin America in 2016, and 6,210,994 people in Europe in 2016
Since 2014 motives in the European refugee crisis credited to political conflicts such as Syria: Migrant motives in the European refugee and migrant crisis since 2014/2015 - primarily credited to the inundation of refugees due to political and social conflicts in regions such as Syria, the greatest number of refugees fleeing to Europe originate from Syria
June 2018 5,645,518 total registered Syrian refugees: 5,645,518 total registered Syrian refugees on 7 June 2018
18 December 2019 'International Migrants Day' - Russian and Assad regime's attacks on civilians including a convoy of displaced people: 18 décembre 2019: Alors que c'est ce mercredi 'la journée internationale des migrants', l'ONU rappelle que 71 millions de personnes ont été déplacées à cause des guerres ou persécutions - 18 December 2019: The civilian death toll continues to rise with Russian and Assad regime's attacks on towns and villages and a convoy of displaced people being hit on the Aleppo-Damascus highway
23 September 2020 millions of people were uprooted by conflict, violence and natural disasters since January 2020: as millions of people were uprooted from their homes by conflict, violence and natural disasters in the first six months of this year 2020 according to new research
20 May 2021 refugee organisation says 30m new displacements in 2020 due to floods, storms or wildfires: 20 May 2021: Intense storms and flooding triggered three times more displacements than violent conflicts did last year, as the number of people internally displaced worldwide hit the highest level on record, as there were at least 55 million internally displaced people by the end of last year, according to figures published by the IDMC, and as there were more than twice as many people displaced within their own country as forced out of their country as refugees


Outline of war - List of ongoing armed conflicts - Causes of war - War, history of war and types of war - Lists of wars by date - time is the same for all, but not lifetime

Ethnic conflict
Ethnic conflicts by region and country: Ethnic conflicts by region and country

Nationalism and its history - Nation - Nation state - Types of nationalism
Nationalism by country: Nationalism by country - Neo-Fascism and neo-Nazi linked politics by country
Nationalism in the 21st century: Nationalism in the 21st century

Chauvinism, an exaggerated nationalism and a belligerent belief in national superiority
Racism: Racism - Racism by country
White supremacy ideology resulting from European means of violence: White supremacy ideology centered upon the sight, that 'white' people are superior in certain characteristics, traits, and attributes (in fact the means of violence mainly developed in Europe since many centuries and now worldwide) to people constituting the majority of the world's population - White nationalism by country

Imperialism, originating from the Roman 'imperium', a policy of extending a state's power and influence through colonization, use of military force and other means, originating from the Roman 'imperium', which means the conquest and rule over large territories for the purpose of slave hunting and submission
Colonialism and exploitation colonialism: Colonialism, the establishment of a colony in one territory by a political power from another territory, and the subsequent maintenance, expansion, and exploitation of that colony - Exploitation colonialism, the national economic policy of conquering a country to exploit its natural resources and its native population
History of colonialism: History of colonialism

Military history, as essential subjects of military history study are the causes of war, the social and cultural foundations, military doctrine on each side, the logistics, leadership, technology, strategy, and tactics used, and how these changed over time
Periods of military history since ancient warfare: Periods of military history since ancient warfare
Roman military, slavery in ancient Rome and Roman economy: Roman empire's military and Imperial Roman army, the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Roman Empire from about 30 BC to 476 AD, the final period in the long history of the Roman army - Slavery in ancient Rome - Roman economy

Dictatorship, an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders - Military dictatorship, a dictatorship wherein the military exerts complete or substantial control over political authority, and a dictator is often a high ranked military officer
Caesarism and the rule of military warlords: Caesarism and the rule of military warlords following the dictatorship of Julius Caesar and the rise of the Roman Empire since 60 BC - Emperor - Emperors by country
Bonapartism: Bonapartism, Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte's coup d'état in December 1851 in France and his rule as Napoleon III 1852-1870
Fascism: Fascism, a form of authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong regimentation of society and of the economy
National Socialism: National Socialism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party, a form of fascism, but also incorporating antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and eugenics
Military dictatorships, neo-fascism and neo-Nazism in the 20th and 21st century: Military dictatorships in the 20th and 21st century - Neo-fascism since World War II - Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II militant social or political movements seeking to revive and implement the ideology of Nazism

History of weapons, as humans have developped and used weapons in warfare, hunting, self-defense, law enforcement, and criminal activity for thousands of years, using different materials from stone and wood to different metals, chemicals and modern synthetic materials such as plastics
Crime of aggression: Crime of aggression - An invasion is a military offensive in which large parts of combatants of one geopolitical entity aggressively enter territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of either conquering, liberating or re-establishing control or authority over a territory - List of invasions - Military conquest - Warfare
Timeline of the gunpowder age and gunpowder weapons since 2nd century: Timeline of the gunpowder age, beginning with Taoist experminents since second century developping the re-gunpowder formula - Taoism, going back at least to the 4th century BCE - History of gunpowder
Since the later middle ages 'advanced' warfare: 'Advanced' warfare since the later middle ages, as Europeans were by all means trying to outclass the Byzantines, the Indians, the Arabs, the indigenous people in Africa and the Americas in siege technology
Early modern warfare: Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and firearms
1700-1900 long rifle: 1700-1900 long rifle, also known as Kentucky or Pennsylvania rifle, was one of the first commonly used rifles characterized by an unusually long barrel, used by British American colonies in their wars against Native Americans and other wars - Since the early 1700s the longrifle was developed in southeastern Pennsylvania, becoming more popular due to their longer effective range, when a rifleman could hit a man-sized target at a range of 200 yards or more
Since 19th century military technology amid industrial revolutions: History of military technology - Rise of capitalism, the economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit
Militarization in modern history: Militarization, the process by which a society organizes itself for military conflict and violence - Militarism as a cause of World War I, as German kingdom of Prussia and empire is considered the major wellspring of European militarism in modern history based on 'advanced' gunpowder weapons - List of military writers including German Nazigeneral Heinz Guderian, who developed principles of Blitzkrieg 'Achtung – Panzer', and German Nazigeneral Erwin Rommel 'Infantry Attacks' - July/August 1945 adressing the Empire of Japan 'Potsdam Declaration' of USA's Harry S. Truman, UK's Winston Churchill and China's Chiang Kai-shek, forced to state if Empire of Japan did not surrender, it would face 'prompt and utter destruction', but the empire - also after receiving many millions of leaflets since years and now - not even responded, busy and eager to continue killing and war crimes

Arms industry - Weapons by country - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics and chemistry linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - History of military technology and world wars - Modern military technology
Weapons by user, by function and by industry - Lists of weapons by type

Forces of self-destruction and weapons of mass destruction: Weapons of mass destruction - Chemical weapon, chemical agents and poison gas - Chemical warfare - Biological warfare - Weapons of mass destruction by country
Since 1914 chemical warfare in German empire's WWI amid advanced industrial era: Chemical warfare, industrial era and World War I 1914-1918 started by German Empire and Austria-Hungary - Chlorine gas was first used as a weapon in World War I by Germany in assaulted Belgium in 1915 - Since 1917 Mustard agent, first used effectively in World War I by the German army against British and Canadian soldiers near Ypres, Belgium, in 1917 and later also against the French Second Army - Chemical warfare, World War II 1939-1945, Imperial Japanese Army's chemical warfare and NSDAP-Germany
1920s, 1942-1945 German empire's Zyklon B extermination tool: Zyklon B, a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s, in early 1942 Zyklon B emerged as the preferred killing tool of Nazi Germany for use in extermination camps during the Holocaust
1928 no real change in Germam empire: 11 June 1928: Sir W. Davison asks the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs whether he has obtained any explanation from the German Government with regard to the large quantities of phosgene poison gas found to be stored in Hamburg contrary to the express terms of the peace treaty, as disclosed by the recent explosion of a tank containing the gas, with consequent serious loss of life, and what action is being taken in the matter - 1928: Aus ist's mit den bösen Kriegen, sagt der Völkerbund, Friedenstauben munter fliegen um das Erdenrund, Es ertönt in jedem Land Friedensmusik, Und geächtet und verbannt ist jetzt der Krieg, Nur zum Spaß macht man Gas, weil's noch keiner kennt, Panzerkreuzer sind das beste Friedensinstrument, Tankgeschwader, Fliegerbomben - nur für den Sport, Niemand denkt mehr an den Massenmord
1936-1939 Spanish fascists supported by German and Italian empire: 1936-1939 support for the Spanish fascists by Germany and Italy and policiy of non-intervention and isolationism of the Republic by the United Kingdom, France and USA, later identified as disastrous
September 1936 League of Nations tolerated fascists' war against democracy: September 1936: Spanish FM Julio Álvarez del Vayo appealed to the League of Nations in September 1936 for arms to defend Spain's territorial integrity and political independence, but the League members would not intervene in the Spanish Civil War nor prevent foreign intervention in the conflict, did ban foreign volunteers in February 1937, while Adolf Hitler and Mussolini continued to aid Franco's fascists
1938 poison gas 'Sarin' produced in Germany: Sarin was discovered in 1938 in Wuppertal-Elberfeld in Germany by 'scientists' at IG Farben who were attempting to create stronger pesticides and in mid-1939, the formula for the agent was passed to the chemical warfare section of the German Army Weapons Office, which ordered that it be brought into mass production for wartime use
1983–1988, 1991 use of poison gas including 'Sarin': 1983–1988 use of mustard and nerve agent in the Iraq–Iran War by Iraqi Saddam regime forces - Halabja chemical attack by Saddam regime forces against the Kurdish people that took place on 16 March 1988, killing between 3,200 and 5,000 people and injuring 7,000 to 10,000 more, most of them civilians - 1991 use of chemical weapons by Saddam regime forces in Southern Iraq against the Popular Uprising
August 2013 poison gas 'Sarin' used by Assad regime against the Syrian people: 21 August 2013: Ghouta chemical attack occurred in Syria, two opposition-controlled areas in the suburbs around Damascus were struck by rockets containing the chemical agent sarin - Foreign government assessments regarding the August 2013 Ghouta sarin gas attack - International reactions to the Ghouta chemical attack
April 1915 - present, Chlorine first used by German war criminals: 16 September 2016: Chlorine, the gas of war crimes, first used by German war criminals 1915 in Belgium and later used since 2011-present by Assad and connected war criminals against the Syrian people - 16 September 2016: UN-led international inquiry has identified two Syrian Assad regime air force helicopter squadrons and two other military units it holds responsible for chlorine gas attacks on civilians
June 2018: 19 June 2018: The rapid rise of synthetic biology has raised the risk of a new generation of bioweapons, according to a major USA report
October 2018 Assad's chemical attacks: 15 October 2018: A BBC investigation shows for the first time the extent to which chemical weapons have been crucial to Assad regime's war-winning strategy, saying there is enough evidence to be confident that at least 106 chemical attacks have taken place in Syria since September 2013, when Assad signed the international Chemical Weapons Convention and agreed to destroy the country's chemical weapons stockpile following the Ghouta chemical attack
February 2019 Assad's chemical attacks: 17 February 2019: New report shows there were at least 336 chemical attacks over the course of Assad's war in Syria, with 98% of them carried out by Bashar Assad’s regime, the remaining 2% attributed to the Islamic State terrorist group, and with approximately 90% of all confirmed attacks occurring after the infamous 'red line' war crime of August 2013, according to the 'Global Public Policy Institute', calling on the international community to target the military formations responsible for attacks including regime’s helicopter fleet, to prevent delivery of chemical munitions
6 October 2020 UN and EU member Germany asked by human rights groups to probe Syria chemical attacks 2013 and 2017: 6 October 2020: Human rights groups ask Germany to probe Syria chemical attacks, as 3 organizations - including Open Society Justice Initiative, the Syrian Center for Media and Freedom of Expression and the group Syrian Archive - want German AG to investigate deadly sarin attacks on Eastern Ghouta in 2013 and Khan Shaykhun in 2017, arguing there is enough evidence to blame regime and Assad - 6 October 2020: A group of NGOs has submitted a criminal complaint to the German courts over sarin gas attacks in Syria, a legal milestone which marks the first step on the long road to holding Bashar al-Assad’s regime accountable for its use of chemical weapons

Forces of self-destruction and nuclear weapons: Nuclear weapon and Nuclear warfare - Nuclear weapon design - List of nuclear weapons - List of states with nuclear weapons - Nuclear weapons debate
1939-1945 German, Italian and Japanese empires World War II and nuclear warfare: In contrast to conventional warfare the use of nuclear weaponry in nuclear warfare produces never seen destruction in the shortest possible time also having a long lasting radiological warfare dimension
History of nuclear weapons - Since 19th/20th century development of modern physics linked with industrial revolution and history of technology - Nuclear history by country

Since early 20th century timeline of nuclear weapons development: Timeline of nuclear weapons development since early 20th century
Since 1933 German Nazis in power and nuclear arms race: Nuclear arms race before, during and since German, Italian and Japanese empires World War II, having man-made causes, origins, weapons and methods
Since April 1939 Nazi Germany's nuclear weapons program: Since April 1939 German nuclear weapons program, neglected after the German Nazi army's, including later Nazi Field Marshall Erwin Rommel, brutal invasion, later occupation of Poland and never seen genocide
Since 1930s-1940/41 Japanese empire's program to develop nuclear weapons: Japanese program to develop nuclear weapons, conducted during World War II
August-October 1939 'Einstein–Szilárd letter' warning USA that Germany might develop atomic bombs: August-October 1939 'Einstein–Szilárd letter' sent to USA's Franklin D. Roosevelt, warning that Germany might develop atomic bombs
Since September 1939 German invasion of Poland leading to USA's Uranium Committee since October: Uranium Committee, later evolving into the S-1 Section of the OSRD, when that organization absorbed the NDRC in June 1941 and the S-1 Executive Committee in June 1942, that laid the groundwork for the Manhattan Project
Since 1942 USA's 'Manhattan Project': USA's 'Manhattan Project' since 1942 was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II - 'Trinity' nuclear test, the first detonation of a nuclear weapon on 16 July 1945, as part of USA's Manhattan Project and approved by the government on 25 July, warning aggressors and war criminals - 26 July 1945 'Potsdam Declaration' (USA, United Kingdom, China) stating, if Empire of Japan did not surrender, it would face 'prompt and utter destruction' - 'Operation Downfall' allied plan for the invasion of Japan to end World War II, abandoned when Japan surrendered following the August 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Since 1945 nuclear weapons tests by USA, Soviet Union/Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Israel and North Korea: 1945-2017 number of nuclear weapons tests by state (USA, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, South Africa, Israel and North Korea) - List of nuclear test sites - List of nuclear weapon test locations - Historical nuclear weapons stockpiles and nuclear tests by country - Nuclear weapons by country
May 1974 India's first nuclear bomb test, code-named 'Smiling Buddha': May 1974 India's first successful 'peaceful' nuclear bomb test, code-named 'Smiling Buddha', when a bomb was detonated on the Pokhran army base in Rajasthan by the Indian Army - International reaction to the nuclear test conducted by India, code-named 'Smiling Buddha'
2016 distribution of nuclear weapons: 13 June 2016: At the start of 2016 nine states, the USA, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea, together possessed a total of approximately 15,395 nuclear weapons, Russia and the USA still account for more than 93% of all nuclear weapons, as both Russia and the USA have extensive and expensive nuclear modernization programmes under way, according to SIPRI
2016/2017 an estimated 15,400 nuclear weapons: 11 March 2017: There were an estimated 15,400 nuclear weapons in 2016, as China was thought to have 260 warheads in early 2016, India is thought to have 100-120 nuclear weapons now, Pakistan may have as many as 130 and North Korea now thought to have 10 nuclear weapons - 21 September 2017: China, India, North Korea and Pakistan expanding their nuclear arsenals, according to SIPRI, also saying that developments in North Korea’s nuclear program 'contributed to international political instability with potentially serious knock-on effects'
May 2018 Iranian regime's nuclear archive: 8 May 2018: Israel says it has briefed 22 countries on Iranian regime's nuclear archive smuggled out of Tehran earlier in this year 2018 to garner more support for renewed international pressure on Iran
June 2018 modernizing of existing nuclear weapon systems: 18 June 2018: All the nuclear weapon-possessing states are developing new nuclear weapon systems and modernizing their existing systems, as at the start of 2018 nine states possessed approximately 14,465 nuclear weapons, according to Sipri
Since 4 September 2019 Iranian regime's nuclear program: 4 September 2019: Iranian regime to develop nuclear centrifuges - 7 September 2019: Iran injects uranium gas into advanced centrifuges, violating nuclear deal - 10 September 2019: UN atomic watchdog confirms Iran installing advanced centrifuges, urging regime to ‘respond promptly’ to concerns over its breaches of limits set down in fast-unraveling nuclear deal with major powers
5 September 2019 Turkish Erdogan regime wants nuclear weapons: 5 September 2019: Erdogan tells his ruling 'Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi' that Turkey should have nuclear weapons like Israel, saying fact his country is barred from having atomic bombs is unacceptable, adding Israel is untouchable due to nuclear deterrent
10 September 2019 Saudi regime wants to enrich uranium: 10 September 2019: Saudi Arabia’s new energy minister said his country wants to pursue a 'full cycle' nuclear program, which would entail the kingdom processing and enriching its own uranium, after regime has previously announced plans to spend $80 billion to build 16 nuclear reactors over the coming two decades as it diversifies energy
27/28 October 2020 UN watchdog says Iran building new underground nuclear facility: 27 October 2020: UN watchdog says Iran building new underground nuclear facility, as inspectors confirmed regime has started building an underground centrifuge assembly plant - 28 October 2020: Iran has begun construction at its Natanz nuclear facility, satellite images released Wednesday showed, just as the UN’s nuclear agency acknowledged Tehran was building an underground advanced centrifuge assembly plant - 28 October 2020: UN nuclear agency says Iran is building underground advanced centrifuge assembly plant
13 January 2021 Kim Jong Un vows to boost North Korea’s nuclear arsenal: 13 January 2021: Kim Jong Un vows to boost North Korea’s nuclear arsenal, insisting USA (!) policy toward Pyongyang regime 'will never change'

Nuclear proliferation
Since the 1970s Nuclear proliferation to Pakistan and North Korea: Nuclear proliferation to Pakistan and North Korea since the 1970s
Since 1980 Swiss engineer, network trafficking in nuclear proliferation to Pakistan, Iran, Libya, and North Korea: Since 1980 Swiss engineer Friedrich Tinner connected with the Khan network trafficking in the proliferation of nuclear materials and know-how to Pakistan, Iran, Libya, and North Korea and later cover-up to hide the involvement of Urs Tinner with the CIA - 31 May 2008: Nuclear bomb blueprints and manuals on how to manufacture weapons-grade uranium for warheads are feared to be circulating on the international black market, according to investigators tracking the world's most infamous nuclear smuggling racket
2004 Khan's confession and 2011 Tinner nuclear smuggling trial: 4 February 2004: Abdul Qadeer Khan, the father of Pakistan's nuclear programme, today asked the country's president to forgive him for selling its secrets abroad - 13 December 2011: Switzerland has charged three members of the Swiss Friedrich Tinner family for their role in the Abdul Qadeer Khan nuclear smuggling network, involving Switzerland's defence ministry destroying vital evidence in the case, and blocking the prosecution of the Tinners and the CIA for espionage, after a plea deal which will mean that their claims of collaboration with the CIA will not be examined in court
2015 tactics to trivialize proliferation risks: 28 May 2015: Myth of a peaceful nuclear technology and tactics to trivialize the proliferation risks, as the use of civil facilities and materials in nuclear weapons research or systematic weapons programs has been commonplace and has occurred in at least the following countries Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Egypt, France, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Libya, North Korea, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, UK, USA, and Yugoslavia
2017 threat of nuclear proliferation debate: 18 October 2017: Experts and former senior officials from around the world met in Paris to discuss the threat of nuclear proliferation, something they believe is ignored despite the dire situation and, according to some, worse than it was during the Cold War - October 2017 Conference of the International Luxembourg Forum on Preventing Nuclear Catastrophe 'Topical Issues of Nuclear Non-Proliferation'

Since 1950s list of nuclear close calls including incidents that could lead to, or could have led to at least one unintended nuclear detonation/explosion, as these incidents typically involve a perceived imminent threat to a nuclear-armed country which could lead to retaliatory strikes against the perceived aggressor, and as the damage caused by international nuclear exchange is not necessarily limited to the participating countries

Nuclear terrorism refers to any person or persons who detonate a nuclear weapon as an act of terrorism (meaning illegal or immoral use of violence for a political or religious cause), as in legal terms nuclear terrorism is an offense committed if a person unlawfully and intentionally 'uses in any way radioactive material … with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury; or with the intent to cause substantial damage to property or to the environment; or with the intent to compel a natural or legal person, an international organization or a State to do or refrain from doing an act', according to the 2005 UN International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism

Vulnerability of nuclear plants to deliberate attack, of concern in the area of nuclear safety and security, as nuclear power plants, civilian research reactors, certain naval fuel facilities, uranium enrichment plants, fuel fabrication plants, and even potentially uranium mines are vulnerable to attacks which could lead to widespread radioactive contamination, as the attack threat is of several general types including commando-like ground-based attacks on equipment which if disabled could lead to a reactor core meltdown or widespread dispersal of radioactivity, and external attacks such as an aircraft crash into a reactor complex, or cyber attacks

Military robots are autonomous robots or remote-controlled mobile robots designed for military applications, from transport to search, rescue and attack - Lethal autonomous weapons, a type of autonomous military robot that can independently search and engage targets based on programmed constraints and descriptions and may operate in the air, on land, on water, under water, or in space - Unmanned combat aerial vehicle
Social production and reproduction, products and dual-use technology: Produkte als Resultat industrieller und technischer Revolutionen, Computer und EDV als verlängerter Verstand von Menschen mit Sprache(n), sogenannte 'Künstliche Intelligenz' (ein Widersinn oder besser Oxymoron) und militärische Nutzungen
April 2014 Russia leads new robotic arms race: 23 April 2014: Russia is taking the lead in a new robotic arms race, announcing that mobile robots, standing guard over five ballistic missile installations, can detect and destroy targets, without human involvement
April 2018 only 22 countries want global treaty to ban killer robots: 11 April 2018: Only 22 countries of the signatories to the UN's Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons support an outright ban of lethal autonomous weapons systems or killer robots - 11 April 2018: 5 years since the launch of the 'Campaign to Stop Killer Robots', a global coalition of non-governmental groups calling for a ban on fully autonomous weapons, says we’re running out of time to stop killer robot weapons
October 2018 states opposing restrictions on so-called killer robots: October 2018: The latest effort toward imposing binding international restrictions on so-called killer robots was thwarted by Russia and the USA, as a group of states led by France and Germany are opposing a legally binding measure, as another group of two dozen countries and a number of civil society organizations advocate for a legally binding prohibition on use of such weapons
January 2019 61% of people worldwide oppose killer robots: 22 January 2019: Global poll shows 61% of respondents oppose the use of lethal autonomous weapons systems, also known as fully autonomous weapons or killer robots, but their voices are ignored by nationalist and aggressive regimes such as Russian and Chinese and appertaining companies, as opposition was at 59% in Russia, recently frustrating diplomatic talks also at the CCW in November 2018 by using consensus rules to hinder meaningful progress against the wishes of the majority of states
March 2019 Russia, United Kingdom and USA oppose killer robot ban: 29 March 2019: Russia, United Kingdom and USA among those opposing killer robot ban, as UN delegates discussed restrictions to lethal autonomous weapons systems that use AI
August 2019 survey of the tech sector’s stance on lethal autonomous weapons: 19 August 2019: Synesis (Belarus), AerialX (Canada), SenseTime and Yitu (China), EarthCube (France), Roboteam (Israel), BlueBearSystems and Montvieux (United Kingdom), Amazon, Anduril, Intel, Microsoft, Oracle and more (all USA), are named among the world's 'highest risk' tech companies that might be putting the world at risk through killer robot development, according to new global report from PAX, grading 50 companies from 12 countries, all working on big tech, hardware, AI software and system integration, pattern recognition, autonomous and swarming aerial systems, ground robots, as 'anything that's currently a weapon, people are working on autonomous versions, whether it's tanks, fighter aircraft, or submarines' (August 2019 survey of the tech sector’s stance on lethal autonomous weapons)
September 2019 former software engineer supports ban on killer robots: 15 September 2019: Former top Google software engineer Laura Nolan, who quit over military drone project and joined the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, fears AI and 'killer robots', having the potential to do 'calamitous things that they were not originally programmed for', could cause mass atrocities, warning they might accidentally start a war, and saying that killer robots not guided by human remote control should be outlawed by the same type of international treaty that bans chemical weapons
15 September 2021 UN rights chief urges moratorium on AI that risks rights abuses: 15 Setember 2021: UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet on Wednesday called for a moratorium on the sale and use of artificial intelligence AI systems that threaten human rights until adequate safeguards are in place to ensure the technology will not be abused, saying 'we cannot afford to continue playing catch-up regarding AI – allowing its use with limited or no boundaries or oversight, and dealing with the almost inevitable human rights consequences after the fact' in a press release

List of countries by past and projected military expenditure - Weapon development - Defence and military equipment companies by country - Firearm manufacturers by country - 3D printed firearms - List of notable 3D printed weapons and parts
Weapons trade - Arms trafficking, the trafficking of contraband weapons and ammunition - what constitutes legal trade in firearms varies widely, depending on local and national laws - Small arms trade or the small arms market refer to both authorized and illicit markets for small arms and light weapons and their parts, accessories, and ammunition - Companies by arms sales - List of countries by military expenditures - Weapons by country - List of countries by level of military equipment
2001/2005 Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, as of November 2015 it has 114 parties, including 113 states and the European Union, Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Iceland, Japan, Luxembourg, Monaco, Seychelles, United Kingdom have signed the protocol but have not yet ratified it, three of the top four arms manufacturers in the world — the USA, Russia, and France — did not sign the protocol - 2013/2014 Arms Trade Treaty, a multilateral treaty that regulates the international trade in conventional weapons, 92 states have ratified the treaty, and a further 41 states have signed but not ratified it
2011 rising landmine use: 23 November 2011: Landmine use 'highest since 2004' despite record clearances
2012 rising arms production and trade: 30. Januar 2012: Friedensforschungsinstitut Sipri prangert fehlende Kontrollen von Waffenschmuggel und Transportverboten an - 27. Februar 2012: Waffenindustrien wachsen trotz Wirtschaftskrise - USA und EU Konzerne größte Waffenproduzenten - 19. März 2012: Das Volumen der weltweiten Rüstungsgeschäfte hat in den vergangenen fünf Jahren um 24 Prozent zugenommen - auf die beiden grössten Rüstungsexporteure USA 30% und Russland 24% entfällt mehr als die Hälfte der weltweiten Waffenlieferungen - auf Platz drei folgt Deutschland mit neun Prozent - 29. August 2012: Jährliches Volumen des legalen internationalen Handels mit Kleinwaffen von mindestens 8,5 Milliarden Dollar
2013 arms trade treaty blocked by Iran, North Korea, Syria and not signed by China, Russia, USA: 29 March 2013: Iran, North Korea and Syria block UN arms trade treaty - 2 April 2013: By a vote of 154 in favor, 3 against (Iran, North Korea and Syria) and 23 abstentions (Russia, China, India, Indonesia etc.), UN adopts landmark treaty to regulate multibillion-dollar global arms trade - 3 June 2013: More than 60 countries sign arms trade treaty on first day, but not China, Russia and the USA
2014 SIPRI and AFP reports: 14 April 2014: Military spending continues to fall in the West but rises in China, Russia and Saudi Arabia and everywhere else, SIPRI says - 1 May 2014: European countries have approved billions in transfers of weapons and military-ready technology to China, AFP investigation shows
15 December 2014 Russian arms sales rise: 15 December 2014: Arms sales by Russian firms continue to expand despite a global downturn in defence spending, according to SIPRI
24 December 2014 Global arms trade deal without USA: 24 December 2014: Global arms trade deal takes effect, ratified by 60 nations, but not by the USA, the world's top arms exporter
2015 new killing technologies: 5 January 2015: 3D printing will revolutionize war and foreign policy not only by making possible incredible new designs but by turning the defense industry, IHS Technology, New America Foundation and BAE experts say - 6 October 2015: United Kingdom and USA are seeking to water down agreement over 'killer robots' (lethal autonomous weapons), so that any autonomous weapons deployed before United Nations's talks conclude will be beyond reach of ban, experts say
2015 arms spending rises: 16 March 2015: After Chinese arms sales surged 143% in 5 years, China now the world’s third-largest arms trader, the USA remains the first exporting 31% of global arms in 2010-2014 and Russia exported 27%, SIPRI says - 13 April 2015: Arms spending up globally, except in USA and western Europe, as Russia’s neighbors, like Iran’s, boost defense budgets, SIPRI says - 18 décembre 2015: Pour 2015, les budgets de défense en hausse dans le monde, les dépenses globales atteignent quelque 1650 milliards de dollars, selon un rapport
December 2015 arms for 'Islamic State' terrorists: 8 décembre 2015: Les transferts irresponsables d'armes effectués vers l'Irak depuis des décennies sont à l'origine du redoutable arsenal utilisé par le groupe Etat islamique, provenant d'au moins 25 pays dont une bonne partie de Russie, selon un ONG rapport
2016 arms imports and world military increase: 22 February 2016: Asia (India 14% of global arms imports, China 4.7%) and the Middle East (arms imports rose by 61% between 2006–10 and 2011–15) lead rise in arms imports, the USA (33%) and Russia (25%) remain largest arms exporters, says SIPRI - 3 avril 2016: L'utilisation d'armes interdites a atteint un niveau record depuis 2010 avec un pic entre 2014 et 2015, selon 'Handicap International' - 5 April 2016: World military expenditure totaled almost $ 7 trillion in 2015, according to SIPRI, an increase of 1% in real terms from 2014 also fueled by Mideast conflicts - 26 December 2016: USA and Obama administration increased weapons sales in 2015, maintaining its position as the world’s dominant supplier, as the sale of global arms dropped slightly to $80bn from 2014’s $89bn, according to a new USA congressional study
February 2016 equipment for 'Islamic State' terrorists: 25 février 2016: 51 sociétés de 20 pays (turques, indiennes, chinoises, brésiliennes, russes ou encore américaines) sont impliquées dans la fourniture des composants qui servent à fabriquer les bombes de l'Etat islamique, selon une étude commandée par l'UE
2017 global arms trade rises: 20 February 2017: Global arms trade reaches highest point since cold war era, as Middle East almost doubles weapons imports, as USA and Europe remain the main suppliers, as China joins top-tier exporters, as India was the world’s largest importer of major arms, and as arms imports by states in Asia and Oceania accounted for 43% of global imports in 2012–2016, according to SIPRI - 24 avril 2017: La Russie avec 69,2 milliards de dollars a repris en 2016 à l'Arabie saoudite, malgré la crise économique qu'elle traverse, la troisième place mondiale en matière de dépenses militaires, derrière les Etats-Unis et la Chine, selon SIPRI - 13 September 2017: North Korea singled out alongside Saudi Arabia and Iran as one of the world’s most secretive major exporters of small arms, including Kalashnikovs, rockets and machine guns, according to the Small Arms Survey Trade Update 2017 - 11 December 2017: Sales of arms and military services by the world’s largest arms-producing and military services companies totalled $374.8 billion in 2016, 1.9% higher compared with 2015 and representing an increase of 38% since 2002, according to SIPRI
2018 global transfer of major weapons systems SIPRI report: 12 March 2018: Global transfer of major weapons systems between 2013 and 2017 rose by 10% compared with the precedent period, as the USA, Russia, France, Germany, China and the UK remain the world's biggest weapons exporter, as India, which receives most of its arms from Russia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, UAE and China were the world’s top five importers, and as 'based on deals signed during the Obama administration, USA arms deliveries in 2013–17 reached their highest level since the late 1990s', according to SIPRI
March 2019 SIPRI report on 2014–2018 period: 11 March 2019: The volume of international transfers of major arms in 2014–2018 was 7.8% higher than in 2009–2013 and 23% higher than in 2004–2008, according to SIPRI, also saying arms flows to the Middle East surge and that the 5 largest exporters in 2014–2018 were the USA, Russia, France, Germany and China
April 2019 military expenditure increase SIPRI report: 29 April 2019: Total world military expenditure rose to $1822 billion in 2018, representing an increase of 2.6% from 2017, according to SIPRI, saying that the five biggest spenders in 2018 were the USA, China, Saudi Arabia, India and France, which together accounted for 60% of global military spending, as military spending by the USA increased for the first time since 2010
December 2019 arms sales rise 4,6%: 9 December 2019: Sales of arms and military services by the sector’s largest 100 companies, excluding those in China, totalled $420 billion in 2018, marking an increase of 4.6% compared with the previous year, according to SIPRI
March 2020 USA and France dramatically increase major arms exports: 9 March 2020: USA and France dramatically increased major arms exports during the past five years, when USA, Russia, France, Germany and China were the largest exporters and the flow of arms to the Middle East, facing brutal and endless wars, has increased, as war crimes committing Russia came to Syrian with its own arms, as Saudi Arabia, India and Egypt are the largest arms importers, and as in 2019, when foreign military involvement in Libya was condemned by the UN Security Council, the UAE had major arms import deals ongoing with Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, the UK and the USA, says SIPRI
12 September 2020 French-Greek massive arms deal: 12 September 2020: Amid tensions with Turkey and UN-backed Libyan government, Greece plagued by debt announces massive arms purchase including 18 French-made Rafale warplanes, four multi-purpose frigates and four navy helicopters, anti-tank weapons, navy torpedoes and airforce missiles, while also recruiting 15,000 new troops and pouring resources into the national arms industry and cyber-attack defence
7 December 2020 arms sales in 2019 8.5% more than in 2018: 7 December 2020: Sales of arms and military services by the sector’s largest 25 companies totalled US$361 billion in 2019, 8.5% more than in 2018, as largest companies have a geographically diverse international presence, Sipri says - 23 November 2020: Swiss banks have given loans and hold shares worth nearly $11 billion in companies like Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman and General Dynamics, according to a study by independent researchers Profundo, as the Swiss National Bank SNB, UBS and Credit Suisse have the biggest exposure, and as Young Greens Party's Julia Kueng said 'an enormous amount of money comes from Switzerland into an industry which profits from death and destruction' - List of wars, ongoing armed conflicts and deaths by country, including Syria, Yemen, Afghanistan, Iraq, Mexico, South Sudan, Libya, Ukraine
3 January 2021 Germany approved $1.41bn in arms exports to the 'Middle East' in 2020: 3 January 2021: German government approved $1.41 billion in arms exports during 2020 in arms deals to Middle East and weapons exports to countries involved in the deadly conflicts in Yemen and Libya, including weapons and military equipment worth €752 million to Egypt worth over €305.1 million to Qatar, over €51 million to the United Arab Emirates, €23.4 million for Kuwait and around €22.9 million to Turkey, and as licenses were granted to Jordan totaling €1.7 million and Bahrain amounting to €1.5 million, as Germany - responsible for two world wars - is among the world's top five weapons exporters


Forces of self-destruction and non-combat military accidents: Non-combat military accidents - Military nuclear accidents and incidents - List of military nuclear accidents - Sunken nuclear submarines
June 1942 Nazi Germany's Leipzig L-IV experiment accident: 23 June 1942 Nazi Germany's Leipzig L-IV experiment accident, as early type of a nuclear reactor L-IV led to the first nuclear accident in history, consisting of steam explosion and reactor fire, shortly after the Leipzig L-IV atomic pile — worked on by Werner Heisenberg and Robert Döpel — demonstrated Germany's first signs of neutron propagation, and as the device was checked for a possible heavy water leak
March 1954 USA's first deployable 'Bikini Atoll hydrogen bomb': 1 March 1954 USA's first deployable 'Bikini Atoll hydrogen bomb' in the Republic of the Marshall Islands with a miscalculation of high levels of fallout, as the 'secret' Castle Bravo test quickly became an international incident, prompting calls for a ban on the atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices
September 1957 Russia's Kyshtym disaster and radioactive contamination accident: 29 September 1957 Kyshtym disaster, a radioactive contamination accident that occurred at Mayak, a plutonium production site for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant located in the closed city of Chelyabinsk in the Russian SFSR, the second worst nuclear incident (by radioactivity released) after the Chernobyl disaster
May 1962 French nuclear test 'Béryl incident' in the French colony of Algeria: 1 May 1962 French nuclear test 'Béryl incident' in the French colony of Algeria, during which soldiers were heavily contaminated by radioactivity, and ongoing health effects including leukemia 22 years later and cancer, as the number of contaminated in Algeria remains unknown to this day, and as the possible contamination of the food chain following the re-flight and local concentration of radionuclides have not been the object of study
Accidents and incidents involving military aircraft: Accidents and incidents involving military aircraft - Lists of accidents and incidents involving military aircraft since 19th century on the way to World War I and World War II
UAV-related incidents: Lists of UAV-related incidents by period and country
2019 military drone crashes: 9 June 2019: Military drone crashes raise fears for civilians, as two military drones are crashing every month on average, according to research that raises questions about the safety of the technology, both in conflict zones and civilian environments


Man-made disasters and violence by country: Man-made disasters by country - Violence by country - Wars by country - Lists of wars by country - War crimes committed by country - War crimes by country - Massacres by country - Terrorism by country - Terrorism committed by country
World War I by country - World War II by country - The Holocaust by country - Aftermath of World War II by country
Prior to WWI August Bebel's 'secret diplomacy' for years to keep the peace: Prior to WWI SPD's August Bebel saw with great concern that the German-British relationship was deteriorating, warning against an expansion of the German navy, as - in particular - his criticism of the naval armor led him to 'flee into secret diplomacy' and for years he had been in contact with British government circles, warning the British government several times that their armaments efforts would be eased, and until shortly before his death, he delivered political assessments and reports to the British, but the United Kingdom missed to take the friend of deceased Karl Marx seriously


Terrorism and terrorism by country: History of Terrorism - Terrorism by country - Terrorism committed by country - Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create fear and terror among masses of people to achieve a religious or political aim, and is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants (mostly civilians and neutral military personnel), while the terms 'terrorist' and 'terrorism' originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century and its 1793-1794 period 'Reign of Terror', called 'La Terreur' in France
Since August 1914 German terror, called 'Schrecklichkeit': Since August 1914 German terror, called 'Schrecklichkeit' or 'frightfulness' by English speakers to describe a perceived military policy of the German Army towards civilians in World War I, that was the basis of German actions during their march through Belgium in 1914, later in France, the Russian-held area of Poland, and in Russia
24/25 August 1914 Belgian city of Antwerp first civilian target to be bombed from the air by Germany: 24/25 August 1914 Belgian city of Antwerp the first civilian target to be bombed from the air, when Antwerp - at that moment the National Redoubt of Belgium - was bombed by German empire forces, but instead of targeting the surrounding fortresses, the Zeppelin LZ 25's intention was to bomb the clearly distinguishable historical centre of the city, and after dropping approximately ten bombs, ten people were killed and forty injured
Since August 1914 German bombing of cities during World War I and later: Since August 1914 German bombing of cities during World War I - April 1937 bombing of Guernica, an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica carried out by Franco's allies, the Nazi German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion and the Fascist Italian Aviazione Legionaria, causing hundreds of civilian victims - World War II bombing of cities conducted by Germany - 1940-1941 German bombing campaign against British industrial targets, towns, and cities including Birmingham, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Coventry, Glasgow, Hull, Liverpool, Manchester, Portsmouth, Plymouth, Sheffield, Southampton, killing more than 40,000 civilians beginning with raids on London during the Second World War
Since the the 1910s terrorist incidents by decade: Since the the 1910s terrorist incidents by decade - Terrorist incidents in the 1910s - Terrorist incidents in the 1920s
Terrorist incidents in the 1930s, in the 1940s and 1939-1945 World War II: Terrorist incidents in the 1930s - Terrorist incidents in the 1940s - 1939-1945 Axis powers' World War II (German, Italian and Japanese empires) - Genocide, the intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part - Mass murder, the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity and the desire to kill - September 1939 bombing of Frampol occurred during the German invasion of Poland in 1939, when the town of Frampol, without military value, but with a population of 4,000 people was bombed by German bombers under General von Richthofen on 13 September as a practice run for future missions and as German fighter pilots trained strafing techniques on refugees who were trying to flee from the city
Since 1942 (1970) terrorist incidents by year and country and lists: Since 1942 terrorist incidents by year - Since 1970 lists of terrorist incidents by year - Terrorist incidents by country - Lists of terrorist incidents by country
Since 2011 terrorist incidents by year: List of terrorist incidents 2011/I and 2011/II, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
List of terrorist incidents in 2012: List of terrorist incidents 2012/I and 2012/II, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
List of terrorist incidents in 2013: List of terrorist incidents 2013/I and List of terrorist incidents 2013/II, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
List of terrorist incidents in 2014: List of terrorist incidents 2014, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
List of terrorist incidents in 2015: List of terrorist incidents 2015, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
List of terrorist incidents in 2016: List of terrorist incidents in 2016, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
List of terrorist incidents in 2017: List of terrorist incidents in 2017, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
List of terrorist incidents in 2018: List of terrorist incidents in 2018, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
December 2020 Belgian court hearings end on Iran diplomat accused of bomb plot: 4 December 2020: Belgian court hearings end on Iran diplomat accused of bomb plot, as verdict for Assadollah Assadi expected on January 22, and as 48-year-old faces 20 years in prison if convicted of plotting to target 2018 rally outside Paris
4 February 2021 Iranian official Assadi convicted of masterminding a thwarted bomb attack against opposition group in France in 2018: 4 February 2021: Iranian official Assadollah Assadi was convicted of masterminding a thwarted bomb attack against an exiled Iranian opposition group in France in 2018 and sentenced to 20 years in prison by a Belgian court that rejected his claim of diplomatic immunity, as three other defendants also received jail sentences, after Vienna-based diplomat Assadi, earlier detained in Belgium but refused to testify during his trial last year invoking his diplomatic status, did not attend the hearing at the Antwerp courthouse - 4 February 2021: Iranian 'diplomat' Assadi who masterminded a failed bomb attack at a rally outside Paris attended by five British MPs has been sentenced to 20 years in jail by a Belgian court for attempted murder and involvement in terrorism
List of terrorist incidents in 2019: List of terrorist incidents in 2019, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
List of terrorist incidents in 2020: List of terrorist incidents in 2020, mostly perpetrated by Islamists, including attacks by violent non-state actors for ideological and/or political motives, as terrorism related to drug wars, cartel violence, and ongoing military conflicts are listed separately
29 October 2020 Islamist terror attack in Nice: 29 October 2020 Nice stabbing, as three people were killed in a stabbing attack at Notre-Dame de Nice including a woman beheaded by the attacker, and as several additional victims were injured - 29 October 2020: Citizens killed, including a woman whose throat was slit by the assailant, shouting 'Allahu akbar', several injured in stabbing attack at Nice church, as suspected assailant detained after the apparent terror attack, third victim in life-threatening condition, amid high alert in France following 'protests' over 'prophet' Muhammad cartoons
11 November 2020 several hurt in Remembrance Day 'bomb attack' at Saudi cemetery: 11 November 2020: Several people have been hurt in a bomb attack at a Remembrance Day ceremony attended by foreign diplomats in the Saudi city of Jeddah, according to the French foreign ministry, as the 102nd anniversary of the armistice ending German, Austrian-Hungarian and Ottoman empires first world war 1914-1918 is mainly commemorated in several European countries but not in Germany
5 December 2020 38 years later terror suspect Abu Zayed arrives in France: 5 December 2020: Nearly 40 years later Abu Zayed, suspect in deadly 1982 attack on Paris kosher restaurant, arrives in France for terror trial over gun and grenade attack that killed six, injured 22, as France's Yves Bonnet admitted during a hearing there was an 'unwritten contract' between France and the Abu Nidal Organisation
List of terrorist incidents in 2021: List of terrorist incidents in 2021 - List of 2021 terrorist incidents linked to Islamic State
2 January 2021 Tillabéri attacks: 2 January 2021, villages Tchombangou and Zaroumdareye in the Tillabéri Region of western Niger near the border with Mali were attacked, leaving at least 105 people dead and 75 others injured, as more than ten thousand people fled their homes after the attacks, following impunity after the May 2020 Tillabéri attacks, leaving at least least twenty people were killed
3 January 2021 Pakistan Machh attack: 3 January 2021 Pakistan March attack, as Islamic State militants killed 11 Hazara coal miners after being kidnapped, blindfolded with their hands tied behind their backs before having their throats slit
4 April 2021 Taliban car bombing near Kabul killed at least 3 Afghan security personnel injuring 12 others: 4 April 2021: A Taliban car bombing near Kabul killed at least 3 Afghan security personnel and injured 12 others in an attack claimed by the Taliban, claiming in a statement that 45 Afghan security force members had been killed or injured in the blast, while - amid unabated attacks in Afghanistan - the violent Taliban has rarely taken responsibility since the formal start of peace talks and an agreement with the USA last year
30 April 2021 Puli Alam bombing as High school students are among 30 people killed: 30 April 2021 Puli Alam bombing, as High school students are among 30 people killed in a car bombing in the capital of eastern Logar province, as Afghanistan has seen a surge in violence since USA's president Biden announced troops would withdraw by 11 September, and aftermath
1 May 2021 car bomb kills students and more citizens in Afghanistan as USA starts farewell of its remaining forces: 1 May 2021: At least 21 people have been killed and nearly 100 wounded after a car bomb exploded in the Afghan city Pul-e-Alam south of the capital - targeting a guesthouse where dozens of people were living – including university students, causing widespread damage in the area, including to a hospital and residential houses -, that president Ashraf Ghani has blamed on the Taliban, as people were breaking their Ramadan fast and came together, timed with the eve of the formal start of the USA’s withdrawal from Afghanistan, now beginning with a murderous attack amid the farewell of USA's remaining forces
8 May 2021 mass murder car bombing at Sayed al-Shuhada school in western Kabul: 8 May 2021 car bombing and IED blasts in front of Sayed al-Shuhada school in Dashte Barchi in western Kabul, leaving at least 90 people dead and 240 injured. The majority of the casualties were girls between 11 and 15 years old. The attack took place in a neighborhood that has frequently been attacked by militants belonging to the regional Islamic State – Khorasan Province (ISIL-K)
10 May 2021 at least 11 people killed, dozens injured including women and children by roadside bomb in Zabul: 10 May 2021: At least 11 people have been killed and dozens injured including women and children after a roadside bomb struck a bus in Afghanistan’s southern Zabul province - 10 May 2021: At least 40 people were killed in 10 provinces of the country and over 50 more were wounded in the last 24 hours, as chairperson of the 'Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission' Shahrzad Akbar said 'we repeat our call to the negotiating sides to return to the talks and expedite their efforts to end violence', based in Kabul pursuant to the Bonn Agreement in December 2001, UN General Assembly resolution 48/134, and article 58 of the Afghan Constitution - 19 September 2021: Stay home, female Kabul government workers told by new Taliban mayor of Kabul, ordering female municipal employees to stay home unless their jobs cannot be filled by a man, as in a separate development, the Afghanistan 'Independent Human Rights Commission' said it had been unable to fulfil its duties since the Taliban's takeover, adding in a statement that its buildings, vehicles and computers had all been taken over by the Taliban
15 May 2021 explosion inside mosque on the outskirts of Kabul killed at least 12 people: 15 May 2021: An explosion inside a mosque on the outskirts of the Afghan capital Kabul killed at least 12 people during Friday prayers, also wounding 15 worshippers as they gathered for the Eid al-Fitr holiday
20 May 2021 roadside bombings in southern, central Afghanistan killed 13 people including several children: 20 May 2021: Roadside bombings in southern and central Afghanistan killed 13 people, as one of the bombs struck a car carrying a family of 12 in southern Helmand province, and as several of the nine family members who died were children. The Nad Ali district where the explosion occurred is under Taliban control, as militants also stopped a bus in western Afghanistan, ordered three men to get out and shot and killed them
29 May 2021 deadly roadside bomb hit a bus carrying university staff in Parwan's Charikar city: 29 May 2021: A roadside bomb hit a bus carrying university staff in Parwan's city of Charikar in northern Afghanistan on Saturday, killing three teachers and wounding 15 others, according to Reuters, as UN says nearly 1,800 Afghan civilians were killed or wounded in the first three months of 2021 during fighting between government forces and Taliban militants amid increased violence since USA announced plans last month to pull out all USA troops by 11 September
29 May 2021 4 people killed, many wounded in a bus explosion in Parwan: 29 May 2021: Four people were killed in an explosion that targeted a University bus carrying lecturers and employees of Alberoni University in Bagram district of Parwan, as chief medical officer at Parwan Hospital Qasim Sangin said 17 others were wounded in the explosion
1 June 2021 explosions targeted two buses with dozens of passengers in Kabul: 1 June 2021: Explosions targeted two buses with dozens of passengers heading toward Dashte-e-Barchi in western Kabul, as TOLOnews reported at least 8 people killed and 14 more wounded in the two blasts, and as eyewitnesses said there were about 30 casualties
9 June 2021 at least 16 people incl. civilians killed, many wounded in Taliban attack on Balkh Police HQ: 9 June 2021: At least 16 people, including 2 civilians, were killed and 117 others, including 67 civilians wounded in a Taliban attack on the police headquarters in Balkh province, as the Taliban claimed responsibility for the deadly attack
9 June 2021 many deminers killed and wounded in an attack by gunmen reportedly Taliban in Baghlan province: 9 June 2021: At least 10 deminers from the HALO Trust organization were killed and 16 more were wounded in an attack by gunmen on their office in the northern province of Baghlan, as Interior Affairs Ministry's spokesman Tariq Arian blamed the Taliban for the attack, as local Taliban denied involvement, but as several districts in Baghlan province have seen fierce fighting between the Taliban and government forces
30 July 2021 UN compound attacked in Herat city: 30 July 2021: UN compound attacked in Herat city and and at least 1 security guard was killed according to UNAMA, as since 'morning the Taliban have launched attacks from several directions on Lashkar Gah city', and as UN report this week said civilian casualties had been surging in Afghanistan with as many killed in May and June as in the previous four months
4 August 2021 Taliban terrorist attack on minister's house in Kabul left at least eight dead: 4 August 2021: An audacious attack on the Afghan defence minister's house in Kabul has left at least eight dead, the first major bombing by militants in the city for nearly a year, as Bismillah Khan Mohammadi fortunately was not at home on Tuesday night as gunmen detonated a car bomb and fired shots near the heavily fortified Green Zone, as four of the gunmen reportedly killed, as Mohammadi's family was evacuated, and as the Taliban said they were behind the attack, also warning of more terrorist attacks against government leaders
26 August 2021 Kabul airport suicide bombing: 26 August 2021 Kabul airport suicide bombing following western states' abandonment since 2020 of their war on terror since 2001 and now during the evacuation from the Asian contested country, as at least 183 people were killed, including 170 Afghan civilians and 13 members of the USA military, its first casualties in the War in Afghanistan since February 2020. The Islamic State – Khorasan Province claimed responsibility
8 October 2021 dozens killed in suicide bombing by ISIL affiliate at Kunduz mosque: 8 October 2021 Kunduz mosque bombing claimed by ISIL, as over 50 people were killed and another 100 were injured, but according to an estimate by the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan, more than 100 people were killed and wounded - Islamic State – Khorasan Province, an affiliate of ISIL active in South Asia and Central Asia, as ISKP is active in Afghanistan, also including Pakistan, Tajikistan and India, where they claimed attacks, as well as Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Bangladesh where individuals have pledged allegiance to it. The group was created in January 2015 by disaffected Taliban in eastern Afghanistan, although its membership includes individuals from various countries notably Pakistan, Bangladesh, India and Myanmar
15 October 2021 Kandahar bombing: 15 October 2021 Kandahar bombing, as a bomb exploded at a Shia mosque during Friday prayers killing at least 33 people. It came a week after a bombing claimed by the 'Islamic State' (ISIL Khorasan Province) terrorist group at a mosque in Kunduz killed at least 50 people
15 October 2021 UK lawmaker David Ames stabbed to death at meeting with voters from his district: 15 October 2021: British lawmaker David Amess was stabbed to death in a church at a meeting with voters from his electoral district, as police later said that they were investigating the stabbing as a terrorist incident potentially motivated by Islamic extremism, and as Whitehall officials even later confirmed to the BBC that the suspect - who is being held at a London police station under the Terrorism Act 2000 - is Ali Harbi Ali, a British national of Somali heritage

Since 1974 Abu Nidal terrorist organization: Since 1974 Abu Nidal Organization, designated as a terrorist organization by the USA, the United Kingdom, Japan, Israel and the European Union, strongly linked with Nidal's personal agenda as the group carried out hijackings, assassinations, kidnappings of diplomats, and attacks on synagogues, 90 attacks during the period 1974-1992 - Since 1972 list of attacks attributed to Abu Nidal
Since 1982 terrorist group 'Hezbollah': Since 1982 terrorist group Hezbollah's suicide and terror attacks in the Middle East and worldwide
1982-1983 Tyre truck bombings: 1982-1983 Tyre truck bombings, suicide bombings against the Israel Defense Forces' headquarters building in Tyre, killing 103 Israelis and 46–59 Lebanese, wounding 95 people, believed to be the responsibility of Hezbollah
1989 Hezbollah targeted Israeli diplomats in Brazil: 6 February 2017: Hezbollah targeted Israeli diplomats in Brazil in 1989, declassified files show
March 1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires: 17 March 1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires
July 1994 attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina in Buenos Aires: 18 July 1994 attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina in Buenos Aires, killing 85 people and injuring hundreds, claimed by Hezbollah front, in 2006 Argentine prosecutors including Alberto Nisman accused the Iranian regime of directing the bombing and the Hezbollah militia of carrying it out
June 1996 Khobar Towers bombing: 25 June 1996 Khobar Towers bombing, killing 19 USA Air Force personnel, a Saudi local and woundign 498 people of many nationalities, in 2006 a USA court found Iran and Hezbollah guilty of orchestrating the attack - 12 September 2018: USA court orders Iran to pay $104.7m for 1996 truck bomb attack that killed 19 military personnel, as 15 military personnel who survived Khobar Towers bombing and 24 family members are entitled to payout
February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri: 14 February 2005 assassination of Rafic Hariri, the former PM of Lebanon, killed along with 21 others in an explosion in Beirut, suspected perpetrators Hezbollah terrorists
September 2018: 21 September 2018: Brazil arrests Hezbollah financier Assad Ahmad Barakat, a key figure for the Lebanese terror group, operating in an area where three South American nations meet, considered a haven for smugglers, traffickers and counterfeiters
February 2019: 25 February 2019: The United Kingdom announced that it plans to blacklist Lebanon’s Hezbollah as a terrorist organization in its entirety, including its political wing, saying that it could no longer distinguish between the two branches
8 August 2020 Hezbollah and ammonium nitrate that caused Beirut’s port blast: 8 August 2020: Israeli TV cites assessment Hezbollah's Nasrallah may have intended to use stockpile that caused Beirut port blast in 'Third Lebanon War’, noting cases in Germany and the UK where Hezbollah caught with same material, after British intelligence found four Hezbollah operatives with 3 tons of ammonium nitrate held in flour sacks 2015 in London, and after the discovery in Germany of Hezbollah operatives with enough ammonium nitrate 'to blow up a city' forcing Germany subsequently to ban Hezbollah as a terrorist organization, because amounts of ammonium nitrate are equivalent to amounts of TNT, as in August 2020 seen in the port of Beirut after receiving the chemical compound in 2013, earlier used in the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, the 2011 Delhi bombings, the 2011 bombing in Oslo, and the 2013 Hyderabad blasts
19 August 2020 Hezbollah behind the assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri and attempts to block a fair investigation: 19 August 2020: Israel responded Tuesday evening to a UN-backed tribunal’s conviction of a Hezbollah member for involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri, saying the terror group was behind both the attack and attempts to block a fair investigation of it, including the trial at tribunal at The Hague
28 December 2020 Iran-backed Hezbollah says its precision missiles doubled in a year can hit all of Israel: 28 December 2020: Lebanon’s Hezbollah terror group has doubled the number of its precision missiles over the past year, the organization’s leader Hassan Nasrallah said in an interview, also claiming his Iran-backed Shiite group has the ability to accurately hit any part of Israel
Since 1981/1987 terrorist group 'Islamic Jihad': Since 1981/1987 Islamic Jihad in Palestine, an Islamist terrorist organization whose objective is the destruction of the State of Israel, labelled a terrorist organisation by the USA, the EU, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Israel, as the Iranian regime is a major financial supporter of the terrorist group - Palestinian domestic weapons production
March 2018 Iran transfers millions to Hamas and Islamic Jihad: 8 March 2018: Iran transfers $100 million every year to Hamas and Islamic Jihad in the Gaza Strip, as $70 million is transferred to Hamas, while Islamic Jihad gets $30 million, and the vast majority of this money is used by the two organizations to further bolster their military wings, instead of aiding the civilian population in the Gaza Strip
January 2019 Islamic Jihad's and Hamas' threats: 6 January 2019: Senior Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas figures praise Iran’s military support and threaten that in the next war the rocket fire from the Gaza Strip will reach all the cities in Israel
25 February 2019 Iran supported missiles: 25 February 2019: In documentary on Iranian TV, Gaza-based Palestinian terror group 'Islamic Jihad' says Iranian regime helped it make new projectile that can hit Tel Aviv and beyond, as well as precision missiles
Since 1990s terrorist group 'al-Qaeda': Since 1990s timeline of al-Qaeda attacks in the Middle East and worldwide - 18 September 2001: To fight against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, the Afghan jihad and Osama Bin Laden, who founded the Maktab al-Khidimat, was supported by the USA dollars, pouring $3 billion into the Afghan Islamist movement via the CIA and Bin Laden received security training from the CIA itself
2001 September 11 al-Qaeda attacks against the USA: 2001 September 11 attacks, a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the USA, killing 2,996 people and injuring over 6,000 others
2011 CIA helped to create Osama Bin Laden's terrorist network: July 2011: How the CIA helped to create Osama Bin Laden's terrorist network - 9 December 2014: In USA's and CIA's efforts to support the Mujahideen against the Soviets in a proxy war, the USA's support of the Mujahideen included wealthy Saudi individuals who had the ability to channel money, and tens of thousands of Islamic fighters flooded into the various fighting factions of Afghanistan from around the world, from Libya, Somalia, even the Philippines and never before such an organization has been created, an international military organization unlike any other
Since 1979 rise of mujahideen fighters and Taliban: After the Soviet Union, asked for support in Afghanistan, became highly critical of Karmal's leadership because of the rise of violence and crime during his administration, the country - interested in reform especially under Mikhail Gorbachev - was able to depose Karmal and replace him in 1987 with Mohammad Najibullah, but Islamic mujahideen fighters engaged in war with those Soviet forces, after Pakistan's Zia-ul-Haq sent Akhtar Abdur Rahman to Saudi Arabia to garner support for the Afghan opposition against Soviet forces, while later USA's CIA and Saudi Arabian General Intelligence Directorate funnelled funding and equipment through the Pakistani Inter-Service Intelligence Agency to the Afghan mujahideen, as the about 90,000 Afghans, including Mohammed Omar, were trained by Pakistan's ISI during the 1980s, as then British professor Carole Hillenbrand concluded that the 'Taliban' have arisen from those USA-Saudi-Pakistan-supported mujahideen, saying 'the West helped the Taliban to fight the Soviet takeover of Afghanistan', and as in the 1990s Sunni Islamic fundamentalists and military organization 'Taliban' waged war against and within that country - 2/3 December 1989 Malta summit ends Cold War, then hailed as the most important since 1945 when Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt agreed a post-war plan for Europe at Yalta, and as Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. Bush met face-to-face for the first time against a backdrop of fast-moving change in Eastern Europe - 16 April 1992: After president Bush - and Ronald Reagan before him - chose Afghanistan as one of its test cases in foreign policy, administration officials exhibited no exuberance as the bloody Afghan conflict reached its endgame, and as the promising administration appealed Thursday to USA-armed Afghan rebels and terrorists to act with restraint as they drew to within a rifle shot of their goal of controlling the capital of Kabul and seizing president Najibullah - Nach seinem Sturz im April 1992 fand Afghanistans Präsident (seit 1987) Mohammed Nadschibullah (6. August 1947 - 27. September 1996), und im Februar 2017 anerkannt als Politiker mit der Chance Afghanistan zu befrieden, Asyl im Hauptquartier der Vereinten Nationen in Kabul, bis ihn 1996 die von außen unterstützten und aufgerüsteten Taliban abholten, folterten und kastrierten, bevor sie ihn schließlich öffentlich hängten - die Herrschaft der Taliban begann
Since 1996 Taliban massacre campaigns: Since 1996 Taliban massacre campaigns
Since 1996 Taliban violence against Afghan civilians: Since 1996 Taliban violence against Afghan civilians
March 2011 rising death toll of Afghan civilians: 9 March 2011: Over the past 4 years, 8,832 civilians have been killed in the Afghanistan conflict with civilian deaths increasing each year, according to UN, saying anti-government elements were linked to 75% of all civilian deaths as Taliban suicide attacks and improvised explosive devices killed the most Afghan civilians in 2010, taking 1,141 lives
2019 rising terrorist incidents in Afghanistan, targeting democracy, education and civilians: 2019 terrorist incidents in Afghanistan
14 September 2019 Taliban terrorists in Moscow for talks with Putin regime: 14 September 2019: Looking to bolster regional support, with visits also planned for China and Iran, Taliban terrorists have sent a delegation to Russia's Putin regime to discuss prospects for a withdrawal of USA troops from Afghanistan following the collapse of talks with the USA caused by series of terror attacks in the country, mass murder of civilians and killing of USA soldier
15/16 September 2019 Farah, Ghazni and Logar attacks: 16 September 2019: At least five civilians, including women and children, were killed when their vehicle struck a roadside bomb in western Farah province on Sunday, where the Taliban are active, as on Monday a sticky bomb attached to a mini bus belonging to Ghazni University exploded and killed the bus driver, wounding five Ghazni University students
17 September 2019 Taliban envoys in Tehran for talks with Iranian regime: 17 September 2019: Taliban envoys visit Iran
17 September 2019 Taliban attacks, encouraged by Iran and Russia, kill many civilians: 17 September 2019: At least 30 people were killed and dozens wounded in two Taliban attacks on 17 September in Afghanistan, as at least 24 people were killed and 30 more were wounded in a blast near an election rally in Charikar, the capital of Parwan Province - 17 September 2019 Taliban bombings
18 September 2019 Taliban death threats against students and education workers: 18 September 2019: Afghanistan's Taliban terrorist group on Wednesday warned teachers, students and other education workers to avoid the upcoming presidential vote or risk dying in attacks on election centres
19/20 September 2019 Taliban truck bomb kills dozens in Qalat: 19 September 2019: Taliban truck bomb has killed at least 30 people and wounded 95 others including several women, children, health workers and patients in Qalat's hospital when it exploded near hospital in southern Afghanistan's city of Qalat, the capital of Zabul province - 19 September 2019 Qalat Taliban suicide bombing - 20 septembre 2019: Le bilan d'un attentat des talibans ayant touché jeudi un hôpital dans le sud de l'Afghanistan est passé à au moins 39 morts et 140 blessés, selon les autorités de la province de Zaboul
20/21 September 2019 two confirmed Taliban attacks: 21 September 2019: A roadside bomb has killed at least two civilians and wounded five other people when the blast struck a vehicle Friday afternoon in Spin Boldak district in southern Kandahar province where the Taliban are active, and as two more blasts in Kabul on Friday night were claimed by the terrorist group
28 September 2019 Taliban terror attacks during election: 28 September 2019: Afghans head to the polls amid fears that voter turnout would be badly hit by disorganized balloting and threats of violence by Taliban militants, who targeted polling stations in the country's north and south, causing dozens of casualties
October 2019 Taliban election attacks destroying any future: 15 October 2019: 85 civilians were killed by the Taliban in attacks targeting September's Afghan election, according to UN report, saying attacks aiming to disrupt the electoral process also wounded 373 others, including 277 civilian casualties, a third of whom were children
18 October 2019 Haska Meyna mosque bombing: 18 October 2019 Haska Meyna mosque bombing - 19 October 2019: State blames Taliban for blasts targeting worshippers during Friday prayers, killing at least 69 people including children and elders
5 July 2021 Taliban advances in northern Afghanistan continue: 5 July 2021: More than 1,000 Afghan security personnel have fled across the border into Tajikistan after Taliban advances in northern Afghanistan, the Tajik border guard service said on Monday, while dozens of others were captured by the insurgents, after the crossings on Sunday underscore a rapidly deteriorating situation in the country as foreign troops near a complete withdrawal after 20 years of war in Afghanistan and with peace negotiations stalled - 1 May 2021 – present withdrawal of USA troops from Afghanistan
4 August 2021 Taliban terrorist attack on minister's house in Kabul left at least eight dead: 4 August 2021: An audacious attack on the Afghan defence minister's house in Kabul has left at least eight dead, the first major bombing by militants in the city for nearly a year, as Bismillah Khan Mohammadi fortunately was not at home on Tuesday night as gunmen detonated a car bomb and fired shots near the heavily fortified Green Zone, as four of the gunmen reportedly killed, as Mohammadi's family was evacuated, and as the Taliban said they were behind the attack, also warning of more terrorist attacks against government leaders
Since 2000 Abu Sayyaf: Since 2000 timeline of Abu Sayyaf attacks in the southwestern part of the Philippines and some neighbouring countries
Since 2001 rise of terrorist attacks: 4 December 2012: The number of terrorist attacks each year has more than quadrupled in the decade since September 11, 2001, with Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan the most affected, a study of the Institute for Economics and Peace says
Since 2006 Al-Shabaab: Since 2006 timeline of Al-Shabaab related events in East Africa
Since 2007 Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan: 'Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan' claimed and alleged attacks since 2007
Since 2009 Boko Haram: Since 2009 timeline of Boko Haram terror attacks in Nigeria and some neighbouring countries (28 January 2016)
25 February 2021 Boko Haram attack kills 16, mainly children playing football: 25 February 2021: A deadly attack by Boko Haram in the northeast of Nigeria killed at least 16 people, including children who were playing football in a field, local militia said on Wednesday
Since 2011 Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people: Since 2011 Iranian-backed terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people and timeline of Hezbollah's deployment in Syria - 23 December 2016: Lebanon’s terror group Hezbollah's Nasrallah says that Syrian dictator Assad's army’s recapture of east Aleppo, in fact attacked and destroyed by Hezbollah, Iran and Russia, has put an end to hopes that his regime could be ousted, adding that it is 'present, strong, effective, and no one in the world can ignore it'
Since 2013 Islamic State ISIL terrorists: Since 2013 list of terrorist incidents linked to Islamic State terrorists ISIL in the Middle East and worldwide - 10 December 2015: The international terrorist organization 'Islamic State' is the direct result of the USA-led George W. Bush-era invasion of Iraq since 2003, a rights group's report concludes
2015: 20 June 2015: Terrorism-related death toll soared in 2014 with 13,463 attacks in 95 countries, Country Reports on Terrorism report says - 17 November 2015: Terrorist killings up by 80% in 2014 with 78% of all deaths and 57% of all attacks in Afghanistan, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria, with civilians increasingly targeted and fuelling flow of refugees, 2015 Global Terrorism Index says
2016: 1 January 2016: Welcoming in the new year 2016 amid global terror fears - 11 February 2016: Multiple sources reveal that the Russian construction company 'Stroytransgaz' had resumed work in the Tuweinan gas facility in the Syrian Deir Ezzor province after it was captured by 'Islamic State' terrorists in early 2014, that the Russian company sent employees to the facility after it fell to IS terrorists, adding that 'Stroytransgaz' utilized a Syrian subcontractor 'Hesco', owned by Russian-Syrian dual national George Haswani - 25 février 2016: 51 sociétés de 20 pays (turques, indiennes, chinoises, brésiliennes, russes et américaines) sont impliquées dans la fourniture des composants qui servent à fabriquer les bombes de l'Etat islamique, selon une étude commandée par l'UE - 3 March 2016: Islamic State terrorist group is making millions of dollars for its war chest by playing foreign currency markets under the noses of bank chiefs - 12 June 2016: On eve of Tel Aviv terror attack, Hamas called Ramadan 'month of jihad' - In 2016 several terrorist attacks occurred during the Muslim holy month of Ramadan 6 June to 5 July - 4 July 2016 Prophet's Mosque bombing in Medina
5 September 2016: 5 September 2016: Lebanon court indicted two Syrian Assad regime's intelligence officers in connection with twin bombings at mosques in Tripoli in 2013, which killed more than 40 people
8 September 2016: 8 September 2016: Russia is one of the biggest supporters of terrorism and the USA has repeatedly reneged on the promises it made to the Syrian people and to the Free Syrian Army, Syrian Coalition's Abdul Ilah Alfahd says
November 2016: 16 novembre 2016: Selon une étude de l'Institute for Economics and Peace, le terrorisme a fait 10% de morts en moins l'an dernier avec les reculs du groupe Etat islamique et de Boko Haram en Irak et au Nigeria, après l'année 2015 aura été la deuxième année la plus meurtrière jamais vue
September 2017: 7 September 2017: Hundreds of violent extremists in Africa have told researchers that government action aimed at countering terrorism and insurgency across the continent was the 'tipping point' for their decision to join an extremist group
March 2019 SDF liberated final area held by Islamic State terrorists: 23 March 2019: Syrian Democratic Forces announces it has liberated final area held by Islamic State terrorist group in village of Baghouz, saying caliphate is gone but pledging to fight remnants and commemorating 'thousands of martyrs whose efforts made the victory possible'
27 October 2019 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi killed with Kurdish help: 27 October 2019: Syria’s Kurdish commander Mazloum Abdi, head of the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces, hailed a 'historic operation' and joint intelligence work following USA media reports that Islamic State chief Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi had been killed during a USA raid
November 2019 IS terrorist group has exploited Turkey's incursion into Syria and Trump's drawdown of USA troops: 20 November 2019: Islamic State terrorist group has exploited Turkey's incursion into northeastern Syria and Trump's drawdown of USA troops from the region, according to a report by the Pentagon's Inspector General, adding that the group will now likely have the 'time and space' to target the West
2021 list of terrorist incidents linked to ISIL, committed in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan: 2021 list of terrorist incidents linked to ISIL, committed in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan
19 July 2021 Baghdad suicide bombing claimed by ISIL: 19 July 2021 Baghdad suicide bombing - 20 July 2021: A suicide bomber has killed at least 35 people and wounded more than 60 citizens in a crowded market in the Sadr City neighbourhood of Baghdad on Monday, the eve of the Eid al-Adha festival, security and hospital sources said, as Islamic State group terrorists claimed responsibility for the attack
Since 1990s/2014 Iranian Mullah regime supported Houthis in Yemen: On 11 January 2021, the USA designated the Iranian Mullah regime supported Houthis in Yemen a terrorist organization, imitating Hezbollah terrorists spreading of Shiite radicalism, formed with the aid of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's followers since 1979 to spread the Islamic Revolution and a distinct version of Islamic Shia ideology 'Valiyat al-faqih or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists'

List of designated Terrorist groups and/or organizations - Iran and state-sponsored terrorism
Since 1984 Iranian Mullah regime added to USA list of state sponsors of terrorism: On 19 January 1984 Iran was added to the list, according to Country Reports on Terrorism 2013, as Iranian Mullah regime continued its terrorist-related activity, including support for Palestinian groups in Gaza, for Hezbollah, also increasing its presence in Africa and smuggling arms to Houthi separatists in Yemen and Shia oppositionists in Bahrain, as the Iranian Mullah regime uses the 'Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Qods Force' and its regional proxy groups to implement foreign policy goals, to provide cover for intelligence operations, and to create instability in the Middle East, as the IRGC-QF is the regime’s primary mechanism for cultivating and supporting terrorists abroad, including Syria as a crucial causeway in its weapons supply route to Hezbollah, after since 2011 Iran continues to provide arms, financing, training, and the facilitation of Iraqi Shia fighters to the Assad regime’s brutal crackdown - State Sponsors of Terrorism USA list
4 February 2021 Iranian official Assadi convicted of masterminding a thwarted bomb attack against opposition group in France in 2018: 4 February 2021: Iranian official Assadollah Assadi was convicted of masterminding a thwarted bomb attack against an exiled Iranian opposition group in France in 2018 and sentenced to 20 years in prison by a Belgian court that rejected his claim of diplomatic immunity, after Vienna-based diplomat Assadi, earlier detained in Belgium but refused to testify during his trial last year invoking his diplomatic status, now did not attend the hearing at the Antwerp courthouse

List of airliner shootdown incidents in the history of commercial aviation by decade
Since 17 July 2014 flight MH17 shootdown by Putin regime: Cause of MH17 crash - 28 September 2016: Dutch-led joint investigation team including representatives from Australia, Malaysia, Ukraine, and Belgium states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions
Since 8 January 2020 Ukrainian passenger plane shot down by Iranian regime's terrorist organization with two Russian-made missiles: 8 January 2020 Ukrainian UIA flight 752 passenger plane shot down by Iranian regime's terrorist organization with two Russian-made missiles shortly after takeoff from Tehran Khomeini airport in Iran - 8 January 2020: Ukrainian passenger plane Boeing 737-800 soon after taking off from Tehran crashed, killing all 176 citizens from Afghanistan, Canada, Iran, Sweden, Ukraine and United Kingdom on board
9-11 January 2020 Bellingcat geolocates footage of apparent Iranian missile strike on UIA flight PS752 to Tehran suburb: 9 January 2020: Bellingcat geolocates footage of apparent missile strike on UIA flight PS752 to Tehran suburb - 11 January 2020: After the supporting and MH17 experienced Russian Putin regime pushed back against Bellingcat and intelligence assesments that Iran shot down the plane with a Russian made surface-to-air missile, after telling the world 'with certainty' that a missile had not caused the crash, but knowing 'with certainty' all facts of its crime, not closing the country’s main international airport and its airspace, Ukraine president now demands punishment and compensation after Iranian regime admitted downing the plane and killing all 176 people on board
15 January 2020 new video footage showing two Iranian missiles killing all 176 passengers and crew: 15 January 2020: New video footage has emerged showing two Iranian missiles tearing through the night sky and hitting a Ukrainian passenger plane, sending the aircraft down in flames and killing all 176 passengers and crew on board
21 January 2020 Iranian threats against USA and the whole world: 21 January 2020: Iranian lawmaker offered a $3 million reward to anyone who killed USA' president Donald Trump and said Iran could avoid threats if it had nuclear arms, as Iran’s war minister Amir Hatami said that regime’s missile attacks on USA bases in Iraq in response to the killing of Soleimani were 'just a slap, vowing to respond forcefully, and as USA secretary of state praises 3 South American countries for declaring Hezbollah a terror group


State crime, Crimes against humanity, War
War of aggression, sometimes also war of conquest, is a military conflict waged without the justification of self-defense, usually for territorial gain and subjugation
War crimes by type: War crimes - War crimes by type
War crimes since the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907: List of war crimes since the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 in the age of modern industry and technology
War crimes committed by country: War crimes committed by country
Since 1914 German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman war crimes: Since 1914 German war crimes, as the government of the German Empire and its military in the age of modern industry and technology ordered, organized and committed war crimes in World War I - Ottoman war crimes and Ottoman World War I crimes - War crimes of World War I 1914-1918
Since August 1914 German 'strategic' bombing during World War I and later: Since August 1914 German 'strategic' bombing during World War I
Since January 1915 German large-scale use of chemical weapons: 31 January 1915 first instance of large-scale use of gas as a weapon, when Germany fired 18,000 artillery shells containing liquid xylyl bromide tear gas on Russian positions on the Rawka River, west of Warsaw during the Battle of Bolimov
Since 1923 Italian war crimes: Italian war crimes have mainly been associated with Fascist Italy in the Pacification of Libya, the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, and World War II - 1923-1932 Second Italo-Senussi War by Italian military forces to crush local resistance in Tripolitania and Cyrenaica
Since early 20th century Japanese war crimes: Japanese war crimes, as war crimes were committed by the Empire of Japan in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II
Since April 1937 German and Italian bombing in Spain and 'strategic' bombing during World War II: April 1937 bombing of Guernica, an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica carried out by Franco's allies, the Nazi German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion and the Fascist Italian Aviazione Legionaria, causing hundreds of civilian victims - World War II 'strategic' bombing conducted by Germany
Since 1939 war crimes of Germany, Italy, and Japan (and allies) in their World War II 1939-1945: German war crimes in World War II 1939-1945 - War crimes of 'Axis Powers' World War II 1939-1945, as Germany, Italy, and Japan (the Axis Powers) were the most systematic perpetrators of war crimes in history, now in the age of modern industry and technology
Since 1945 war crimes in and committed by country: War crimes in country - War crimes committed by country
1946-1954 French war crimes during France's Indochina War: French war crimes during 1946–1954 Indochina War, France's struggle against the independence movement claiming 500,000 to 1.5 million Vietnamese lives from 1945 to 1954, French concentration camps, torture, and massacres
1945–1949 Dutch war crimes during Indonesian War of Independence: Dutch war crimes during 1945–1949 Indonesian War of Independence
1950-1953 Korean War and war crimes: 1950-1953 Korean War and war crimes, including USA, North Korean and South Korean perpetrated crimes - Bombing of North Korea 1950-1953
1952-1960 British war crimes in Kenya: 1952–1960 Mau Mau uprising in Kenya and British attempt to suppress the insurgency, as British colonial authorities suspended civil liberties within the country. moved 320,000–450,000 Kenyans into concentration camps and created 'enclosed villages' - British war crimes in Kenya
1954–1962 Algerian War and French war crimes: 1954–1962 Algerian War and French war crimes - Algerian war's casualties, as the FLN estimated in 1964 that nearly eight years of revolution effected 1.5 million deaths from war-related causes - French use of torture in Algeria
1955–1975 USA's Vietnam War, war crimes and massacres: 1955–1975 USA's Vietnam War, USA's war crimes and massacres - Vietnam War crimes
1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and war crimes: 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and war crimes
1975 Indonesian Invasion of East Timor: 1975 Indonesian invasion of East Timor
1975–1990 Lebanese 'Civil War' and war crimes: 1975–1990 Lebanese 'Civil War', involving the Iranian regime, the Syrian dictatorship, Hezbollah terrorists, Lebanese militias, the PLO, and war crimes
1978–present war in Afghanistan and war crimes: 1978–present civil war and war in Afghanistan, involving many countries, the UN and the Nato, and war crimes
1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War and war crimes: 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War and war crimes
1990 Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait: 1990 Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
1994–2009 Russia-Chechnya Wars: 1994–1996/1999–2009 Russia-Chechnya Wars and Russian war crimes
Agust 2008 Russia's war with Georgia: 21 January 2021: Russia committed human rights violation in Georgia war, ECHR rules, as European court of human rights says in a landmark judgment Putin regime responsible for murder of civilians, looting and burning of homes and the torture of Georgian prisoners of war in 2008 war with Georgia, and as evidence included witness statements, satellite footage, and video and phone intercepts
2003–2011 USA's and United Kingdom's Iraq War: 2003–2011 USA's and United Kingdom's Iraq War and war crimes
2011–present Assad's war against the Syrian people: 2011–present Assad's war against the Syrian people - Syrian Civil War crimes
Since 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and war crimes: Since 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine and war crimes
March 2016 wars are being fought as in 'barbarian times': 7 March 2016: Wars are being fought as in 'barbarian times', warns Médecins Sans Frontières' Joanne Liu, as attacks against civilians in war zones across the world have grown more indiscriminate due to a focus by the major global powers on fighting terrorism and failure in their duty to uphold the rules of conflict
April 2019: 26 April 2019: The Syrian National Coalition has said that the mounting evidence of war crimes committed by Assad and his inner circle is enough to mount a successful prosecution

War crimes of dictator Assad's armed forces in Syria since 2011 - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people -
Since 2011 timeline of Assad's, Iran's, Hezbollah's and Russia's war in Syria: Daily updated timeline of war and war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
September 2015 announced probe of Assad regime's crimes against humanity: 30 September 2015: France opens probe into Assad regime for crimes against humanity
2016 devastation of 4 years of Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against Syrians: 4 February 2016: Drone footage of Homs in western Syria, the country's third largest city, shows the devastation of four years of Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against Syrians - 11 February 2016: Fatalities caused by dictator Assad's, Russian and Iranian war against Syrians, directly and indirectly, amount to 470,000, according to the Syrian Centre for Policy Research, a far higher total than the figure of 250,000 used by the United Nations until it stopped collecting statistics 18 months ago
2017 wave of hospital attacks: 29 September 2017: Syrian doctors decry fresh wave of hospital attacks, accusing the international community of ignoring attacks on medical facilities
2018 ferocious bombing campaign by Assad backed by Russia and 2018-2020 timelin: In the February 2018 Rif Dimashq offensive eastern Ghouta is coming under a ferocious bombing campaign by regime forces who are backed by Russian air force - Since 2011 daily updated timeline of war and war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces
14 April 2020 109 violations of Idlib ceasefire by Assad regime and Russia since March 5: 14 April 2020: Emergency Response Coordinators Team in northern Syria said that it had recorded at least 109 violations of the ceasefire agreement by the Assad regime forces and its Russian ally since March 5
2 March 2021 UN says mass arbitrary detentions in Syria may be war crimes: 2 March 2021: UN says mass arbitrary detentions in Syria may be war crimes, noting 'massive scale of detention' and abuses perpetrated by Syria's Assad regime, also listing other detentions
2011-2021 daily updated timeline of Assad's and allies' war in Syria: 2011-2021 daily updated timeline of war and war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces
29 July 2021 Syria's Assad regime attacks former opposition in Daraa province, Russian airstrikes: 29 July 2021: Bashar al-Assad has attacked a former opposition stronghold with missiles and artillery shelling in an attempt to crush a simmering insurrection, in an unprecedented development in Syria’s decade-long war, as Deraa al-Balad and its surrounds, a district of Deraa city in the southern province of the same name, was targeted with heavy weaponry in tandem with a ground push on three axes from two Syrian army divisions and allied Iran-backed militias early on Thursday morning, in a large offensive which continued throughout the day - 29 July 2021: SOHR activists have documented a spike in the death toll of the massacre committed by regime forces in al-Yadoudah town in Daraa countryside, as five civilians, a woman and her little son and three other children, were killed in rocket fire by regime forces on the town, near Daraa city - 29 July 2021: SOHR activists have documented the death of eight civilians due to regime rocket fire on populated residential neighbourhoods in Daraa province. - 29 July 2021: Russian fighter jets renewed their airstrikes this afternoon, targeting positions in Ihsim and Mar’ian in Jabal al-Zawiyah in southern Idlib with over 5 airstrikes, which resulted in the injury of at least one man and caused material damage

List of barrel bomb attacks in Assad's war against the Syrian people - List of massacres during Assad's war against the Syrian people - Use of chemical weapons in Assad's war against the Syrian people
2012: 1 September 2012: Syrian Assad regime forces filmed dropping 'barrel bomb' on Homs
2016: 12 July 2016: Assad regime surrounds Aleppo, opposition groups resist despite intensified airstrikes using cluster, vacuum and barrel bombs, also targeting and killing civilians - 20 July 2016: Assad regime forces pounded the district of Daraya west of Damascus with at least 748 barrel bombs during June, killing at least 28 civilians and causing massive destruction in the rebel-held district - 21 July 2016: Assad's air strikes hit Al-Mashtal Park, Al-Jamaa and Al-Kastana neighborhoods in Idlib, killing at least 15 people
September 2018: 12 September 2018: Assad's forces fired chlorine, a banned chemical weapon, on a rebel-held Damascus suburb and on Idlib province this year, in attacks that constitute war crimes, bringing to 39 the number of chemical attacks which the Commission of Inquiry on Syria has documented since 2013, UN human rights investigators said on Wednesday
October 2018: 15 October 2018: A BBC investigation shows for the first time the extent to which chemical weapons have been crucial to Assad's war-winning strategy, saying there is enough evidence to be confident that at least 106 chemical attacks have taken place in Syria since September 2013, when Assad signed the international Chemical Weapons Convention and agreed to destroy the country's chemical weapons stockpile following the Ghouta chemical attack
2011-2021 daily updated timeline of Assad's and allies' war in Syria: 2011-2021 daily updated timeline of war and war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces

Since September 2015 Russian military intervention in Syria perpetuating Assad's dictatorship, turning the tide of war in Assad’s favor - Since September 2015 Russian regime's war crimes and attacks on civilians in Syria - Since September 2015 Russian–Assad regime hospital bombing campaign - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011
December 2015: 20 December 2015: Russian air strikes kill at least 73 people in rebel-held Idlib - 23 Decembert 2015: Amnesty International says Russian air strikes in Syria may amount to war crimes after gathering reports on, hundreds of civilians killed in their homes, medical facilities and other public spaces
2016: 24 January 2016: Intense Russian and Syrian bombing raids reportedly killed scores of children and civilians in recent days - 30 June 2016: Thanks in no small part to Russia, Hezbollah is now a full-fledged army, learning Russian methods of war, becoming familiar with advanced Russian weaponry, coming to understand the latest Russian technologies, and in some cases actually fighting alongside Russian special forces - 29 September 2016: Syria hospital attacks are 'war crimes', UN's Ban Ki-moon says - Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
March 2018: 26 March 2018: The 'United Nations' has come under fire for sharing the coordinates of hospitals in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta with Russia, only for one of them to be bombed days later, according to 'The Telegraph' - 26 March 2018: Syrian Coalition's Mohammed Yahya Maktabi said that the mass forced displacement taking place in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta is a 'war crime' as he condemned Russian’s major role in these crimes, adding that regime forces, the Iranian militias, and Russian air force are killing civilians, targeting popular markets, residential areas and public facilities and bombing hospitals, medical centers, and rescue workers - 27 March 2018: As more than half million people killed in seven years of brutal ground and aerial bombing by the Assad regime and its allies, and as Syrian children have taken the biggest share in the horrible death toll, the unstoppable roar of Russia's warplanes has caused a heart attack for Lojain Said, taking the life of the schoolgirl who lived in the northwestern town of Jisr al-Shughour, the Civil Defense rescue group says
August 2018: 22 August 2018: Russian regime's military have been key to propping up Syrian Assad regime and helping him reclaim key ground, as Russian ministry said Wednesday that over 63,000 Russian troops, including 434 generals, have fought in Syria and about 90% of Russian combat pilots have flown in Syria, using the operation to test some of its most advanced weapons, including the latest jets and cruise missiles, helping turn the tide of war in Assad’s favor and the Assad regime in August 2018 five years after the Ghouta chemical attack controls nearly two thirds of the country, compared to just one third back in 2014
September 2018: 30 September 2018: More than 18,000 people, nearly half of them civilians, have been killed in Russian air strikes on Syria since Putin regime began its assault three years ago, according to SOHR
November 2018: 1 November 2018: 'Syrian Archive' said that it had documented more than 1,400 attacks by Russian forces on civilians and civilian infrastructure since the start of the Russian direct military intervention on the side of the Assad regime in September 2015, as verified videos show that the Russian forces targeted at least 35 hospitals, 27 mosques, 23 schools and 27 public markets
2018/2019: 5 January 2019: The Assad regime and Russia are responsible for the majority of the recorded 223 massacres that took place across Syria in 2018, according to SNHR
January 2019: 5 January 2019: The Russian warplanes carry out a new round of aerial bombardment and of their first targeting to the western countryside of Aleppo leaving 16 citizens dead and wounded including children - 30 January 2019: Russian warplanes return to kill Syrians and raise to more than 18,100 the number of casualties of the Russian bombardment in 40 continuous months
February 2019: 9 February 2019: Russian regime’s ambassador in Lebanon Zasypkin hails country’s Iranian-backed Hezbollah terror group for fighting alongside Russia in Syria, also saying USA policies toward Iran could set off a fresh war between Israel and Lebanon - 9 February 2019: 4 civilians, including a woman, were wounded in rocket and artillery shelling by the Assad regime on the villages of Tal Minnis and Ma'arshammarin south of Idlib, and 8 civilians were killed and many others reportedly wounded in explosions of previously dropped cluster bombs by the Assad regime and Russian air forces in eastern rural Hama
March 2019: 1 March 2019: As a part of the aerial escalation, warplanes return to bomb Idlib and target major cities and towns along with ground shelling on several areas in the countryside of the province and Sahl Al-Ghab - 4 March 2019: Assad regime and Russia’s relentless bombing campaign on towns and villages in Hama and Idlib provinces forces tens of thousands to flee - 23 March 2019: Russian airstrikes killed at least 15 people, including four children and two women, and injured 27 others in at least 11 attacks on residential areas in rural Idlib including the town of Kfariya
April 2019: 8/9 April 2019: Suspected Russian long-range missiles hit the town of Jisr al-Shughour in rural Idlib, according to Syrian Civil Defense, as local observatory reported that the source of the missiles is the Russian warships stationed in the Mediterranean, wounding 12 civilians, including 10 children and a woman, and destroying a large amount of civilian property and infrastructure - 9 April 2019: The ongoing bombing campaign by the Assad regime and Russia has so far killed no fewer than 244 civilians since February 2, according to aid group - 17 April 2019: SNHR said that it had documented nearly 457 attacks in Syria by the Assad and Russian forces using cluster munitions, 24 of which occurred following the Sochi Agreement in September 2018 - 23 April 2019: Continuing Russian and Iranian-backed terror attacks, Assad regime and allied forces shell places and carry out raids on areas in Hama and Idlib province, amid aerial bombardments by Russian warplanes - 26 April 2019: Russian warplanes renew their airstrikes today evening on Sahl Al-Ghab and Jabal Shashabo leaving wounded and people stuck under the rubble in Al-Amqiyyah village - 27 April 2019: Warplanes and helicopters carried out a new round of shelling, as Russian warplanes reportedly killed 15 civilians in the countryside of Idlib and Hama - 27 April 2019: After killing 15 civilians, the Russian warplanes continue their escalation within 'Putin-Erdogan' areas and carry out more raids, as Assad regime forces continue shelling targeting southern countryside of Idlib, southern countryside of Aleppo and Hama province
July 2019: 7 July 2019: At least 544 civilians have been killed and over 2,000 people injured since a Russian-led assault on the last rebel bastion in northwestern Syria began two months ago, according to rights groups and rescuers - 12 July 2019: Assad and Russian forces have escalated their airstrikes in northwestern Syria, especially in Idlib and its countryside, killing and injuring dozens of civilians including children as well as knocking out six vital civilian centers since Thursday morning - 13 July 2019: After they killed 2 families, the Russian warplanes renew their bombardment on the countryside of Hama and Idlib, and bombardment by the regime’s warplanes on a village east of Idlib leaves about 11 casualties and wounded - 13 July 2019: It rose to 14, the number of casualties documented by SOHR following a massacre carried out by Russian warplanes targeting agricultural lands in the vicinity of Khan Shaykhun, as aerial and ground bombardment by regime’s forces south of Aleppo continues - 13 July 2019: Two months of intensive airstrikes by Syrian government forces and their Russian allies, coupled with a fierce ground assault on rebel-controlled Idlib province, have killed hundreds of people and caused massive displacement while achieving little to no gain for Assad's and Putin's murderous regime - 14 July 2019: Russian warplanes renewed their airstrikes on the Hama countryside, where they carried out more raids also targeting Maarrat al-Nu’man water pumping station and water reservoir as part of the systematic policy by the Russians and Assad regime to target vital and public facilities - 22 July 2019: Assad/Russian air strikes on a popular market and residential neighbourhoods killed at least 20 people and wounded dozens on Monday in an attack on Maarat al-Numan, a densely populated opposition-held city in southern Idlib province, rescuers and residents said - 22 July 2019: It rose to 23 (19 citizens including 2 children, a woman and a member of the Civil Defense, and 4 unidentified people), the number of casualties who were killed as a result of airstrikes carried out by Russian warplanes on a local market in Maarrat Al-Nu’man city
August 2019 crimes by the Assad regime and Russian air forces: 2 August 2019: Three million civilians in the province of Idlib are being subjected to daily violations and crimes by the Assad regime and Russian air forces, Syrian Civil Defense Corps said - 6 August 2019: Russian warplanes renew the airstrikes on the northern countryside of Hama - 17 August 2019: A suspected Russian airstrike hit a displaced people's gathering in the town of Hass south of Idlib province on Friday, killing at least 13 people, including at least four children, activists and war monitor SOHR said
September 2019 Russian airstrikes continue: 12 September 2019: UN Commission of Inquiry on Syria said that the Assad regime forces backed by Russian warplanes may have committed war crimes in a report issued on Wednesday - 13 September 2019: Warplanes of the Russian 'guarantor of the truce' continue raids in Idlib once again, bombarding areas in its western countryside
26 September 2019 Russia expanding air base in Syria: 26 September 2019: Russian regime is expanding its Hmeimim air base in Syria and rebuilding a second landing strip to allow the facility to serve more aircraft, expanding the Russian/Iranian version of dialogue during UN general assembly meeting in New York, saying 'give us friendly words, a propaganda stage and markets, we will give you bombs and poison gas'
13 October 2019: 13 October 2019: Russian regime's warplanes target Idlib countryside once again amid renewed rocket shelling by Assad regime forces on the area - 13 October 2019: Extensive evidence gathered and analyzed over months by USA newspaper proves that Russian warplanes bombed four Syrian hospitals in the span of 12 hours in May as part of Putin regime’s effort to keep Syria's Bashar Assad in power, saying 'recklessly or intentionally bombing hospitals is a war crime, but proving culpability amid a complex civil war is extremely difficult'
15 October 2019: 15 October 2019: The Russian air force used cluster bombs to hit the village of al-Bara south of Idleb city, killing a mother and her child, reports Zaman Al Wasl, after two civilians were killed and four others injured when Assad regime forces carried out surface-to-surface missiles attack on Birnas village
16 October 2019: 16 October 2019: Russian warplanes target Latakia Mountains and south Idlib
19 October 2019: 19 October 2019: Russian warplanes carry out raids on positions in Jabal al-Akrad and the southern countryside of Idlib, and dozens of raids on the countrysides of Hama, Idlib, and Latakia
23 October 2019: 23 October 2019: Assad's barrel bombs and air raids by Russian warplanes target Latakia countryside in conjunction with ground shelling on the southern countryside of Aleppo and Russian aerial bombardments of Idlib countryside
25 October 2019: 25 October 2019: Assad regime and Russian forces resumed their deadly attacks in rural Idlib as regime airstrikes hit a vegetable market in al-Janoudiya in northwestern rural Idlib, killing six civilians and wounding 16 others, and as two other people, one of them a child, were injured in Russian airstrikes that hit the Kafranbel in southern rural Idlib
6 November 2019: 6 November 2019: Russian regime's airstrikes on Idlib countryside kill 3 children of the same family, who displaced from Al-Lataminah city in Hama countryside a month ago, due to bombardment by the Russian warplanes on the residential neighborhoods in Al-Dar al-Kabirah village in the southern countryside of Idlib - 6 November 2019: Russian warplanes bombard Idlib countryside along with tens of ground strikes that targeted the eastern countryside of Idlib - 6 November 2019: As airstrikes return to escalate in 'Putin-Erdogan' area, the murderous Russian warplanes target children’s hospital in Jabal al-Zawiyah and leave casualties of the medical staff
20 November 2019 Russian and Assad's bombing has killed 1,300 people since April: 20 November 2019: Bombing by Assad and Russian regime forces of the last opposition-held pockets of Syria has killed 1,300 people and displaced almost 1 million more since April, according to monitors
21 November 2019 Russian torture and killing of a prisoner in Syria in 2017 documented: 21 November 2019: Russian-speaking man who filmed the torture and killing of a prisoner in Syria has been identified as a member of Wagner, a Russian private military company with ties to Putin's regime that has aggressively expanded into the Middle East and Africa in recent years
25 November 2019 Idlib offensive as Russian warplanes bombard hospital: 25 November 2019: Russian warplanes bombard a hospital in Jabal Al-Zawiya, as more than 80 raids and barrel bombs target Idlib countryside - 25 November 2019: With intensive support from Russian warplanes, Assad regime forces continue to advance southeast of Idlib and control new villages and locations in the area
31 December 2019 Putin's warplanes take 11 hospitals and medical facilities out of service: 31 December 2019: Russian and Assad regime’s warplanes and their murderous crews were not only content to kill, injure and displace hundreds of thousands of civilians, but they also target infrastructure, as Putin's warplanes take 11 hospitals and medical facilities out of service in the latest flare-up of violence in Idlib
Since January 2020: Since January 2020 timeline of Russian regime's and Assad's war against the Syrian people - Casualties of Russian regime's and Assad's war against the Syrian people
1 January 2020 Russian warplanes target the vicinity of Idlib city with more than 22 air strikes: 1 January 2020: Murderous Russian warplanes targeted the vicinity of Idlib city with more than 22 air strikes after midnight, where the area includes the Central Prison of Idlib, which has been hit before by Russian air strikes, while Assad regime forces shelled areas in villages located in rural Maarat al-Numan, also shelling the opposition-held village of Sarmin in the country's northwest, hitting a school and killing at least six people, including a female teacher and four students, as SOHR documented Assad's new year's massacre
3 February 2020 Russian and Assad regime continue to murder civilians as Turkey retaliates: 3 February 2020: Over 220 regime and Russian airstrikes pound Aleppo and Idlib countryside since early morning, as SOHR documented a spike in the number of civilians who were killed today as a result of aerial bombardment on Aleppo countryside, and as 4 children and 3 females among 9 civilians were killed after targeting by regime jets to a vehicle carrying displaced people in Jam’eyyat Al-Rahal - 3 February 2020: Russian and Assad regime airstrikes in Idlib killed at least 11 civilians, as 9 of the civilians were killed by strikes carried out by Russia while two were killed by Assad regime, according to Syrian civil defense group - 3 February 2020: Russian and Assad regime airstrikes in Idlib killed at least 11 civilians, as 9 of the civilians were killed by strikes carried out by Russia while two were killed by Assad regime, according to Syrian civil defense group - 3 February 2020: Turkish, Assad regime troops killed as regime forces face off in Idlib, and as Erdogan says initial information shows some 30 Assad regime soldiers 'neutralized in operation' involving F-16 warplanes on some 40 targets in Hama, Latakia and Idlib province - 3 February 2020: Turkish soldiers killed as battle for control of Idlib escalates, amid Russian airstrikes, which have already driven 700,000 civilians to the Turkish border
9/10 February 2020 Russian and Assad regime continue to murder civilians as UN remains silent: 9 February 2020: SOHR documented today a massacre of 9 citizens including a woman, as the Russian warplanes bombed Kafr Noran town in the western countryside of Aleppo, also documenting the death of at least 3 people in Russian airstrikes targeting Orem al-Soghra area, also documenting the death of 4 citizens including a child by barrel bombs on al-Atareb in the countryside of Aleppo, while two citizens were killed in Sheikh Ali village in Aleppo countryside by the Russian murderous warplanes, as Assad regime killed two citizens by bombing and groundshelling in Idlib province - 10 February 2020: Russian air strikes Monday killed at least five civilians in the last major opposition bastion in northwestern Syria - 10 February 2020: Death toll of Russian jets’ massacre rises to 9 in Abyan, west of Aleppo, including 6 children, 2 women and a man, including displaced persons, while Russian raids left at least 20 people injured, including 7 children and 2 women - 10 February 2020: With full Turkish support, Turkish-backed factions and Turkish troops begin intensive rocket attack on Assad regime forces positions, east of Idlib, as Turkish forces also targeted with heavy artillery Jab al-Ramlah airstrip in Hama countryside, and as intensive aerial bombardment continued by Assad's and Russian jets and helicopters in western and southwestern rural Aleppo
24 February 2020 Russian and Assad regime continue to murder civilians: 24 February 2020: SOHR documented the killing of five civilians in Russian aerial bombardment on Kawkaba and Faterah in Jabal Al-Zawiya, amid ongoing bombardment by regime and Russian jets on towns and villages - 24 February 2020: Assad regime and Russian jets target Turkish post south of Idlib, killing and injuring ten soldiers, as the number of raids carried out by regime and Russian jets on Monday rose to 120, and as civil defense center in Balion put out of service after being directly targeted by Russian jets
2 March 2020 UN says Russia committed war crimes in Syria as world expects end of impunity: 2 March 2020: Russia committed war crimes in Syria, finds UN report, as Putin regime blamed for indiscriminate attacks in civilian areas without 'a specific military objective', also documenting 'unprecedented levels of displacement and dire conditions for civilians' in Syria
5 March 2020 Russian aerial attack leaving more than 25 civilians dead or injured: 5 March 2020: 15 civilians killed in Russian aerial bombardment on assembly of internal displaced people in rural Idlib - 5 March 2020: Russian jets target consentrations of displaced persons near Ma’rat Misrin in Idlib countryside, leaving more than 25 civilians dead or injured, as Russian jets carried out more raids on the vicinity of Idlib city
9 June 2020 Russian regime's new deadly airstrikes: 9 June 2020: Russian jets have executed nearly 15 airstrikes since Tuesday, targeting places in Kansafrah, Balyon, Al-Bara, Al-Mawzarah, Al-Fterah, Kafr Oweid and other areas in Jabal Al-Zawiyah in the southern countryside of Idlib, as the intensive airstrikes killed a civilian in Balyon, while others sustained various injuries - 9 June 2020: SOHR documented the killing of three children due to the explosion of an old unexploded bomb in Idlib city
14/15 July 2020 escalating Russian airstrikes on northern Syria: 14 July 2020: Russian jets step up airstrikes on Kabana, while other airstrikes hit southern Idlib, amid aerial attacks escalation - 14 July 2020: Russian jets renew shelling Jabal Al-Zawiya, and over 20 air raids hit 'de-escalation zone' today, as SOHR documented the death of a civilian in a rocket attack by Assad regime forces on Ariha - 14 July 2020: More Russian air raids hit 'de-escalation zone' and man and his child killed in ground shelling on Ariha - 15 July 2020: Assad regime forces renew intensive shelling on areas in Jabal Al-Zawiyah
21 July 2020 Russian Putin regime's jets flying and Assad regime killing civilians: 21 July 2020: Russian jets fly over Idlib and Assad regime forces renew rocket attacks on Idlib countryside, targeting Al-Fterah, Kansafra, Sfuhen, Saan, Majdaliyah - 21 July 2020: SOHR activists have documented the killing of two civilians in regime rocket attacks in the past few hours on Barratah village
3 August 2020 Russian airstrikes kill civilians and support attack by Assad regime: 3 August 2020: Russian airstrikes hit rural Idlib, killing a family of three persons - 3 August 2020: Russian airstrikes pave the way for fierce attack by Assad regime forces on Al-Haddadah frontlines, as SOHR activists monitored Russian jets flying over the northern countryside of Latakia, along with executing several airstrikes on the hills of Kabana and Al-Haddadah frontline in Jabal Al-Akrad, as areas of Kabana, Al-Tuffahiya and Al-Haddadah also came under intensive artillery and rocket fire power by regime forces
16 August 2020 Saudi Mohammed bin Salman known for the Khashoggi assassination 'encouraged' Russia intervention in Syria since 2015: 16 August 2020: Saudi strongman Mohammed bin Salman 'encouraged' Russia intervention in Syria, turning his country’s foreign policy on its head and gave a covert green light for Russia’s intervention in Syria, according to a lawsuit by former top intelligence official Saad Aljabri filed in a federal court in Washington, also alleging that the abrupt switch of course by the man who is now Saudi Arabia’s crown prince alarmed the then CIA director John Brennan, who met Aljabri in July and August of 2015 to pass on a rebuke from the Obama administration
9 September 2020 Russian airstrikes continue: 9 September 2020: Russian airstrikes on Kabani hills in Jabal Al-Akrad in the northern countryside of Latakia, as Jabal Al-Zawiyah in the southern countryside of Idlib came under intensive rocket attacks by Assad regime forces - 9 September 2020: Assad regime forces continue shelling positions in Jabal Al-Zawiyah, while Russian reconnaissance drones fly over the area
11 September 2020 Russian airstrikes on areas between Idlib city and Sheikh Yousef village: 11 September 2020: SOHR monitored Russian jets flying this morning over Idlib province, along with executing two airstrikes on the area between Idlib city and Sheikh Yousef village, as a civilian died affected by his injuries he had a few days in Assad regime rocket fire on Ariha area in southern Idlib, as regime ground forces fired several rockets on Al-Ruwayha and Bayanin village in Jabal Al-Zawiyah in the southern countryside of Idlib, coinciding with flights by Russian reconnaissance drones over the area
15 September 2020 Russian airstrikes targeting Idlib province: 15 September 2020: Squadron of six Russian jets executed nearly 15 airstrikes this morning, targeting north-western Idlib province, as Russian jets are still flying over the area, as Assad regime forces renewed their bombardment targeting southern Idlib, as reconnaissance drones were seen flying over the area, and as Russian airstrikes leaving casualties, according to SOHR
21 October 2020 Russian airstrikes on Al-Rami village in Jabal Al-Zawiyah: 21 October 2020: Russian jets strike positions in Jabal Al-Zawiyah for the second day, as targeted village of Al-Rami hosts large number of refugees and displaced people - 21 October 2020: SOHR documented the injury of six civilians, including women and two children, in today’s airstrikes by Russian fighter jets on Al-Rami village in Jabal Al-Zawiyah in the southern countryside of Idlib - 21 October 2020: Opposition factions repel regime attack on Fulayfel, south of Idlib
26 October 2020 more deadly Russian airstrikes north-west of Idlib: 26 October 2020: Russian airstrikes on a rebel camp in northwestern Syria on Monday killed more than 50 fighters and wounded nearly as many, according to Syrian opposition and war monitor SOHR, reporting that death toll of the Russian airstrikes continues to rise, with 56 fighters killed and over 100 injured so far in Russian airstrikes on camp of al-Sham Corps close to Turkey, north-west of Idlib, as SOHR monitored more and renewed Russian airstrikes on the 'de-escalation zone' in the area of Jabal al-Dawila north-west of Idlib, and as the targeted area hosts camps for displaced people
7 November 2020 more Russian airstrikes on southern Idlib: 7 November 2020: SOHR monitored the flight of Russian jets over Idlib, along with executing nearly seven airstrikes on Shenan, Freka, Sarja, and Bayanin in Jabal Al-Zawiyah in the southern countryside of Idlib, 12 days after Al-Dwaylah massacre - 7 November 2020: Russian fighter jets flying over Jabal Al-Zawiyah in southern Idlib, executing further airstrikes on the region, bringing the number of airstrikes since morning to 13
10 November 2020 more Russian airstrikes on northern Syria: 10 November 2020: SOHR activists say that Russian airstrikes on Idlib province rose to five, targeting the outskirts of the towns of Benin and Shenan in Jabal al-Zawiya in the southern countryside of Idlib
13 November 2020 more Russian airstrikes on northern Syria and Assad regime attacks: 13 November 2020: SOHR has monitored Russian fighter jets executing airstrikes on Jabal al-Zawiya in the southern Idlib countryside, coinciding with intensive shelling by the Assad regime forces with rocket-propelled grenades on the villages and towns of southern Idlib countryside
28 December 2020 more Russian airstrikes on northern Syria: 28 December 2020: SOHR has monitored Russian jets executing airstrikes on Kabana frontlines in Jabal al-Akrad in Latakia province, coinciding with the flight of four Russian fighter jets over the area of 'Putin-Erdogan', as SOHR also monitored Assad regime forces shelling of areas in southern and eastern Idlib countryside, as Russian reconnaissance drones fly over the region
9 January 2021 more Russian airstrikes on northern Syria for first time in 2021: 9 January 2021: SOHR monitored this morning Russian jets flying Jabal al-Akrad in northern countryside of Latakia, executing airstrikes on Kabana frontlines, for first time in 2021, also monitoring rocket attack by Assad regime forces on Idlib countryside, also targeting five towns in southern Idlib
6 March 2021 Russian warships and Assad attack oil market and oil refineries: 6 March 2021: After attacks with surface-to-surface missiles fired by Russian warships and Assad regime forces stationed in military barracks in Aleppo on an oil market and oil refineries in Tarhin and Al-Hamaran in areas under the control of Turkish forces and their proxy factions, nearly 30 people killed and wounded, while fire brigades still extinguishing blazes - 6 March 2021: Assad regime forces renew shelling areas in Idlib and Hama and rocket attacks targeting positions in Kansafrah, Al-Faterah, the surrounding areas of Al-Bara, Bayanin and Al-Ruwayha in southern Idlib, as Russian reconnaissance drones were seen flying over the 'de-escalation zone'
21 March 2021 many Syrians killed and wounded in rocket attack on Al-Atareb hospital and airstrikes: 21 March 2021: Many people killed and wounded in Assad regime rocket attack on Al-Atareb hospital in the western countryside of Aleppo, as victims include a child and a medic in the hospital, as the death toll is expected to rise further, and as the bombardment left civilians and medics injured, some seriously, after yesterday SOHR sources reported two Russian airstrikes on the bushes of Bayanin village in Jabal Al-Zawiyah in southern Idlib, also on Bakfala village in the northern countryside of Jisr Al-Shughur with vacuum missiles
10 June 2021 Russian airstrikes: 10 June 2021: 15 Russian airstrikes and Assad regime 150 rocket fire caused eight killed and wounded people including a civilian and her kid in southern Idlib, as SOHR activists have reported death of at least 8 fighters by regime forces in southern Idlib countryside, and as rocket fire has targeted a civilian car in Ibleen, and as some factions fighters who have arrived to the site of attack have been also targeted by another rocket causing casualties, and as Russian airstrikes targeted areas in eastern Idlib countryside, with jets still hovering over the region - 10 June 2021: Deaths rise to 10 including three civilians amid large wave of displacement in Jabal al-Zawiyah
5 August 2021 Russian airstrikes: 5 August 2021: Russian warplanes have bombarded areas around al-Barah town, nearby the Turkish military post in the neighborhood, as on the other hand, regime forces have bombarded Tiqad town in western Aleppo countryside - 5 August 2021: Russian jets target Idlib and Hama countryside with five airstrikes, while regime forces renew shelling positions in Sahl al-Ghab
20-22 August 2021 Russian airstrikes: 20 August 2021: Russian warplane targeted with six raids posts of the factions in Ain Shaib area in Idlib countryside for the second day on row - 21 August 2021: In renewed airstrike Russian jets attack positions in the 'de-escalation zone', bringing the number of airstrikes since early August to 41 - 21 August 2021: 15 children and one woman among 18 civilians killed in 11 days, amid military escalation by Russian and regime forces, as SOHR documented the death of a little girl affected by the injury she had in yesterday’s bombardment by regime forces on Kafr Nuran town, as the girl’s little brothers had been also injured in that bombardment, as the kids were visiting their father’s grave - 22 August 2021: SOHR that Russian fighter jets have executed several airstrikes with high-explosive missiles on the outskirts of Kansafra, Mar’yan and al-Mawzarah towns in the southern countryside of Idlib, as airstrikes coincided with frequent flights by Russian reconnaissance drones, and as Assad regime forces shelled, with heavy artillery, the villages of Kherbet al-Naqous, al-Sarmaniya, Qulaydeen, al-Qaherah, al-Ankawi, al-Daqmaq and al-Zaqoum in Sahl al-Ghab in the north-western countryside of Hama
19 September 2021 Russian airstrikes: 19 September 2021: SOHR reported flights by Russian reconnaissance drones over south Idlib countryside, west Hama countryside and south Aleppo countryside, as Assad regime forces fired several rockets on the villages of al-Fterah, Fulayfil, al-Bara and Kansafra in Jabal al-Zawiyah in southern Idlib, also targeting Sheikh Suleiman frontline in the western countryside of Aleppo with mortars and heavy machineguns - 19 September 2021: Assad regime rocket attacks on Jisr al-Shughur kill child, with ongoing intensive Russian airstrikes on 'de-escalation zone' - 19 September 2021: Russian jets attack positions in south of M4 highway, amid ongoing inaction by Turkey - 19 September 2021: Russian jets target more areas in 'de-escalation zone', bringing the number of today’s airstrikes to 17
25 September 2021 continuing Russian airstrikes: 25 September 2021: Russian jets attack positions in eastern Idlib in ongoing airstrikes, as a kamikaze drone, believed to be Russian, attacked the outskirts of al-Bara and Jabal al-Zawiyah in southern Idlib - 25 September 2021: Russian fighter jets renew targeting positions in 'de-escalation zone'

Since 2011 Iranian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people perpetuating Assad's dictatorship - Casualties of Assad's war against the Syrian people - List of Iranian assassinations - Torture and mistreatment of prisoners in Iran
Since 2013 timeline of increasing Iranian involvement in Assad's war and expansionism: With increasing Iranian involvement in Assad's war against the Syrian people from 2011 onwards, the Iranian regime's struggle against Israel, its declared aim to dissolve the Jewish state and the resulting Iran–Israel conflict shifted from a proxy war into a direct confrontation by early 2018 - Iranian regime's expansionism and Iran–Israel proxy conflict
November 2015 Iran recruiting Afghan refugees to fight and support Assad's regime: 5 November 2015: Iran is recruiting Afghan refugees to fight in the foreign military contingent supporting Assad's regime in Syria, promising a monthly salary and residence permits
January 2016 increased Iranian intervention: 27 January 2016: Syrian children protest against Iranian intervention, increased since Rouhani came to office
June 2016: 30 June 2016: Iranian regime covertly recruits Afghan soldiers to fight in Syria and to support the Assad regime
August 2018 war critic jailed: 27 August 2018: Ex-mayor of Tehran Karbaschi sentenced to year in jail for panning Iran’s actions in Syria, telling rally in Isfahan in 2017 there must be better way to help Syrians than by 'killing and pounding'
January 2019 Iran says 'fully ready and impatient' to eliminate Israel 'from the Earth': 21 January 2019: As Iranian regime's general Aziz Nasirzadeh, saying 'fully ready and impatient to confront the Zionist regime and eliminate it from the Earth', uses Syrian territory for Iranian crimes, Israeli military strikes Iranian targets inside Syria
July 2019 Iranian expansionism: 1 July 2019: Iranian militias are continuing to expand their influence in the southern and eastern Aleppo countrysides, and are purchasing land and property around their bases after blocking their owners from accessing them
7/8 September 2019 Iranian oil supplies to Assad: 7 September 2019: Iranian regime's oil tanker Adrian Darya 1 appears near Tartus naval base in Syria - 8 September 2019: Iran says tanker last seen off coast of Syria has reached its destination, and oil has been sold
9 September 2019 Iran-backed rockets at Israel: 9 September 2019: Iran-backed militia in Syria, operating under the command of Iran’s Quds Force, fired several rockets toward northern Israel in the predawn hours of Monday morning
10 September 2019 Iranian regime breaches assurances: 10 September 2019: UK's Foreign Office accuses Iranian regime of selling oil from seized tanker to Syria's Assad, saying regime breaching assurances with sale to 'Assad’s murderous regime’
3 October 2019 Adrian Darya 1: 3 October 2019: Satellite images show that once-detained Iranian-flagged oil tanker Adrian Darya 1 sitting off the coast of Syria has been approached by a smaller Iranian tanker, with mooring lines between them and a crane deployed on the larger vessel
8 December 2020 Iran's Rohani urges Assad to confront Israel 'until liberation of all occupied lands': 8 December 2020: Iran's Rohani urges Assad to confront Israel 'until liberation of all occupied lands', saying his country will continue to 'support' Syria

8 January 2020 Ukrainian UIA flight 752 passenger plane shot down by Iranian regime's terrorist organization with two Russian-made missiles shortly after takeoff from Tehran Khomeini airport in Iran - 8 January 2020: Ukrainian passenger plane Boeing 737-800 soon after taking off from Tehran crashed, killing all 176 citizens from Afghanistan, Canada, Iran, Sweden, Ukraine and United Kingdom on board - 9 January 2020: Canada's PM Justin Trudeau said that Canadian officials have intelligence from their own sources and Canada's allies that shows Ukraine International Airlines flight 752 was shot down by an Iranian surface to air missile - 9 January 2020: Iran shot down plane with two Russian-made missiles, USA official says
9 January 2020 Bellingcat geolocates footage of apparent Iranian missile strike on UIA flight PS752 to Tehran suburb: 9 January 2020: Bellingcat geolocates footage of apparent missile strike on UIA flight PS752 to Tehran suburb
11 January 2020 Iranian and Russian crimes and 'certainty': 11 January 2020: After the supporting and MH17 experienced Russian Putin regime pushed back against Bellingcat and intelligence assesments that Iran shot down the plane with a Russian made surface-to-air missile, after telling the world 'with certainty' that a missile had not caused the crash, but knowing 'with certainty' all facts of its crime, not closing the country’s main international airport and its airspace, Ukraine president now demands punishment and compensation after Iranian regime admitted downing the plane and killing all 176 people on board, as Iranians protest against regime in Tehran, calling for 'supreme leader' to resign, saying 'down with dictator', as anger mounts over government’s conduct, as angry civilians are using social media to express their outrage, and as police said to use force to quell protests
14 January 2020 Iran arrests person who filmed the footage showing Ukrainian passenger plane being shot down: 14 January 2020: Iranian regime arrested the person who filmed the footage showing a Ukrainian passenger plane being shot down by a missile, said to be detained on charges related to 'national security', and in reality destroyed by the Iranian Khamenei, Rouhani, Zarif Mullah regime
15 January 2020 new video footage showing two Iranian missiles killing all 176 passengers and crew: 15 January 2020: New video footage has emerged showing two Iranian missiles tearing through the night sky and hitting a Ukrainian passenger plane, sending the aircraft down in flames and killing all 176 passengers and crew on board
15/16 December 2020 Iran's probe into downing of airliner has major flaws Canada report says: 15 December 2020: Iran is not conducting its investigation into the downing of a civilian airliner in January properly - 16 décembre 2020: Un rapport indépendant canadien sur le crash d’un Boeing ukrainien, abattu en janvier au-dessus de Téhéran, estime mardi que l’Iran ne devrait pas être autorisé à 'enquêter sur lui-même' et appelle à changer les règles de l’aviation civile en la matière
7 January 2021 no justice for victims of downed plane but families harassed, intimidated by Iranian regime: 7 January 2021: Iranian authorities have failed to conduct a transparent and credible investigation into the shooting down of Ukraine International Airline flight 752 on 8 January 2020, which killed all 176 passengers and crew onboard, Human Rights Watch said today

Terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in the Syrian Civil War - Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon - Hezbollah serves a strategic arm of Iran in Syria and Lebanon
Since 2011 terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in Assad's war: Since 2011 terrorist group Hezbollah's involvement in the Syrian Civil War has been substantial, and turned into active support and troops deployment since 2012 in support of the Assad regime forces across Syria
Since 2011 timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces: Daily updated timeline of war crimes in Syria committed by Assad, Iranian, Hezbollah and Russian forces since 2011
February 2019: 9 February 2019: Russian regime’s ambassador in Lebanon Zasypkin hails country’s Iranian-backed Hezbollah terror group for fighting alongside Russia in Syria, also saying USA policies toward Iran could set off a fresh war between Israel and Lebanon
15 September 2020 UN peacekeepers rescued refugees mostly Syrians from a boat off the Lebanese coast as one passenger had already passed away: 15 September 2020: A UN peacekeeping force rescued 36 people, mostly Syrians, and recovered the body of a passenger from a boat off the Lebanese coast on Monday, according to the UN refugee agency, as the destination of the boat was not immediately clear, but Lebanon and neighboring Cyprus have reported several migrant vessels trying to leave the Middle Eastern country in recent weeks
15 September 2020 USA's Pompeo warns France over Iran-backed Hezbollah's weaponry: 15 September 2020: USA Secretary of State warned France that efforts to resolve the crisis in Lebanon would be in vain without immediately tackling the issue of Iran-backed Hezbollah's weaponry, after French president said Hezbollah's elected arm has a legitimate political role, as Pompeo added that the USA 'has assumed its responsibility and we will stop Iran buying Chinese tanks and Russian air defence systems and then selling weapons to Hezbollah'

2 February 2018: North Korea has supplied weapons to Syria since 2012, including more than 40 shipments between 2012 and 2017 to Syria’s 'Scientific Studies and Research Centre', which oversees the country’s chemical weapons programme, according to a report by independent UN monitors - 4 August 2018: North Korea is cooperating militarily with Syria, has been trying to sell weapons to Yemen’s Houthis, and has not stopped its nuclear and missile programs in violation of UN sanctions continuing to defy Security Council resolutions through a massive increase in illicit ship-to-ship transfers of petroleum products, as well as through transfers of coal at sea during 2018, according to a UN report

Since January 2018 Turkish military intervention in Syria
January 2018 Turkish aerial bombardment targeting Afrin: 21 January 2018: SOHR documented the death of 6 citizens including a child under the age of 8, because of the aerial bombardment by the Turkish warplanes, which targeted today areas in Afrin city and its countryside, as Turkey bring more military reinforcements amid continued aerial and missile shelling on the area, and as UN officials underscore the obligation on all parties to the conflict in Syria and the international community, to protect civilians from atrocity crimes, as dozens of people in eastern Ghouta and Idlib province have been killed in recent airstrikes, and schools and hospitals are being deliberately destroyed by the Assad regime and its allies
Since 9 October 2019 Turkey's Rojava offensive, an ongoing military operation conducted by the Turkish Armed Forces against areas under the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, commonly called Rojava - Turkish military action against the Syrian Democratic Forces and 2019 military intervention - International reactions to the 2019 Rojava offensive and reactions in Syria and Turkey
Since 9 October 2019 Turkish regime attacks Kurds in Syria: 9 October 2019: Turkey vows to press ahead with attack on Kurdish-led forces in Syria, as Kurds claim border is already being shelled, and Turkish regime says it will not be 'controlled by threats’ by the USA - 9 October 2019: Turkish troops advance into Syria as Trump washes his hands of the Kurds, as video footage shows civilians fleeing towns and as observers said at least seven civilians had been killed so far
10 October 2019: 10 October 2019: Turkish offensive triggers exodus of aid workers from Syria - 10 October 2019: Despite the intense ground shelling, Turkish forces fail to achieve any advancement east Euphrates and continue their shelling on Tal Abyad and Ras Al-Ayn
11 October 2019 civilian casualties of Turkey’s aggression: 11 October 2019: At least 11 civilians have died and dozens of fighters from the Kurdish-led SDF and Turkish invaders have been killed, reports say, as tens of thousands of people have fled their homes, amid growing international criticism of the offensive
11/12 October 2019 Erdogan's war crimes: 11 October 2019: Erdogan's bloodied clothes, body bags and corpse parts of innocent civilians in Syria - 12 October 2019: Kurdish civilians flee as Turkish forces bomb Syria for third day
13 October 2019 execution of Syrian civilians: 13 October 2019: Turkish proxies leading Erdogan's ground offensive on Kurdish towns in north-eastern Syria have executed nine civilians, including Kurdish politician Hevrin Khalaf and her driver, SOHR reported, as SDF said in a statement 'this is a clear evidence that the Turkish state is continuing its criminal policy towards unarmed civilians'
16 October 2019: 16 October 2019: Turkish military operation east Euphrates kills more than 70 civilians including many children so far and forces nearly 300 thousand people to displace from their areas - 16 October 2019: Video shows the moment the Turkish warplanes targeted a humanitarian support convoy in Ras al-Ayn 3 days ago, killing 19 people and injuring tens of others
16/17 October 2019: 16 October 2019: Turkish forces and their loyal factions carryout a new attack in Ras Al-Ayn city under a cover of heavy and violent aerial and ground bombardment - 17 octobre 2019: Les autorités kurdes en Syrie ont accusé jeudi la Turquie d'utiliser des armes non conventionnelles comme le napalm dans le nord de la Syrie - 17 October 2019: Humanitarian groups in northeastern Syria are scrambling to provide aid to hundreds of thousands of people, as rapidly shifting battle lines make it increasingly difficult to reach them, and as Save the Children says 'we have to leave', because Turkish onslaught displaces people, forcing them to flee to makeshift refugee camps
18 October 2019 Turkish war crimes: 18 octobre 2019: Les forces turques et leurs supplétifs ont commis des 'crimes de guerre' lors de leur offensive contre les forces kurdes en Syrie, selon Amnesty International, dénoncant des 'exécutions sommaires' et des attaques meurtrières contre des civils
18 October 2019 Turkish agression continues depite ceasefire agreement: 18 October 2019: Despite an announcement from the USA vice-president Mike Pence, that Turkish regime had agreed to a five-day ceasefire to allow the USA supervision of the withdrawal of Kurdish forces from the area, Turkish agression is continuing on the border between Syria and Turkey - 18 octobre 2019: Au moins cinq civils ont été tués vendredi dans le nord de la Syrie dans un raid aérien de la Turquie visant un village près de la localité frontalière de Ras al-Aïn
20 October 2019: 20 October 2019: Ras al-Ayn (Sari Kani) city under Turkish siege amid catastrophic humanitarian conditions, as 28 civilians lost their lives during the past 5 days in the city, as shelling and attacks by Erdogan-loyal factions continue, and as a new medical convoy is expected to enter and evacuate victims of Erdogan's agression - 20 October 2019: Turkish border guards kill a Syrian citizen as he tries to cross border from western countryside of Idlib
26 October 2019 Turkish war crimes: 26 October 2019: Calls for war crimes investigations into the conduct of militias used by Turkey in Syria are mounting after a spate of new videos depicting Ankara-linked fighters torturing Kurdish fighters and captives and mutilating dead bodies, after 170,000 Kurds have fled a battle zone along the Turkish border after a weeklong operation to push Kurds further into Syria - 26 October 2019: SOHR reveals medical reports confirming Turkey’s use of internationally prohibited weapons in northern Syria, calling on the international community to investigate and hold officials accountable
November 2019 IS terrorist group has exploited Turkey's incursion into Syria and Trump's drawdown of USA troops: 20 November 2019: Islamic State terrorist group has exploited Turkey's incursion into northeastern Syria and Trump's drawdown of USA troops from the region, according to a report by the Pentagon's Inspector General, adding that the group will now likely have the 'time and space' to target the West


Since 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
2014/2016 flight MH17 shootdown by Putin regime: 28 September 2016: Dutch-led joint investigation team including representatives from Australia, Malaysia, Ukraine, and Belgium states that there is 'irrefutable evidence' that a Russian Buk 9M38 missile downed the Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777 in 2014, killing all 298 people on board, also concluding that the Buk missile system was brought across the border from Russia and later transported back escorted by several other vehicles and by 'armed men in uniform', according to witnesses, photographs, video, damning intercepted telephone calls, radar data, forensic examinations, tests and reconstructions - Cause of MH17 crash
2016 Ukrainian casualties: 31 May 2016: 10,000 Ukrainians killed by Russian-terrorist forces, more than 20,000 have been wounded and 1.8 million forced to flee their homes over the past two years, according to Ukrainian Defence Council - Casualties of the Ukrainian crisis and the Russian military intervention
2014-2018 MH17 shot down by Russian army: 24 May 2018: Joint Investigation Team, comprising the authorities from Australia, Belgium, Malaysia, the Netherlands and Ukraine announces that the missile launcher used to shoot down flight MH17 in July 2014, killing 298 passengers and crew from 17 countries, was Russian army, specifically Russia's 53rd anti-Aircraft Brigade
May 2018 MH17 victims families' open letter to the Russian people: 22 May 2018: In an open letter to the Russian people families of the victims in downing of MH17 hold the Russian regime as ultimately responsible for the deaths of their family members, expressing confidence in the thoroughness and impartiality of the work conducted by the Joint Investigation Team, and condemning reports on MH17 coming out of the Russian regime and state media, asking 'do Russian people really want to live in a country where the truth has ceased to exist'
November 2018 Kerch Strait incident and Russian violations of international law: November 2018 Kerch Strait incident - 26 November 2018: Countries across the world and various politicians have reacted to Russia's attack on Ukrainian vessels in the Sea of Azov and called on Russia to stop violating international law - 28 November 2018: Following Russian regime’s seizure of three Ukrainian navy ships and crew, regime to deploy new missiles to annexed Crimea, as Ukraine president warns regime, saying 'I don’t want anyone to think this is fun and games. Ukraine is under threat of full-scale war with Russia' - 29 novembre 2018: La Russie bloque deux ports ukrainiens de la mer d'Azov
December 2018: 1 December 2018: Shooting of Ukraine's 'Berdyansk' boat by Russian regime most likely took place in international waters, as Ukrainian tug 'Yani Kapu' was intentionally rammed at least four times over a period of at least an hour, Bellingcat said - 1 December 2018: Russia must return Ukraine's sailors, vessels before administration consider rescheduled Trump-Putin summit, USA's Pompeo says - 2 décembre 2018: Poutine a affirmé que 'la guerre va continuer' dans l'est rebelle de l'Ukraine tant que les autorités ukrainiennes actuelles 'resteront au pouvoir'
19 June 2019 first trial of three Russian nationals and a Ukrainian suspect announced: 19 June 2019: Marking the beginning of the Dutch criminal proceedings, Dutch prosecutors say three Russian nationals and a Ukrainian will be tried on murder charges for their role in the 2014 downing of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 over eastern Ukraine, saying that evidence showed a direct line of military command between Ukrainian separatists and Russia's Putin regime, as suspects will be tried for murder in the case set to start in March 2020, according to Silene Fredriksz-Hoogzand, the mother of one of the 298 victims - 19 June 2019: Identifying the separatists linked to the downing of MH17 by Bellingcat Investigation Team
16 October 2019 Putin's victims in the sixth year: 16 October 2019: Russia's hybrid military forces on October 15 mounted 26 attacks on Ukrainian Army positions in Donbas, killing two Ukrainian soldiers and wounding another four, as one of the Ukrainian troops shot dead by a sniper was a young woman who joined army ranks after her father, also a Ukrainian military, was killed in Donbas hostilities back in 2015
17 October 2019: 17 October 2019: On October 16, Russian occupation forces violated the ceasefire 30 times in the Donbas war zone, killing one Ukrainian soldier and wounding another one
14 November 2019 MH17 investigators say phone calls show Ukraine rebels' ties to Russia: 14 November 2019: MH17 investigators say phone calls show Ukraine rebels' ties to Russian Putin regime, as intercepts suggest separatists sought guidance from Russia before jet was shot down
28 January 2020 at least one of the suspects in the MH17 downing probe ready to stand trial: 28 January 2020: At least one of the suspects in the MH17 downing probe is ready to stand trial, according to the District Court of The Hague, not disclosing the name of the suspect
9 March 2020 trial of Russians and one allied Ukrainian accused of murdering 298 people in MH17 case: 9 March 2020: The trial of three Russians and one Ukrainian accused of murdering 298 people in the shooting down of the MH17 aircraft over eastern Ukraine has begun in the Netherlands, as presiding judge Hendrik Steenhuis said 'the loss of so many lives and the manner in which they so abruptly ended is barely conceivable', and as murderous and coward Russian Putin regime has always denied any involvement in the shooting down of the plane
11 March 2020 several witnesses in MH17 case in ‘fear for their lives’ if their identities are revealed: 11 March 2020: Several witnesses in ‘fear for their lives’ if their identities are revealed, hearing into shooting down of airliner is told, as Dutch prosecutors have accused Russia of trying to sabotage the investigation into the downing of MH17 flight in Ukraine in 2014, saying this has cast 'a dark shadow' over the impending trial of four suspects Russians Sergey Dubinsky, Oleg Pulatov and Igor Girkin and Ukrainian Leonid Kharchenko
28 April 2020 key MH17 figure identified as senior FSB official Burlaka: 28 April 2020: Key 2014 MH17 shoot-down figure identified as senior Russia's FSB official Andrey Ivanovich Burlaka, who was in a crucial role supervising militant activities in Donbas and authorizing the flow of weapons across Ukrainian/Russian border, 'Bellingcat' investigation says
3 May 2020 journalists in Russian-occupied areas must be protected Ukraine says on World Press Freedom Day: 3 May 2020: Journalists in Russian-occupied areas must be protected, MFA Ukraine says on World Press Freedom Day
14 July 2020 three Ukrainian soldiers killed and another two wounded by Russia-led forces: 14 July 2020: Three Ukrainian soldiers were killed and another two were wounded as Russia-led forces mounted 18 attacks in eastern Ukraine on Monday 13 July, continuing since 2014
12 November 2020 violations of latest ceasefire agreement by Russia-led forces on 11 November also known as WWI 'Remembrance Day': 12 November 2020: Ukraine Command have reported 3 violations of the latest ceasefire agreement by Russia-controlled armed groups in the Donbas warzone on 11 November, also known as 'Remembrance Day' of World War I
1 April 2021 Lavrov threatens Ukraine could be 'destroyed' as Putin regime prepares Donbas escalation: 1 April 2021: Ukraine could be 'destroyed' in case of Donbas escalation, Russian regime's Lavrov threatens, as his statement comes amid regime's amassing troops and military hardware along Ukrainian border under the pretext of drills
11 April 2021 another Ukrainian soldier reportedly killed in artillery fire from Russia-backed troops: 11 April 2021: The Ukrainian military said a soldier was killed and another seriously wounded in artillery fire from Russia-backed separatists, violating the ceasefire ten times, as hostilities rose sharply in the east of the country where 27 Ukrainian soldiers have been killed this year, more than half the number who died in all of 2020, as attacks have intensified in recent weeks and Russia's Putin regime has built up troops along the Ukraine border
11 April 2021 voices of Russian indictees in the MH17 downing case, Dubinsky and Girkin, revealed: 11 April 2021: Dutch public broadcaster NOS has released transcripts of intercepted communications as part of the probe into the downing of MH17 passenger jet in the skies over Donbas in July 2014, as the tapes have captured, among others, the voices of the two indictees in the MH17 downing case, Sergei Dubinsky and Igor Girkin
7 June 2021 bitter week for families as evidence to be read in the murder trial: 7 June 2021 bitter week for families as evidence to be read in the murder trial in the Netherlands against four fugitive suspects accused of shooting down a Malaysian airliner over rebel-held eastern Ukraine in 2014, killing 298 people in 2014
6 September 2021 MH17 plane crash trial hears trauma of relatives demanding justice: 6 September 2021: The families of those killed in the downing of flight MH17 over Ukraine in 2014 have begun to testify at the trial of four suspects, as about 90 relatives will speak at the high-security court in Schiphol over the next three weeks, and as international investigators say the plane was shot down with a missile fired by pro-Russian rebels

Since February/March 2014 Russian regime's annexation of Crimea, after unmarked Russian soldiers began to take control of the Crimean Peninsula using a Russian naval base in Sevastopol, establishing checkpoints
September 2019 ECHR Russian Crimea annexation case: 11 September 2019: The Russian state directed and ran the 2014 military coup in Crimea, its subsequent annexation and is complicit in human rights abuses since 2014, Ukraine has told the European court of human rights
October 2019 UN report on the situation of human rights in Crimea: 15 October 2019: UN report on the situation of human rights in Crimea and the city of Sevastopol in Ukraine notes that Russian regime violates Geneva conventions by deliberately resettling people from mainland Russia to the Ukrainian Crimea in attempts to alter demographics in the area


February 2015 Houthi coup d'état and takeover - Since 2004 Houthi insurgency in Yemen, a sectarian military rebellion pitting Zaidi Shia Houthis against the Yemeni military that began in Northern Yemen and has since escalated into a full-scale civil war - Since 2015 Yemeni Civil War between factions claiming to constitute the Yemeni government following the Houthi coup d'état, along with their supporters and allies - Human rights violations during the Yemeni Civil War since 2015
Since 2009 Iranian regime's and Hezbollah's support for 'Houthis': Since 2009 Iranian regime's, Hezbollah's and North Korean financial and military support for 'Houthis'
Since February 2015 timeline of the Yemeni Civil War, human rights violations, cholera outbreak and famine: Since February 2015 timeline of the Yemeni Civil War and human rights violations - Since 2016 Yemen cholera outbreak - Since 2016 Famine in Yemen
January 2019 illegally shipped Iranian fuel financing Yemen Houthi rebels' war: 19 January 2019: Illegally shipped Iranian fuel financing Yemen Houthi rebels' war, UN report finds
June 2019 Houthi's war death toll nears 100,000: 20 June 2019: Human cost of Yemen war laid bare as the death toll nears 100,000, according to a report outlining the war’s impact on civilians as well as fighters as the researchers call for resolution to conflict
August 2019 Houthi's missile strike and bombings in Aden: 1 August 2019: Iran-aligned Houthis rebels launch missile strike on military parade in Aden and coordinated suicide bombings target a police station in another part of the city, killing at least 51 people and wounding dozens
September 2019 war crimes in Yemen: 3 September 2019: As panel lists 160 key actors in Yemen war who could face charges, UN report says Britain, France and the USA may be complicit in war crimes in Yemen by arming and providing support to a Saudi-led coalition that starves civilians as a war tactic
October 2019 Houthi's Yemen war caused 100,000 victims til today: 31 October 2019: The death toll in Yemen’s war started by Iranian backed Houthis since 2015 has reached 100,000, according to a highly regarded database project that tracks the conflict, saying 20,000 people killed this year and 12,000 civilians among total since 2015
16 February 2020 Yemen airstrikes kill 31 civilians: 16 February 2020: After Houthis 'have massively expanded their arsenal with the help of Iran and its proxy Hezbollah', today shooting down Saudi Tornado aircraft on Friday in northern Al-Jawf province during an operation to support government forces, Yemen airstrikes kill 31 civilians, proving everything is allowed since 1914 and 2013
19 February 2020 devices found in missiles and Yemen drones link Iran to attacks, Houthis block UN’s aid: 19 February 2020: Devices found in missiles and Yemen drones link Iran to attacks following UN reports, concerning drones that targeted the heart of Saudi Arabia's oil industry and those in the arsenal of Yemen's Houthis, recovered in downed Iranian drones in Afghanistan and Iraq - 19 February 2020: Yemen’s Houthis have blocked half of the UN’s aid delivery programs in the war-torn country, also trying to force the agency to give them greater control over the humanitarian campaign
17 March 2020 explosive-laden Iran-aligned Houthi boats destroyed: 17 March 2020: Saudi-led coalition in Yemen destroyed two explosive-laden boats launched and remotely-controlled by the Iran-aligned Houthi group from the province of Hodeidah
30 March 2020 Iran-aligned Houthis launched ballistic missiles towards Saudi Arabia: 30 March 2020: Yemen’s Iran-aligned Houthis launched ballistic missiles towards the Saudi Arabian capital, Riyadh, and southern areas near the Yemeni border on Saturday night
11 April 2020 Houthis sentenced 4 journalists to death: 11 April 2020: A court run by Yemen's Iran-backed Houthis sentenced 4 journalists to death, as the four were among a group of 10 journalists detained by the warmongering group and accused of 'collaborating with the enemy', and after rights group has called the charges 'trumped-up', saying the detained reporters were beaten, deprived of water and forced to hold cinder blocks for several hours
14 April 2020 fighting in Yemen escalated despite a ceasefire: 14 April 2020: Fighting in Yemen between Iran-backed Houthis and forces loyal to the exiled government has escalated, despite a ceasefire designed to help the war-torn country focus on containing the covid-19 pandemic, as coalition accuses Houthis of breaching unilateral truce 241 times in 48 hours
23 June 2020 Iran-backed Houthis attack deep in Saudi Arabia: 23 June 2020: Yemen's Houthis attack deep in Saudi Arabia, as Saudi-led coalition battling the Iran-backed group says it intercepted ballistic missile fired by the Houthis towards Riyadh
30 December 2020 Aden attack as blast rips through Yemen’s Aden airport targeting new cabinet members: On 30 December 2020 a plane carrying the newly formed Yemeni government landed at the Aden International Airport, as bombs exploded and gunmen opened fire, leaving at least 22 people dead, as Yemen’s Information Minister Moammar Al-Eryani blamed the attack on the Iran-backed Houthi rebels, adding that all the members of the government were safe - 30 December 2020: A large explosion struck the airport in the southern Yemeni city of Aden as a plane carrying the newly formed Cabinet landed there, as officials at the scene said they have seen bodies lying on the tarmac and elsewhere at the airport
11 January 2021 USA announced designation of Yemen’s Houthis as a terrorist organization: 11 January 2021: USA's Secretary of State Mike Pompeo says he plans to designate Yemen’s Houthis as a terrorist organization, increasing pressure on Iran, also saying the designation of the Iran-backed Houthis and three of the group’s leaders are meant to hold them accountable for acts such as 'cross-border attacks threatening civilian populations, infrastructure, and commercial shipping', as the designation will take effect 19 January a day before the inauguration of Joe Biden
1 February 2021 ten years after the Arab spring Yemen has little hope left: 1 February 2021: Ten years after the Arab spring, Yemen has little hope left, as - racked by war, cholera and now covid-19 - the country faces the world’s worst famine in decades
6 March dozens killed following Iran-backed Houthi attacks: 6 mars 2021: De violents combats ont tué au moins 90 combattants au cours des dernières vingt-quatre heures dans la région pétrolière stratégique de Marib, dans le nord du Yémen, que les rebelles houthis tentent d’arracher depuis un mois aux forces loyalistes, selon des sources militaires gouvernementales
16 March 2021 HRW reports fire at detention facility after Houthis fired missiles: 16 March 2021: The UN has called for an independent inquiry into a horrific fire at a detention facility in Yemen’s capital Sana’a that left dozens of Ethiopian migrants dead and more than 170 injured, as HRW said that the fire occurred after Houthi rebels fired missiles into the detention centre where the migrants were protesting over their cramped conditions
12 May 2021 6 years ago Houthis seized Yemen's capital and war continues: 12 May 2021: More than six years after Houthi rebels seized Yemen's capital and forced its government into exile, a bloody war still rages across the country, and despite a Saudi-led bombing campaign that has destroyed Yemeni infrastructure and crippled its economy, the Houthis remain in control of most of the country's population centres, as the Guardian's Middle East correspondent explains why a new Houthi offensive could heap more misery on the millions of civilians caught in the crossfire
20 September 2021 UN, USA, UK condemn Houthis’ execution of 9 Yemenis: 20 September 2021: UN, the USA and the UK on Sunday condemned the executions of nine Yemenis by the country’s Houthi rebels over allegations that they were involved in the killing of a senior Houthi official in an airstrike by the Saudi-led coalition more than three years ago, after Iranian-backed Houthis on Saturday publicity executed the nine by firing squad


Since 4 April 2019 military campaign by Haftar's 'Libyan National Army' to capture the western region of Libya (Western Libya Offensive)
February 2018 French Total and Russian Novatek signed contract with Lebanon for oil and gas disputed by Israel: 9 February 2018: Consortium comprising energy giants French Total, Italy's ENI, and Russian Novatek signed its first contract with Lebanon to drill for oil and gas off its coast, including in a block disputed by Israel, as Israel warns against 'provocative behavior'
4 April 2019 Libyan warlord Haftar orders troops to march on Tripoli: 4 April 2019: Libyan strongman Haftar orders troops to march on Tripoli - 6 April 2019: Threat of Tripoli fighting raises atrocity concerns, according to Human Rights Watch, saying Haftar's LNA has a well-documented record of indiscriminate attacks on civilians, summary executions of captured fighters, and arbitrary detention - 6 April 2019: French FM Le Drian, whose country has been criticized for supporting Libyan eastern warlord Khalifa Haftar, said rival factions in Libya needed to hold back and that Haftar should accept a UN-backed peace effort, amid beginning evacuations of international powers - 15 April 2019: Some foreign states unified by aim of Libyan instability, Libyan government spokesperson says
15/16 April 2019 civilian casualties, displacement to increase due to continued use of air strikes and heavy artillery, UN says: 15 April 2019: Civilian casualties and displacement expected to increase in Libya due to continued use of air strikes and heavy artillery, UN report says - 16 April 2019: Libya’s UN backed government of National Accord has made a call for political dialogue with eastern commander Khalifa Haftar, also calling for an end to the fighting
16-25 April 2019 at least 174 people killed and 758 wounded, including civilians: 16 avril 2019: Au moins 174 personnes ont été tuées et 758 blessées, dont des civils, depuis le lancement d'une offensive de Khalifa Haftar pour conquérir Tripoli, selon OMS - 17 April 2019: Nearly 180 people have died as a result of warlord Haftar’s assault on Tripoli, with at least four civilians killed in aerial bombardment on the Libyan capital overnight, as residents protest and government denounces attacks as barbaric, saying evidence will be passed to ICC - 25 April 2019: Young refugees held in the Qasr bin Ghashir detention centre in Libya have described being shot at indiscriminately by warlord Haftar's militias advancing on Tripoli, in an attack that reportedly left at least two people dead and up to 20 injured
3 July 2019 airstrike on migrant detention centre: 3 July 2019: An airstrike hit a detention center for migrants early Wednesday in the Libyan capital, killing at least 40 people, according to a health official in Libya's UN-supported government, blaming warlord Haftar for the airstrike, which destroyed centre holding mainly African migrants, as thousands of migrants from African countries are locked in dozens of facilities in Libya - 3 July 2019: Tripoli attack, apparently carried out by forces loyal to the warlord Khalifa Haftar, 'clearly could constitute a war crime, as it killed by surprise innocent people whose dire conditions forced them to be in that shelter', according to UN envoy Ghassan Salamé
10 July 2019 France admits Haftar military support: 10 July 2019: France admits it is owner of missiles found on Libyan rebel base used for Haftar's assault on Tripoli
13 July 2019: 13 July 2019: ICC Prosecutor initiates legal procedures in the airstrike of the immigration centre in Tajoura
5/7 August 2019 another murderous airstrike by French-backed Haftar: 5 août 2019: Au moins 42 civils ont été tués dans une frappe aérienne contre une ville du sud de la Libye, selon Ibrahim Omar, membre du conseil municipal de Morzouk, en accusant les forces de Khalifa Haftar, en ajoutant qu'un bâtiment gouvernemental où étaient réunies plus de 200 personnes, des notables et doyens de la ville pour régler des différends sociaux, a été visé par trois frappes, et en affirmant que les bombardements ont aussi fait plus de 60 blessés dont 30 dans un état grave - 7 August 2019: Libya’s FM demands ICC investigate Murzuq massacre
16 August 2019 UNSMIL deplores attacks on airports: 16 August 2019: UNSMIL deplores the ever-increasing and systemic attacks on airports in western Libya, including Zuwara and Mitiga, endangering the lives of thousands of civilian travelers, including UN staff and humanitarian workers, as Mitiga airport is the only functioning airport near Tripoli available for use by hundreds of thousands of civilians and for the delivery of humanitarian assistance
17 August 2019 Haftar's torture and executions: 17 August 2019: 12 prisoners of war, showing signs of torture and abuses, have been executed by Khalifa Haftar’s infamous Al-Kaniyat militia group after their detention in different frontlines in southern Tripoli, as two other civilians abducted by the same group in Qarabulli town east of Tripoli had the same fate, according to ministry
7 September 2019 billion dollar fund financing Libyan warlord Haftar: 7 September 2019: Inside the billion dollar fund financing Libyan warlord Haftar, who has the military backing of the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Egypt, and the political and military support of Russia and France in his five-year quest to conquer the vast oil-rich country of Libya
13 September 2019 Russian technicians support Haftar: 13 September 2019: Russian technicians are supporting Khalifa Haftar's forces by repairing its Soviet-supplied armoured fighting vehicles and artillery
26 September 2019 Khalifa Haftar’s war on Tripoli supported by France, the UAE and Egypt, Al-Sarraj told UN General Assembly: 26 September 2019: Khalifa Haftar’s war on Tripoli was encouraged by France, the UAE and Egypt, Libya's Al-Sarraj told UN General Assembly, saying the three foreign countries are interfering in Libya’s internal affairs and provided military and financial support for war criminal Haftar to launch his offensive, adding 'we condemn the three countries’ support to Haftar which constitute a flagrant violation of Security Council resolutions'
6 November 2019 airstrikes and Russian mercenaries: 6 November 2019: 2 Libyan policemen were killed in an air strike on a police station in the suburbs of Tripoli, the Government of National Accord said - 6 November 2019: 3 people were killed Tuesday in Libya in an airstrike carried out by forces loyal to Khalifa Haftar - 6 November 2019: After Ukraine and Syria, Russian regime turns its attention to Libya's proxy war - 6 November 2019: In the last six weeks, about 200 Russian fighters, including experienced snipers, have arrived in Libya as part of a broad campaign by the Putin regime to reassert its influence across the Middle East and Africa, the New York Times reports
18 November 2019 workers in Libyan capital killed in airstrike by Haftar’s forces: 18 November 2019: At least ten workers were killed and 35 wounded in an airstrike by Khalifa Haftar’s forces on Monday that hit a biscuit factory in Libya's Wadi Rabea, 21 km from the centre of Tripoli, called a possible war crime by the UN, as Egypt, France and the UAE are among the countries accused of sending weapons to Haftar, and as the majority of those killed in the strike were apparently migrants while two were Libyans
November 2019 'Libya is ground zero for drone wars': 27 November 2019: 'Libya is ground zero for drone wars', according to Drone Wars research group's Chris Cole, saying 'a complex network of countries are involved and nobody is precisely sure who is doing what', after warlord Haftar launched his bloody offensive in April - 30 November 2019: UAE-backed drone strike kills entire family in south Libya, as Media Centre has confirmed the killing of a whole family including children, in addition to two migrant workers in an air raid conducted by an UAE-backed drone of Haftar
9/10 December 2019 Libya arms embargo systematically violated by UN states: 9 December 2019: Libya arms embargo being systematically violated by UN states, as Jordan, Turkey and UAE singled out for 'routinely and blatantly’ supplying weapons, and as report will not identify the country responsible for a particularly egregious air assault on the Tajoura refugee detention centre in July but will make it clear the attack used weapons available only to a foreign power - 10 December 2019: Libya GNA warns from Haftar’s possible entry to Tripoli with Russian support
23/24 December 2019 Egypt, Russia, UAE, and France's support for warlord Haftar: 23 December 2019: Detained pro-Haftar pilot reveals new details about Egypt, Russia, UAE, and France's support, saying Russian Wagner Group mercenaries depend on Tarhouna operations room with air-defense and electronic warfare systems, where a group of French experts working on logistical support, surveillance and wiretapping - 24 December 2019: Mercenaries flock to Libya raising fears of prolonged war, as hundreds of fighters from Sudan are joining anti-government Libyan National Army
1 January 2020 Haftar’s forces kill three civilians in airstrikes in Tripoli’s suburbs: 1 January 2020: Haftar’s forces kill three civilians in new airstrikes on a civilian area in Tripoli’s suburbs, the UN-backed government’s forces said in a statement
3 January 2020 Haftar airstrikes: 3 January 2020: Flights were suspended at the only functioning airport in Libya’s capital Tripoli due to rocket fire and shelling, officials said, as Haftar’s forces admitted on Friday they had carried out air strikes in several locations, including south of the city of Sirte
4/5 January 2020 suspected Haftar airstrike kills dozens: 4/5 January 2020: An airstrike, that slammed into a military academy in Tripoli's Hadaba area just south of the city center, killed at least 30 people, most of them students, also wounding at least 33 others, as Libyan government blamed the airstrike on Haftar's armed forces and as France, Russia, Egypt, the UAE and others countries support Haftar
6 January 2020 urging UN to be more active, Turkey sends troops and electronic warfare tools as warlord Haftar enter city of Sirte: 6 January 2020: Turkey sends troops and electronic warfare tools to Libya in challenge to rogue general Haftar and UAE, after the first contingent of armed forces had already arrived in Libya to help the UN brokered-government in the country thwart the 9-month aggression by Haftar - 6 January 2020: Forces loyal to east Libyan warlord Haftar enter city of Sirte - 6 January 2020: Turkey urges UN to be more active in Libya amid Haftar offensive
7 January 2020 steep rise in civilians killed or injured in Libya by explosive weaponry and airstrikes: 7 January 2020: Civilians killed or injured in Libya by explosive weapons rose by 131% last year, with the number of incidents at its highest since 2011, the year of the Benghazi uprising, according to new data seen by the Guardian, as most of the 900 people who died or were hurt in explosions in the country in 2019 were victims of airstrikes - 7 January 2020: Several Libyan political parties have expressed concern about the upcoming visit of European foreign ministers to Tripoli, saying 'it is far too late', voicing their rejection to the 'political hypocrisy' of European countries by not rejecting aggression and military coups
8 January 2020 Haftar's new illegal air strikes: 8 January 2020: Haftar's forces said they carried out air strikes on Wednesday on a coastal road west of Sirte - 8 January 2020: Haftar's forces clash with government forces near Sirte
10 January 2020 3 Turkish soldiers killed in Libya as Haftar’s forces advance on Misrata: 10 January 2020: Three Turkish soldiers killed in Libya as Haftar’s forces advance on Misrata - 10 January 2020: Libya's Haftar rejects Russia-Turkey ceasefire plan after huge advances
26 January 2020 UN decried 'continued blatant violations' of arms embargo on war-torn Libya: 26 January 2020: UN decried 'continued blatant violations' by several countries of an arms embargo on war-torn Libya, flying in the face of recent pledges made last week at an international conference in Berlin, as UN support mission in Libya regrettably didn't name any specific nations, only saying they included 'several who participated in the Berlin Conference', after warlord Khalifa Haftar received support for his aggression since April from Egypt, France, Russia and the UAE
26 January 2020 Haftar’s forces shell civilian areas in Tripoli as UN condemns repeated ceasefire breaches in Libya: 26 January 2020: UN condemns repeated ceasefire breaches in Libya as Haftar’s forces shell civilian areas in Tripoli
28 January 2020 children killed and injured as Haftar targeted a school compound in Tripoli: 28 January 2020: Several children were killed and injured as forces loyal to warlord Khalifa Haftar targeted a school compound in the capital Tripoli, according to the UN-recognized government - 28 January 2020: Libya GNA forces recapture Misrata town from Haftar forces
28 January 2020 world powers will be complicit in the collapse of the rule of law in Libya: 28 January 2020: World powers will be complicit in the collapse of the rule of law in Libya if they do not do more to call out the countries backing those responsible for disrupting the country’s oil exports, according to Libyan national oil corporation's Mustafa Sanalla, saying too many western powers were happy to let the countries meddling in Libya sign non-intervention agreements that they had no intention of honouring, adding 'we need not just words but action from UN security council members, particularly the UK, US and France'
29 January 2020 Haftar’s shelling on Tripoli residential areas kills children: 29 January 2020: Haftar’s shelling on Tripoli residential areas kills three children and injures two others, hit as they were on the way to school, according to local official, amid Haftar's daily violations of the Berlin 'ceasefire'
30 January 2020 Libya’s GNA forces shoot down a Russian surveillance drone over Tripoli: 30 January 2020: Libya’s GNA forces shoot down a Russian surveillance drone over Tripoli
5 February 2020 2 civilians killed and 5 others injurd by Haftar’s forces: 5 February 2020: 2 civilians killed and 5 others injurd in renewed attacks by Haftar’s forces on southern Tripoli - 5 February 2020: Ordinary people continue to suffer the brunt of fighting in and around Libya’s capital Tripoli including the murder of children, despite international commitments, UN's OCHA says, estimating 900,000 people will need humanitarian assistance in Libya, as internal displacement surged by 80% in 2019 due to conflict, with 343,000 people now displaced caused by Haftar
6 February 2020 Haftar militias strike University of Tripoli: 6 February 2020: Haftar militias strike University of Tripoli, threatening the faculties of agriculture and pharmacy, as bomb squad defused projectile
12 February 2020 support for Haftar by Russia etc. continues as his forces block UN flights in and out of Libya: 12 February 2020: Despite promises given in Berlin by many countries including European in January, flow of foreign arms continues to fuel Libya’s war, as there were no sanctions to compel respect for a UN arms embargo nor were the violators, including Russian regime, UAE and France, shamed for their role in the conflict, the Washington Post reports - 12 February 2020: Haftar forces block UN flights in and out of Libya
14 February 2020 Russia conscripting Syrian men to fight on their behalf in Libya: 14 February 2020: Russia has been conscripting Syrian men to fight on their behalf in Libya, tempting them with large salaries writes Baladi News - 14 February 2020: Fierce battles near Tripoli - 14 February 2020: Libya's GNA demands UN call Haftar to account for cease-fire violations
16 February 2020 'arms embargo has become a joke', UN's Stephanie Williams says: 16 February 2020: At Berlin Conference on Libya January 2020 reaffirmed 'arms embargo has become a joke', and the country’s financial position is deteriorating rapidly, UN's Stephanie Williams told a news conference in Munich, monitoring unscrupulous violations by land, sea and air by the main perpetrators since April 2019, including Haftar's militias, Russia, Egypt, France, UAE, and Saudi-Arabia, without any accountability
26 February 2020 Haftar’s criminal militias continue to target Tripoli neighborhoods with artillery and rockets: 26 February 2020: Haftar’s criminal militias continue to target Tripoli neighborhoods with artillery and rockets, as sources on the ground confirm the killing of one person, noting injury to at least two others in the Hadba area - 26 February 2020: Past three months of Russian involvement in Libya suggest that the Putin regime is unable to tip the balance decisively there as it did in Syria, and worse, that Russian regime and allies either don’t know it or don’t want to know
27 February 2020 shelling stops flights at Tripoli's Mitiga airport: 27 February 2020: Shelling on Thursday morning forced a suspension of flights at Mitiga, the only functioning airport in Libya’s capital Tripoli, after airport has come under fire repeatedly during attempts by warlord Haftar to take the capital
29 February 2020 despite so-called truce Haftar's bombardment of Libya’s capital Tripoli: 29 February 2020: Haftar's bombardment of Libya’s capital Tripoli intensified on Friday, residents said, forcing the evacuation of some patients from a hospital near the capital’s only functioning airport, despite truce
2 March 2020 Syrian dictator Assad joins forces with Libya's murderous warlord Haftar, also supported by France and Russian regime: 2 March 2020: Syrian dictator Assad joins forces with Libya's warlord Haftar, also backed by the Russian regime, and his aggession against UN backed government and to seize Tripoli - 2 March 2020: 1 child killed in Haftar militia attack, curbing hopes for peace in war-torn Libya
13 March 2020 UN too scared to stop breaches of arms ban to stop warlord Haftar: 13 March 2020: UN too scared to stop breaches of arms ban, says Libyan minister Fathi Bashagha, vowing to step up fight to end assault by Khalifa Haftar’s forces
19 March 2020 Haftar rockets kill 3 children, 5 women killed and 5 others wounded near Tripoli: 19 March 2020: Haftar rockets kill 3 children in Libya’s Tripoli despite cease-fire deal - 19 March 2020: Five women were killed and five others were wounded, including a child, when their houses were shelled near Libya's capital Tripoli, a health official with the UN-recognized government said
23 March 2020 Haftar’s forces kill 4 civilians in renewed attacks on areas near Tripoli’s airport: 23 March 2020: Haftar’s forces kill 4 civilians in renewed attacks on areas near Tripoli’s Mitiga Airport - 23 March 2020: Renewed bombardments were reported in Libya on Monday after a pause in fighting that followed the main combatants agreeing to a ceasefire because of the coronavirus epidemic
24 March 2020 workers killed in raid by Haftar militias: 24 March 2020: 2 expatriate workers have been killed and a citizen wounded in a raid by Khalifa Haftar militias, on the outskirts of Mitiga International Airport in Tripoli - 24 March 2020: Heavy bombings by warlord Haftar have killed aat least five civilians in the capital of Libya
24 March 2020 EU seems unconcerned by northern African battleground and dictators: 24 March 2020: Europe seems unconcerned by the chaos smouldering on its doorstep in northern Africa, as five-year-old conflict Libya supported by EU countries becomes world’s main theatre of drone combat, and as most recent ally of Khalifa Haftar, the warlord who has been attacking the Libyan capital Tripoli since April last year, is Syrian dictator Bashar al-Assad, now indirectly supported also by France
25 March 2020 intense bombardment shook Tripoli: 25 March 2020: An intense bombardment shook Tripoli through the night and a new battle erupted at airbase, hours after Libya reported its first case of coronavirus and despite UN calls for ceasefires around the world during the epidemic, as residents of the Libyan capital, seat of GNA government, said the shelling was the worst in weeks
2 April 2020 Haftar forces kill 2 civilians in Tripoli: 2 April 2020: Haftar forces kill 2 civilians in Libya’s Tripoli, GNA urges halt of arming militias - 2 April 2020: Libya’s FM protests EU’s softness on arms flow to warlord Haftar
9 April 2020 Haftar's militias target field hospital in Tajoura: 9 April 2020: Haftar's militias target field hospital in Tajoura
10 April 2020 Haftar forces attacked Tripoli hospital for 3rd time: 10 April 2020: Haftar forces attacked Tripoli hospital dedicated to the treatment of covid-19 patients for 3rd time, also killing one civilian and injuring six others in a rocket attack - 10 April 2020: 'Catastrophic situation in Tripoli after Haftar’s forces cut water supplies’, GNA says
16 April 2020 children and woman killed and wounded by Haftar: 16 April 2020: A woman and a child were killed and another five children were wounded by attacks and artillery shelling of several neighborhoods in Tripoli by warlord Haftar's forces seeking to capture the capital, a UN-backed government's spokesman says, despite UN calls for a cease-fire since April 2019
17 April 2020 Haftar' forces killed a doctor during an attack on Tripoli: 17 April 2020: Haftar' forces killed a doctor during an attack on southern Tripoli Friday
18 April 2020 Haftar steps up attack on Tripoli: 18 April 2020: Haftar steps up attack on Tripoli, causing civilian casualties, after suffering losses west of the city - 18 April 2020: Libyan Air Force strikes Hafta'r militias in Al-Wattia Military Base
23 April 2020 shelling and covid-19 create 'perfect storm’ in Libya: 23 April 2020: Intensifying shelling and covid-19 pandemic create 'perfect storm’ in Libya, UN's Stephanie Turco Williams warns
24 April 2020 civilians killed in attack by Haftar's forces, covid-19 cases: 24 April 2020: 3 civilians killed in attack by warlord Haftar’s forces, and 3 also injured in rocket attack on a civilian settlement in the Ain Zara region in southern Tripoli - 24 April 2020: A second death and another positive covid-19 case announced, bringing Libya’s total to two deaths and 60 positive cases
12 May 2020 Haftar attacks Tripoli airport amid ongoing deadly crisis: 12 May 2020: Shelling of Tripoli's airport hit fuel tanks and damaged passenger planes after Haftar forces fired rockets into Tripoli - 12 May 2020: Russia-trained Syrian fighters reportedly to join Haftar forces in Libya, as UN once again calls on the international community to push for a ceasefire in Libya - 12 May 2020: Turkish FM spokesman said Greece, Cyprus, Egypt, France and the UAE were pursuing 'regional chaos and instability' in the eastern Mediterranean and sacrificing Libyans’ 'hope for democracy for the reckless aggression of dictators'
17 May 2020 Haftar attacks shelter for displaced people killing many: 17 May 2020: Bombs hit a shelter for displaced people in Libya’s capital Tripoli, killing at least seven people including a 5-year-old child from Bangladesh, also wounding many others in the latest attack on civilians by Haftar backed by Egypt, France, Russia, UAE and other Arab countries - 17 May 2020: Since hosting a Libya summit four months ago, the German government has approved arms exports worth €331 million to countries accused of supporting warring parties in the country, according a report from the German Economy Ministry
5 June 2020 blow to warlord Haftar, UAE's Khalifa, Egypt's el-Sisi, Russian regime's Putin, and France's Macron: 5 June 2020: In a blow to warlord Haftar, UAE's Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Egypt's el-Sisi, Russian regime's Putin, and France's Macron, UN-backed Libyan forces oust renegade general from Tripoli after his 14-month siege of the south of the city, now ending in failure when his forces retreated from the south of the city toward his heartlands in the south and the east of the country, as UN-recognised government's interior minister Bashagha hailed 'the beginning of the end of the entire dictatorship project', urging cities under Haftar’s control to rise up against him and spare themselves further conflict, amid remaining uncertainty that the extent of Haftar’s retreat may depend on the point at which newly arrived Russian fighter jets intervene to shore up his lines of defence
26 June 2020 end of Tripoli siege raises fears of full-scale proxy war in Libya: 26 June 2020: End of Tripoli siege raises fears of full-scale proxy war in Libya, as diplomatic efforts intensify to avert Cairo’s entry into Libya’s nine-year civil war amid wider tensions and escalate tensions between some of the Middle East’s most implacable foes including Egypt, the UAE, France, Russia, and on the other side Qatar and Turkey
4 September 2020 UN report accuses Russia of supporting Wagner Group in Libya: 4 September 2020: UN report accuses Russia of supporting Wagner Group in Libya, revealing that Russia has reinforced its logistical support for private military firm the Wagner Group in Libya with some 338 cargo flights from Syria in the nine months to 31 July - 4 September 2020: Libyan warlord Khalifa Haftar faces legal action in USA for alleged war crimes, challenged in Virginia by relatives of military leader’s alleged victims




Civilian casualties occurs in a general sense, when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, or criminals such as terrorists and bank robbers, under the law of war, civilian casualties are civilians who perished or suffered wounds as a result of wartime acts - War casualties
Civilian casualty ratio is the ratio of civilian casualties to combatant casualties or total casualties in armed conflicts, list of war since World War I, statistics and estimations - The so-called collateral damage is a term for deaths, injuries, or other damage inflicted on an unintended target
War casualties by war - War casualties by nationality
August 1914 German destruction and sacking of Kalisz: August 1914 destruction and sacking of the city of Kalisz by German Empire troops at the beginning of World War I, also known as the Pogrom of Kalisz or Poland’s Louvain, a part of German 'Schrecklichkeit' atrocities
Since August 1914 German troops executed civilians in Europe: Since August 1914 German troops burned homes and executed civilians throughout eastern and central Belgium, including Aarschot (156 dead), Andenne (211 dead), Tamines (383 dead), and Dinant (674 dead), as the victims included men, women, and children - German terrorism called 'Schrecklichkeit', the basis of German actions during their march through Belgium in 1914, followed later in France, the Russian-held area of Poland, and in Russia
Since 1914/1915 German bombing and invasion of Warsaw: After aerial bombing of the city of Warsaw in 1914 with airships, German army's invasion of Warsaw since 1 August 1915
April 1937 bombing of Guernica: 26 April 1937 bombing of Guernica, an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica by Nazi German Luftwaffe's Condor Legion and the Fascist Italian Aviazione Legionaria, causing hundreds of civilian casualties
1 September 1939 bombing of Wielun: 1 September 1939 bombing of Wielun comprised air raids on the Polish town of Wielun by Germany's Luftwaffe, that destroyed at least 70% of the town's buildings (as much as 90%, in the city center), causing hundreds of civilian casualties according to historian Norman Davies, described as the first war crime committed by Germany in World War II
September 1939 German bombing of Frampol, practicing skills to kill: September 1939 bombing of Frampol occurred during the German invasion of Poland in 1939, when the town of Frampol, without military value, but with a population of 4,000 people was bombed by German bombers under General von Richthofen on 13 September as a practice run for future missions and as German fighter pilots trained strafing techniques on refugees who were trying to flee from the city
div>Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw: Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the aerial bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939, it also may refer to German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, as during the course of the war approximately 84% of the city was destroyed due to German mass bombings, heavy artillery fire and a planned demolition campaign
Since 2015 Russian bombing campaign in Syria: Since 2015 Russian bombing campaign in Syria, civilian casualties and war crimes - Since September 2015 Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign - Russian war crimes in Syria
February 2016 Russia committing war crimes by deliberately bombing civilians and aid workers: 21 February 2016: Russia committing war crimes by deliberately bombing civilians and aid workers, rights group says
2017 - January 2018 civilian casualties global survey: 8 January 2018: In a jump of 42% in a year, more than 15,000 civilians were killed by explosive weapons in 2017, a rise driven by airstrikes, which killed almost double the number of civilians in 2017 compared with the previous year, according to a global survey seen by the Guardian, also saying that the worst impacted countries were Syria, where civilian deaths increased by 55% to 8,051, Iraq, where there was a 50% increase, to 3,271, and Afghanistan, where 994 non-combatants died
30 August 2018 about 8,000 civilians killed by the Russian strikes in 35 months: 30 August 2018: About 8,000 civilians including 3,123 children and woman are among more than 18,000 people killed by the Russian strikes in 35 months of military operations in Syria, according to SOHR, as in seven years, the casualties of Russian and Iranian backed war have grown from the first handful of protesters shot by Assad's forces to hundreds of thousands of dead
31 August 2018 Poland lost more than 5 million citizens, including 90% of Poland's Jewish population in WWII: 31 August 2018: Poland says it lost more than 5 million citizens, including 90% of Poland's Jewish population, and over $54 billion dollars worth of assets under the Nazi German occupation of the country during World War II
July 2019 Russia and Assad regime step up murderous airstrikes against civilians: 22 July 2019: Russia and Assad regime step up murderous airstrikes against civilians in Idlib province, as Syrian Coalition urges international community to stop bombing of civilians amounting to war crimes and international crimes
August 2019 433 civilians killed across Syria in July: 5 August 2019: SNHR said that it registered the names of 433 civilians who were killed across Syria in July, mostly in the ongoing onslaught the Assad regime and Russia launched against Idlib and rural Hama
30 August 2019 Syrian towns and villages have been razed to the ground: 30 August 2019: 'Entire towns and villages have been razed to the ground' in northwestern Syria, according to satellite imagery presented by UN's Mark Lowcock in his briefing to the UN Security Council, saying that 'there can be no reason, rationale, excuse or justification for the destruction of civilian areas on the scale seen in Idleb today'
24 December 2019 at least 8 Syrians, including 5 children, killed by Russia's murder gang: 24 December 2019: At least 8 people, including 5 children, were killed Tuesday in Russian air strikes on a school in northwest Syria's Jubas village at the outskirts of Saraqib east of Idlib sheltering displaced civilians, according to SOHR
11 January 2020 at least 18 civilians, including 6 children, murdered in Idlib province, as German chancellor visits Putin: 11 janvier 2020: Parmi les 18 civils tués samedi dans des frappes du régime syrien sur la province d'Idleb, trois enfants ont été tués à Benniche, deux à Al-Nayrab et un à Idleb, selon l'OSDH
14 July 2020 escalating Russian airstrikes on northern Syria: 14 July 2020: Russian jets step up airstrikes on Kabana, while other airstrikes hit southern Idlib, amid aerial attacks escalation - 14 July 2020: Russian jets renew shelling Jabal Al-Zawiya, and over 20 air raids hit 'de-escalation zone' today, as SOHR documented the death of a civilian in a rocket attack by Assad regime forces on Ariha - 14 July 2020: More Russian air raids hit 'de-escalation zone' and man and his child killed in ground shelling on Ariha
10 November 2020 more Russian airstrikes on northern Syria: 10 November 2020: SOHR activists say that Russian airstrikes on Idlib province rose to five, targeting the outskirts of the towns of Benin and Shenan in Jabal al-Zawiya in the southern countryside of Idlib
3 July 2021 Russian airstrikes on northern Syria tied with Assad's bombardments: 3 July 2021: SOHR documented 4 strikes by a Russian fighter jet on Sheikh Youssef area on the western outskirts of Idlib city, as the Russian airstrikes coincided with flight by another Russian jet over the 'de-escalation zone' - 3 July 2021: Nearly 25 civilians, mostly children, killed and injured in Assad regime bombardment on southern Idlib

Attacks on humanitarian workers and hospitals - Medical Neutrality refers to a principle of noninterference with medical services in times of armed conflict - Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war - Duty to rescue
Since 2011 PHR documenting assaults on Syrian health care: Since 2011 Physicians for Human Rights researchers begin documenting assaults on Syrian health care workers and infrastructure, creating an interactive map of attacks and revealing Assad regime’s systemic targeting of hospitals and health workers - Physicians for Human Rights website and interactive map of illegal attacks on Syrian health care
March 2015: 11 March 2015: More than 600 medical workers have been killed in Syria’s civil war in deliberate and indiscriminate attacks, most of them by Assad's forces, international rights group Physicians for Human Rights announced, saying it had documented 233 attacks on 183 medical facilities across Syria since March 2011
Since September/October 2015 Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign: Since September/October 2015 Russian–Syrian hospital bombing campaign - 29 September 2016: Syria hospital attacks are 'war crimes', UN's Ban Ki-moon says
Since September/October 2015: 29 October 2015: The escalation of attacks by Russia’s air forces, which began in late September, had targeted 12 hospitals in Idlib, Aleppo and Hama provinces, including six supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, a MSF statement says - 2 November 2015: 'Doctors Without Borders' is urging the permanent member states of the UN Security Council to comply with the responsibility to protect mandate to stop the escalating aerial massacres in Syria as quickly as possible
1 December 2015: A hospital supported by Médecins Sans Frontières in Homs partially destroyed in a 'double-tap' barrel bombing, killing seven people including a young girl and wounding many, latest in apparent escalation of strikes on medical facilities by Russian and Assad terror warplanes - 2 December 2015: Doctors Without Borders reported two barrel bombing attacks against one of their hospitals in Zafarana in Syria’s Homs Province, which left at least 7 people dead and 47 others wounded, including 23 women and children under the age of 15
2016: 9 February 2016: An airstrike hit Tafas field hospital, some 12 km from the Jordanian border in southern Syria, that is supported by Médecins Sans Frontières, killing three people including a nurse and wounding six - 15 février 2016: Un hôpital à Hadiyé dans la région de Maaret al-Noomane, lié à MSF, a été bombardé, neuf personnes, dont un enfant, ont été tuées lors de frappes de l'aviation, vraisemblablement russe - 18 February 2016: Hospitals in opposition-held parts of Syria are refusing to share GPS coordinates with Russian and Syrian authorities because of repeated attacks on medical facilities and workers, Médecins Sans Frontières and humanitarian workers on the ground say - 23 February: Survivors of MSF Hospital targeted by warplanes in Maarat al-Nouman recount their stories - 9 May 2016: Attacks on hospitals and medical facilities by the regime and Russian forces continue unabated, as Assad’s jets on Sunday bombed a hospital in Kafrnaha in rural Aleppo which is supported by Doctors Without Borders destroying three ambulances and causing damage to the hospital building
June 2016: 1 June 2016: Hospitals are now normal targets of war, Médecins Sans Frontières' Michiel Hofman says, describing permanent members of the UN security council as complicit in killings, after Russia blamed for new strikes which targeted two hospitals and other parts of Idlib city, killing scores
July 2016: 24 juillet 2016: Des bombardements aériens, menés par la Syrie et la Russie, ont touchés les établissements dans les quartiers est de la ville, assiégés depuis le 17 juillet par le régime - 24 July 2016: Four makeshift hospitals and a local blood bank in Syria's battered Aleppo city have been hit by regime air raids in the past 24 hours, including the children's hospital in a besieged eastern neighbourhood, where the bombardment killed a two-day-old baby, according to a group of doctors - 26 July 2016: Russian warplanes fired vacuum missiles and cluster bombs at residential neighborhoods, hitting Atareb's main hospital and medicine stores and wounding 45 more people - 29 July 2016: An airstrike has hit a maternity hospital in a rebel-held area of Idlib province supported by Save the Children, killing two people and injuring several others including a woman, who was six months pregnant and who lost her leg, and several babies, when their incubators crashed to the floor in the attack - 31 July 2016: Four new-born babies reportedly killed after a recent triple airstrike, which aid workers said came from Syrian government warplanes, hit besieged Aleppo’s last children’s hospital run by a group of Syrian doctors, the Independent Doctors’ Association, and backed by the charity Unicef - 31 July 2016: It rose to 9 (including 3 citizens, a child, a pharmaceutical and the deputy director of Jassem hospital) the number of people who were killed when the warplanes bombed areas of Jassem in the countryside of Daraa, where one of the raids targeted the town’s hospital area, as the Syrian Center for Policy Research puts the death toll from the six-year Assad war against Syrians at more than 470,000 people
August 2016: 8 August 2016: Hospital supported by Doctors Without Borders in rebel-held northern province of Idlib that specialized in pediatrics hit by series of airstrikes in broad daylight, leaving four staff and five children dead and injuring six other hospital staff members - 11 August 2016: Facing an attack on a medical facility every 17 hours, 15 of the last 35 doctors in rebel-held eastern Aleppo have written a letter to USA's Obama with an urgent plea for intervention to stop the bombardment of hospitals in the besieged city by the Russian-backed Syrian air force, saying 'we do not need tears or sympathy or even prayers, we desperately need a zone free from bombing over eastern Aleppo to stop the attacks', as some doctors refused to sign the letter because they had no wish to make any more appeals to the west - 13 August 2016: Russian jets destroy pediatric and maternity hospital in Kafar Hamra in Aleppo province - 17 August 2016: Russian fighter jets destroy hospital in Daret Izza, rural Aleppo
2017: 16 February 2017: The Assad regime and Russian forces were behind airstrikes that hit two hospitals in northeastern Syria in February 2016, according to an investigation initiated by Doctors Without Borders, also saying that 25 people, including an MSF staff member, were killed and 11 others wounded in the attack - 1 April 2017: Airstrikes hit a hospital supported by medical aid group in Latamnah in Hama province last week, killing two people, with evidence chemical weapons were used, Medecins Sans Frontieres said - 22 September 2017: At least four hospitals were targeted by Assad regime and Russian strikes as warplanes conducted more than 105 raids within a 24-hour period, deliberately attacking medical facilities in northern Hama and southern Idleb province
January 2018: 4 January 2018: Russian jets on Tuesday bombed Hasan al-A'araj Hospital in the town of Ma'arat al-Nu'man in rural Idlib, destroying large parts of the hospital and putting the facility out of service - 8 January 2018: SNHR says that as many as 112 medical personnel and civil defense workers were killed in Syria in 2017, 51 of whom were killed in attacks by the Assad regime and 23 others in Russian airstrikes
March 2018: 26 March 2018: The United Nations has come under fire for sharing the coordinates of hospitals in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta with Russia, only for one of them to be bombed days later, according to 'The Telegraph' - 26 March 2018: Syrian Coalition's Mohammed Yahya Maktabi said that the mass forced displacement taking place in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta is a 'war crime' as he condemned Russian’s major role in these crimes, adding that regime forces, the Iranian militias, and Russian air force are killing civilians, targeting popular markets, residential areas and public facilities and bombing hospitals, medical centers, and rescue workers - 27 March 2018: As more than half million people killed in seven years of brutal ground and aerial bombing by the Assad regime and its allies, and as Syrian children have taken the biggest share in the horrible death toll, the unstoppable roar of Russia's warplanes has caused a heart attack for Lojain Said, taking the life of the schoolgirl who lived in the northwestern town of Jisr al-Shughour, the Civil Defense rescue group says
April 2018: 2 April 2018: Russian forces have targeted a medical center in rural Idlib province as the province has become home to about two million people, half of whom were forcibly displaced by the Assad regime and its Russian and Iranian allies
May 2018: 2 May 2018: Strikes of warplanes destroy the building of Kafr Zita Hospital in the northern countryside of Hama and leave casualties
August 2018: 20 août 2018: L'humanitaire, activité de plus en plus risquée, selon le centre de recherches indépendant Humanitarian Outcomes
October 2018: 16 October 2018: Boko Haram terrorists in Nigeria have killed medical aid worker Hauwa Mohammed Liman, who worked in Red Cross-supported hospital and was held hostage since March
April 2019: 30 April 2019: The intensifying airstrikes by the Russian air force knocked out two hospitals in the town of Latamina in northern rural Hama in the past 24 hours, local activists said
May 2019: 6 May 2019: Aerial bombardment by the Assad regime and Russian forces targeting large areas of the provinces of Idlib and Hama knocked out four hospitals on Sunday, killing a nurse and a civilian in one of these hospitals - 7 May 2019: Assad regime forces and Russia bombarding 12 medical sites over 10 days in the Hama and Idlib provinces in central and northern Syria, according to SNHR
June 2019: 2 June 2019: Dozens of prominent doctors have called for urgent action to halt the bombing campaign by Syrian and Russian planes that has targeted more than 20 hospitals in Syria’s north-west, putting many out of action and leaving millions of people without proper healthcare, after coordinates for many of those hit had been shared with the regime and its Russian backers by the UN
1 July 2019: 1 July 2019: Russian Donbas invaders opened fire at a medical evacuation vehicle of the Joint Forces which was transporting a wounded soldier in Ukraine, killing one serviceman and injuring two
12 July 2019: 12 July 2019: After UN had shared the coordinates of the hospital in Maarat al Numan with the warring parties, airstrikes against hospitals in northwest Syria, including an ambulance center, a clinic and two hospitals in Maarat al Numan, were strongly condemned by UN Secretary-General, who supported Assad's regime
August 2019: 15 August 2019: Russian double tap airstrike kills Civil Defense volunteer while trying to rescue a civilian near the village of Basika on Wednesday, after the Assad regime and Russian air forces bombed at least 29 healthcare facilities in the provinces of Idlib and Hama, causing dozens of civilian casualties - 16 August 2019: Russian airstrikes targeted an ambulance center in the town of Ma’aret Hurmeh in Idlib province, killing 3 medical workers 'as they were trying to rescue civilians wounded in the ongoing aerial bombardment', according to the Syrian American Medical Society, as at least seven people were killed in attacks on Idlib, according to SOHR
13 October 2019 proof that Russian warplanes bombed four Syrian hospitals in May: 13 October 2019: Extensive evidence gathered and analyzed over months by USA newspaper proves that Russian warplanes bombed four Syrian hospitals in the span of 12 hours in May as part of Putin regime’s effort to keep Syria's Bashar Assad in power, saying 'recklessly or intentionally bombing hospitals is a war crime, but proving culpability amid a complex civil war is extremely difficult'
10 November 2019 Turkish airstrike on Kurdish medics: 10 November 2019: Kurdish medics hit by shrapnel and injured in an attack on ambulance on its way to rescue people wounded in a Turkish airstrike, in the latest of what Kurdish groups say is a pattern of attacks against medical staff in north-eastern Syria, as ambulance with red markings indicating it was a medical vehicle was heading to villages north of the town of Tal Tamr
25 November 2019 Russian warplanes bombard a hospital in Jabal Al-Zawiya: 25 November 2019: Russian warplanes bombard a hospital in Jabal Al-Zawiya, as more than 80 raids and barrel bombs target Idlib countryside
5 December 2019 UN report predicts 'bleak outlook' for the world due to armed conflicts and climate emergency: 5 December 2019: Attacks on healthcare workers have reached a record high according to UN’s global humanitarian overview 2020 report, that predicts a 'bleak outlook' for the world’s poorest people due to intense armed conflict and the climate emergency, as the number of highly violent conflicts has risen to 41, from 36 in 2018, causing deaths, injuries, significant displacement and hunger, and as compliance with international law is declining, while attacks against aid and health workers in areas hit by conflict are putting 'millions of people at risk' by denying them care and aid
26 January 2020 Russian jets target Al-Eman Hospital in Serjeh area south of Idlib, Libyan warlord Haftar: 26 January 2020: Russian jets execute raids targeting Al-Eman Hospital in Serjeh area in Jabal Al-Zawiya south of Idlib, also targeting Maarrat Al-Nu’man city and other areas west of Aleppo - 26 January 2020: Libyan warlord Haftar's militias have targeted a cafe near 'Al-Safwa' hospital in Al-Hadaba district, wounding two of the hospital's staff, one of them was reported to be in a critical condition
8 February 2020 Russian jets knock out last two hospitals in western rural Aleppo: 18 February 2020: Russian jets knock out last two hospitals in western rural Aleppo
24 February 2020 Putin inspired Gaza rocket struck playground, kindergarten and health clinic in Sderot: 24 February 2020: Gaza rockets fired at Israel's south, linked to Russian and Iran-backed Assad regime, as violence erupts after morning lull, as rocket struck an empty playground and a kindergarten in the southern town of Sderot, sending rocket fragments smashing through walls, windows and furniture inside, and as more rockets are fired at southern Israel from the Gaza Strip, also targeting a health clinic in Sderot, 'Times of Israel' reports
18 March 2020 hospitals and doctors in Yemen targeted at least 120 times by warring parties: 18 March 2020: Hospitals and doctors in Yemen have been targeted at least 120 times by the conflict’s warring parties, according to a report that gives the most comprehensive analysis to date of the devastating effect of war on the country’s healthcare system
6/7 April 2020 UN accuses Assad regime 'and/or its allies' of attacks on healthcare facilities: 6 April 2020: UN investigation found it 'highly probable' that the Syrian Assad regime or its allies were responsible for attacks on four civilian facilities in the last opposition stronghold in the northwest in 2019 - a school, a health care center, a hospital and a child care facility -, also saying it is 'plausible' that an attack on a second health center was also carried out by the Assad regime or its allies - 7 April 2020: UN inquiry stops short of directly blaming Russia over Idlib attacks, as report says 'government of Syria and/or its allies’ carried out strikes on hospitals and school
11 May 2020 Assad and Russian regime's 2019-2020 attacks on medical facilities and schools: 11 May 2020: December 2019 - March 2020 Syrian Assad regime backed by its ally Russia, subjected civilians in opposition-held areas in north-west Syria to a new wave of horrors attacking from the air and the ground repeatedly residential areas and crucial infrastructure, and the international community, including the UN Security Council, once again remained largely paralysed, according to rights group, documenting many attacks on medical facilities and schools that killed civilians, healthcare workers, teachers and children
21 March 2021 many Syrians killed and wounded in rocket attack on Al-Atareb hospital and airstrikes: 21 March 2021: Many people killed and wounded in Assad regime rocket attack on Al-Atareb hospital in the western countryside of Aleppo, as victims include a child and a medic in the hospital, as the death toll is expected to rise further, and as the bombardment left civilians and medics injured, some seriously, after yesterday SOHR sources reported two Russian airstrikes on the bushes of Bayanin village in Jabal Al-Zawiyah in southern Idlib, also on Bakfala village in the northern countryside of Jisr Al-Shughur with vacuum missiles

Economic warfare, involving the use of measures (e.g. blockade) of which the primary effect is to weaken the economy of another state - Commerce raiding, a form of naval warfare used to destroy or disrupt logistics of the enemy on the open sea by attacking its merchant shipping, rather than engaging its combatants or enforcing a blockade against them - International maritime incidents, including shipwrecks by war, ship bombings, ships sunk by aircraft, submarines and mines

Economic terrorism or financial terrorism - contrary to 'economic warfare' which is undertaken by states against other states, 'economic terrorism' would be undertaken by transnational or non-state actors
May 2019 Gulf of Oman attacks on commercial ships: 12 May 2019 Gulf of Oman incident resulted in damage to 4 commercial ships near the port of Fujairah in the Gulf of Oman - 13 May 2019: The hull of a Norwegian-registered product tanker was damaged by an unknown object off the cost of the UAE port of Fujairah on Sunday - 13 May 2019: Saudi Arabia said that two of its oil tankers had been damaged in mysterious 'sabotage attacks' in the Gulf, as USA's Pompeo rushed to Brussels to hold emergency talks with his European partners about the mounting tensions in the region including the alleged attacks on the oil tankers and the status of the threat posed by Iran
14 May 2019 East–West Pipeline attack claimed by Houthis: 14 May 2019 East–West Pipeline attack was a Houthi drone attack that targeted the Saudi East–West Crude Oil Pipeline
15-17 May 2019: 15 May 2019: Saudi Arabia, the world’s top crude exporter, said that attacks on two of its tankers and a major pipeline targeted the security of global oil supplies - 17 mai 2019: Les attaques de drones en Arabie Saoudite ont mis en lumière une arme redoutable qui préoccupe tous les pays
June 2019 oil tanker attacks near Hormuz attributed to Iran: 13 June 2019 Gulf of Oman incident, in which two oil tankers were attacked near the Strait of Hormuz - 13 June 2019: Two oil tankers were hit in suspected attacks in the Gulf of Oman, shipping firms and industry sources said, sending oil prices as much as 4% higher a month after four other tankers were damaged by limpet mines in the region - 14 June 2019: After USA military issues video showing Iranian forces interfering with vessel and removing an unexploded limpet mine from one of the ships, Iranian regime’s foreign minister accused the USA, Israel and Saudi Arabia of a plot to 'sabotage diplomacy' and appeared to insinuate that those countries were behind the assaults - 14 June 2019: UK joins USA in accusing Iranian regime of tanker attacks as crew of the Norwegian-owned 'Front Altair' held by regime - 15 June 2019: USA's unmanned aircraft spotted Iranian regime's boats approaching ships hours before they were hit in alleged attack, USA official says - 17 June 2019: New images link Iran to oil tanker attacks, USA military says
20 June 2019 Iranian shoot-down of USA drone: 20 June 2019 Iranian shoot-down of USA Global Hawk surveillance drone with a 3rd-of-Khordad surface-to-air missile near the Strait of Hormuz - 21 June 2019: Major airlines from around the world avoid strait of Hormuz after Iranian strike on USA drone
June/July 2019 strikes and attacks attributed to Iran: 1 July 2019: Yossi Cohen, the head of the Mossad intelligence service, declared unequivocally that Iran was responsible for a series of strikes on oil facilities and ships in the Persian Gulf in recent months, as well as an attack on the Bahraini embassy in Baghdad last week
10/11 July 2019 Iran unsuccessfully tried to seize UK tanker: 11 July 2019: Britain confirms Iran unsuccessfully tried to seize UK tanker in the strait of Hormuz
21 July 2019 Iranian regime captured Swedish/British 'Stena Impero': 21 July 2019: A recording has emerged of Iranian coastguards telling a British Royal Navy frigate they want to inspect the captured Swedish/British Stena Impero for security reasons, as radio exchanges make no reference to a previous Iranian suggestion that the British-flagged oil tanker had been stopped due to an accident with a fishing vessel, a previous explanation given by Tehran regime for the capture of the ship
4 August 2019 Iran captured 'foreign vessel': 4 August 2019: In the regime’s third such seizure in a month, Iranian naval forces have captured a 'foreign vessel' in the Gulf, arresting 7 crew members and saying vessel was bringing 'smuggled fuel' to Arab Gulf states
17 August 2019 Shaybah attack: 17 August 2019 Shaybah attack was a suicide drone attack by the Houthis against Saudi Arabian oil and gas fields in the remote town of Shaybah
7 September 2019 Iranian regime captured foreign vessel: 7 September 2019: Iranian regime has seized a vessel for allegedly smuggling fuel in the Gulf and detained its 12 crew members from the Philippines
Since 14 September 2019 Iranian Abqaiq-Khurais attack on Saudi oil facilities, claimed by Houthis: 14 September 2019 Abqaiq-Khurais attack, a drone attack that targeted the Saudi Aramco oil factories in eastern Saudi Arabia - 14 September 2019: After previous attacks by Yemen’s Houthis and amid tensions between Iranian regime and USA, Iranian-backed Houthis claim attack on oil processing facility in Saudi Arabia and a major oilfield operated by Saudi Aramco, causing major fire at world's largest oil refinery crucial to global energy supplies
15 September 2019: 15 September 2019: USA secretary of state Pompeo accuses Iran of 'unprecedented attack’ on Saudi oil facilities, saying there is no evidence the attacks came from Yemen, as global supplies of oil are likely to suffer a 'major jolt' following Saturday’s attack by a swarm of explosive drones on the world’s biggest oil processing plant
16 September 2019 Iran seizes UAE vessel: 16 September 2019: Iran 'seizes UAE vessel' in Gulf amid Saudi oil attack standoff
16 September 2019 Iran reportedly fired cruise missiles and drones: 16 September 2019: Iran fired dozens of cruise missiles and drones in the Saturday attack on Saudi oil facilities, according to senior USA officials, saying that satellite imagery and other intelligence showed the strike was inconsistent with one launched from Yemen, where Iranian-backed Houthi rebels had claimed responsibility
18-23 September 2019 attacks on oil plants originated in Iran: 18 September 2019: USA points at Iranian regime for unprecedented strike on Saudi oil plants, saying the strikes originated in southwestern Iran and involved cruise missiles and drones, as Saudi too says will show evidence, Iranian weapons - 23 September 2019: Britain has concluded that Iran was responsible for attacks on oil facilities in Saudi Arabia, as government considers taking part in a USA-led military effort to bolster the Gulf kingdom’s defenses - 23 September 2019: Captured UK tanker Stena Impero believed to be still in Iranian waters
25 February 2020 Haftar and allies aiming to starve UN-backed government of crucial revenues: 25 February 2020: Financial losses over the blockade of Libya’s vital oil fields and ports have rapidly swelled, surpassing $2 billion on Tuesday, NOC said, as oil supplies have become a major point of conflict between rival governments in the war-torn country, after Libya’s eastern-based warlord Haftar forces seized large export terminals and choked off major pipelines last month, aiming to starve the UN-backed government of crucial revenues
3 February 2021 jailed academic as reprisal for seized Iranian ship Grace 1 pulls off daring escape back to Britain: 3 February 2021: British Iranian social anthropologist and father of four-year-old child, sentenced to 9 years and 3 months in jail in Iran for co-operating with 'a hostile state power', has smuggled himself out of Iran, escaping over the country’s treacherous mountainous border, as in an interview with the 'Guardian' Kameel Ahmady now in London explained he felt had no option but to flee after spending nearly 100 days in Evin prison, including a brutal spell in solitary confinement while he was being interrogated, saying 'I am Kurdish by ethnicity and I know some of the routes, but it was very dangerous'
26 March 2021 Iranian missile hit an Israeli-owned cargo ship in the Arabian Sea: 26 March 2021: An Iranian missile hit an Israeli-owned cargo ship in the Arabian Sea early Thursday, according to a Channel 12 News report, as the ship was making its way from Tanzania to India when the missile hit
21 April 2021 facing Iran threat at sea Israel working to change global naval warfare rules: 21 April 2021: Facing Iran threat at sea, Israel working to change global naval warfare rules, as IDF officials have been meeting with experts worldwide to express the challenges faced in modern warfare, after Israeli-owned ships were attacked in the Persian gulf
2 June 2021 Iranian Mullah regime's largest navy ship sank: 2 June 2021: Iranian Mullah regime's largest navy ship 'The Kharg' sank after catching fire near the mouth of the Gulf, but the entire crew was able to safely disembark, according to semi-official news agencies saying 'all efforts to save the vessel were unsuccessful and it sank', according to 'Haaretz' and the 'Guardian' and photos circulating on Iranian social media and satellite photos

'Attrition' warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a 'war' by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel (human victims) and material
19th-21st centuries examples and crimes (including 1914-1945 German empire's war crimes): 19th-21st centuries examples in history determining the path, noted by wikipedia, include the 1812 French invasion of Russia (called a textbook example how elements of attrition warfare interfered with Napoleon's military logistics and won the war without a decisive battle), example of 'attrition' warfare on the Western Front during German empire's WWI including the 1916 Battle of Verdun (completely inconsiderate, ruthless against ambushed foreign and own victims in large numbers), and more German war crimes 1914-1918 until empire's defeat because of the superiority of Allied Powers, since 1917 including the USA, also opposing empire's unrestricted submarine warfare, as more examples include the 1936-1939 Spanish Civil War, the tonnage war in the Atlantic and Pacific during Axis Powers' World War II until 1945, the Air battle for Great Britain in World War II after the bombing of London, the static battles in World War II, including Soviet urban defense during the Battle of Stalingrad (not listed the 1941-1944 Siege of Leningrad), the Battle of Tabu-dong, and the final two years of the Korean War, the Vietnam War (Body count), the 'Long War' during the Provisional IRA's armed campaign against the British Army during 'the Troubles', the Israeli–Egyptian War of Attrition from 1967–1970, the Soviet–Afghan War, the later phases of the Iran–Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan 2001–present, the Sri Lankan Civil War after 2005, the 2011 Libyan civil war , the Kurdish–Turkish conflict 1978–present, since 2011-present Syrian Civil War (Assad's and allies' war against the Syrian people), in particular the Battle of Aleppo 2012-2016

War profiteering, as war initially had the objective of territorial expansion and resource gathering, states may also profit politically, economically and strategically, replacing governments that do not fulfill its interests by key allied governments - War profiteer, a persons or organization that profits from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to parties at war - Since 1914 war profits reached their highest levels in heavy industry in Germany, after beginning a long-lasting brutal war against peaceful neighbours and other industrialized countries
July 2019 Assad's war since 2011 and family's business: 12 July 2019: Who gains the most out of Syria's civil war, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' asks, saying that cousin of Bashar Assad, Rami Makhlouf, despite the sanctions imposed by the USA and some European nations and now thought to be the wealthiest man in Syria, manages the Assad family's business and is making his fortune in construction franchises, imports, newspapers and media, as well as Syriatel, a mobile service provider company, which he heads, also representing state-owned as well as private Iranian companies that received permission to invest in Syria, as circle of winners from the war encompasses not only Syrian businessmen but Iranian and Russian ones as well


United Nations's inability to prevent conflicts - since the 20th century the United Nations fail to prevent conflicts, wars and war crimes, tolerating and even supporting mass murder for example in Syria
1960 UN resolution 138 following Argentine complaint and German and CIA's fears over the transfer of Adolf Eichmann to Israel: In June 1960, after a complaint that the transfer of Adolf Eichmann to Israel from Argentina constituted a violation of the latter's sovereignty, UN Security Council declared in its resolution 138, approved by eight votes, that such acts could endanger 'international peace and security' and requested that Israel make the appropriate reparation in accordance with the UN Charter, but Israel held the view that the matter was beyond the Council's competence and should instead be settled via direct bilateral negotiations, as the capture of Eichmann caused alarm at the USA's CIA and West German Bundesnachrichtendienst, which had known for at least two years that Eichmann was hiding in Argentina, but did not act, fearing what Eichmann might say in his testimony about West German national security advisor CDU Hans Globke, who had coauthored several antisemitic Nazi laws, according to documents declassified in 2006, also revealing that both agencies had used some of Eichmann's former Nazi colleagues to spy on European countries
1972-1981 Kurt Waldheim: United Nations Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim 1972-1981 - The International Committee of Historians and Waldheim's involvement with the Wehrmacht of NSDAP-rule German empire 1941-1945, his knowledge of Nazi war crimes - 2 May 2001: CIA knew about Waldheim's Nazi past long before he was appointed UN secretary general - 18 October 2018: Ruth Beckermann's film on Nazi-turned-Austrian president Waldheim, who played a key role in the brutal reprisals against the civilian populations of Yugoslavia and Greece, particularly in the deportation of most of Salonika’s large Jewish population to Nazi death camps, sheds light on rise of nationalism and neo-Nazism today
1994: United Nations accepted failing their responsibility to prevent the Rwandan genocide in 1994
1995/2002: 10 April 2002: UN and the Netherlands blamed over 1995 Srebrenica massacre, for failing to give the troops the support they needed to defend the local population and for handing over Bosnian Muslim civilians to Serb forces, according to the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation
2009: UN admits Sri Lanka civil war failure during the final months in 2009
October 2015 UN unable to protect living people in Syria: 18 October 2015: Unable to protect living people in Syria, UN peacekeepers to guard heritage sites from Islamic State, as Unesco okays Italian plan to charge Blue Helmets with protecting sites in danger zones
Since August 2016: 29 August 2016: UN paid and pays tens of millions to Assad regime, paying more than $13m to the Syrian murderous regime to boost farming and agriculture, despite the EU has banned trade with the departments in question for fear of how the money will be used, also paying at least $4m to the state-owned fuel supplier, which is also on the EU sanctions list, also partnering with the Syria Trust charity under both USA and EU sanctions, spending a total of $8.5m etc. - 30 August 2016: UN under pressure to set up inquiry into Syria aid programme, as human rights groups say UN needs to restore trust after the British newspaper 'Guardian' revealed contracts had been awarded to agencies linked to dictator Bashar al-Assad
October 2016: 28 October 2016: UN hires Assad's friends and relatives for Syria relief operation, as almost two-thirds of the emergency health supplies needed in Syria have gone to regime-held areas and 64% of the kits and medicines provided by the WHO since January have been delivered to areas held by or supporting Assad regime, only 13% of WHO supplies have reached Syria’s 'besieged' areas, according to documents seen by the Guardian newspaper
2016/2017 UN payments to Assad regime's companies: 1 August 2017: The United Nations paid at least $18 million in 2016 to companies with close ties to Bashar Al Assad, some of them run by cronies of the Syrian dictator who are on USA and EU blacklists
September 2017 Putin threatens to veto UNIFIL mandate, supporting Hezbollah terrorists: 5 September 2017: Russian Putin regime threatens to veto UNIFIL mandate and renewal of UN peacekeeper force if Lebanon-based terror organization Hezbollah, its ally in Assad's war against the Syrian people, mentioned
Since December 2017 supported by UN Russian regime sends more weapons to CAR despite embargo: 15 décembre 2017: Autorisée par l’ONU, la Russie s’apprête à livrer des armes à la Centrafrique, malgré l’embargo imposé au pays depuis 2013 - 23 décembre 2017: La Russie a obtenu du Conseil de sécurité de l’ONU une exemption à l’embargo sur les armes imposé à la Centrafrique - Since 2014 Wagner Group, a Russian paramilitary organisation and Putin-linked military company, whose contractors take part in various conflicts, including operations in Assad's war against the Syrian people, in the War in Donbass against the Ukrainian people and since 2017/2018 in the Central African Republic - 29 September 2018: Russian journalists in Africa reportedly eliminated by Russia's military company PMC Patriot connected with Russian regime's 'Defense Ministry' - 24 October 2020: Russian Putin regime sends more military equipment to CAR, as regime has opened a representative office in the central African country, bringing ten more armoured vehicles after solidifying its presence in the CAR in recent years, sending weapons and contractors and political 'advisors', and has been growing its role on the continent overall as part of a renewed push for global influence of neo-Nazis
February 2018 UN's Guterres supports Assad regime: 23 February 2018: With support of UN head Guterres Assad regime’s Bashar Ja’afari elected to the UN’s Special Committee on Decolonization, as Hillel Neuer, executive director of the Geneva-based human rights group UN Watch, says that 'it is incomprehensible for the UN on one day to lament the Syrian regime’s killing and wounding of hundreds of thousands of Syrians - to declare the regime guilty of a 'monstrous campaign of annihilation’ of its own people - and to then hand this gift of false legitimacy to the mass murderer Bashar al-Assad'
March 2018 UN supports Russian attacks on hospitals: 26 March 2018: The 'United Nations' has come under fire for sharing the coordinates of hospitals in the Damascus suburb of eastern Ghouta with Russia, only for one of them to be bombed days later, according to 'The Telegraph'
June 2018 UN's Guterres meets Putin and attends propaganda soccer match: 12 June 2018: UN Secretary-General Guterres will travel to Russia, where he is scheduled to meet with murderous Russian regime's Vladimir Putin on 20 June and attend a World Cup soccer match at Moscow’s Luzhniki Stadium
22 July 2018 UN now with an Assad supporting Guterres failed to prevent even one of Assad's, Russian and Iranian war crimes since 2011: 22 July 2018: Israel transported several hundred Syrian civil defense workers and their families from southwest Syria to Jordan overnight Saturday, saying it had engaged in 'a humanitarian effort' at the request of the USA, some European countries and Canada, after many powerful countries and the United Nations - including a lot of subsidiary organs, organizations, and an Assad supporting Guterres - failed to prevent even one of Assad's, Russian and Iranian war crimes since 2011 - 24 July 2018: There remains an acute threat for several hundred Syrian rescuers trapped in the country’s south with no escape from approaching regime troops, after Assad regime officials and Russians said the Syrian civil defense volunteers were 'a red line' who should be 'eradicated', and as during previous evacuations from fallen opposition areas elsewhere, civil defense volunteers were specifically targeted, pulled from buses, tortured and filmed making false confessions about being paid agents, also because they helped document atrocities by Assad's forces and allies
July/August 2018 'Inner City Press' banned from the UN by Guterres for 361 days: 20 August 2018: Independent journalist Matt Lee forcibly removed from UN, stripped of press credentials, and 'Inner City Press' banned from the UN by Guterres for 361 days, reporting on Guterres' world of double-speak, harassment and hypocrisy
November 2018 'Les droits de l'homme ne s'appliquent plus': 18 November 2018: L'ex-procureure générale de la Confédération suisse et de l'ONU au TPIY et au TPI pour le Rwanda, Carla Del Ponte dresse un tableau sans concession de l'organisation des Nations unies et même de la justice internationale, déclarant 'Nous sommes tombés très bas. Les droits de l'homme ne s'appliquent plus', et appelant à réformer l'ONU
March 2011-2019 Syrian crisis and mass murder: 31 March 2019: As the Syrian crisis enters its ninth year, Assad's 'new' Syria is a police state more aggressive than ever with rampant poverty, a playground for superpowers, and the misery and grievances that caused the initial outbreak of mass protests - corruption, political repression and inequality - have only gotten worse, after hundreds of thousands of Syrians killed
30 May 2019: 30 May 2019: After 'over the past few hours, the Assad regime forces, the Russian occupation jets, and the Iranian militia have carried out four deadly attacks in Idlib and Aleppo provinces, bombing more than 35 towns and villages in the two provinces', the Syrian Coalition says 'these crimes have cast serious doubt about the very mission around which the United Nations was established, mainly to maintain international peace and security. These crimes have also shown how this institution, since it has been unable to intervene to resolve the most serious international conflicts, has become wholly irrelevant'
27 June 2019 UN's ability to write a letter: 27 June 2019: Following 8 years of a brutal war by Assad's, the Iranian and Russian regime against the Syrian people, facing daily war crimes such as killings of civilians, children and women, use of banned weapons including weapons of mass destruction, attacks on hospitals, schools, market places, torture and other atrocities, the United Nations are reacting ..., UN under-secretary-general for humanitarian affairs Mark Lowcock, who told the Security Council he was 'not sure' hospitals that share coordinates of their location under a UN deconfliction system will be protected, has 'written to the Russian Federation to request information as to how the details provided through the deconfliction mechanism are used'
August 2019 Syrians feel left alone: 21 August 2019: Reporting inside the country since 2011 with stories of Syrian men and women paying such a high price in asking for freedom in their own country, journalist Sara Firth says evidence of war crimes undertaken by the regime and Russia given to the UN is answered with words and promises of investigation, but 'people tell us they feel left alone', indeed left alone, with an international community that cannot or will not act to prevent daily war crimes
September 2019 Hezbollah missile attack on Israel: 6 September 2019: UN peacekeepers conducted an independent investigation of Sunday’s Hezbollah missile attack on Israel at IDF’s request, visiting the areas hit in the strikes, will present findings to UN, as UNIFIL's head called the Hezbollah missile attack a 'serious incident in violation of UN Security Council resolution 1701', referring to the decision that ended the 2006 Second Lebanon War and required all armed terror groups remain north of the country’s Litani River
23 October 2019 civilians abandoned by the UN in Libya: 23 October 2019: Survivors of a deadly air strike on a migrant detention centre in Tripoli in July have told the BBC they feel abandoned by the UN, and are desperate to escape Libya - 23 October 2019: Mitiga Airport attacked by F-16 with USA-made bombs, according to Major General Joueili, saying 'this attack is clear evidence of the direct intervention of the parties supporting Haftar in his aggression on Tripoli' - 23 October 2019: The opposing sides in Libya’s war, backed by their foreign state sponsors, are carrying out indiscriminate attacks on civilians, using high-explosive weapons in heavily populated areas, in what is likely to be war crimes, rights group says
23 October 2019 Syrian Kurdish man set himself on fire outside the UN: 23 October 2019: Syrian Kurdish man, who resides in Germany, set himself on fire outside the UN refugee agency headquarters in Geneva, then tried to enter the UNHCR building, and was flown by helicopter to the specialised burns unit at the university hospital in Lausanne - 23 October 2019: Russian regime says oil sites in northeastern Syria should be controlled by Damascus, accusing the USA of betraying Kurds in Syria, but telling them to withdraw or be mauled, after Russian-Turkish agreement to continue Turkish illegal invasion of Syria - 23 October 2019: Syrian Assad regime inflicts 72 forms of torture on prisoners, report finds - 23 October 2019: Turkish forces target positions of the Kurdish forces in Maraanaz front in the northern countryside of Aleppo by artillery shells - 24 October 2019: Russian warplanes bomb the 'de-escalation' areas in conjunction with ground shelling and violent clashes in Latakia and Hama countryside - 24 October 2019: Assad regime’s helicopters and Russian warplanes target Kabani hills by barrel bombs and air raids - 24 October 2019: A Turkish bomb that struck a Kurdish community in northern Syria, left eight-year-old Sara with serious injuries, and her right leg was so badly damaged that it had to be amputated, as Sara's older brother, Hammoudi, was killed in the bombardment - 24 October 2019: The northern sector of Aleppo countryside witnesses renewed clashes between the Turkey-loyal factions and the Kurdish Forces, according to SOHR
November 2019 UN accused of trying to starve out refugees: 28 November 2019: The UN has been accused of trying to starve out refugees and asylum seekers who are sheltering for safety inside a centre run by the UN refugee agency in the Libyan capital of Tripoli
24 December 2019 mendacious UN's ability to warn: 24 December 2019: Residents of northwest Syria flee new murderous Russian and Assad regime offensive, as troops push toward rebel-held town Maaret al-Numan and strategic road it controls, civilians escape toward Turkish border and UN warns, again since 2011, of another looming humanitarian crisis, after mendacious UN's Guterres became an Assad regime supporter in 2018
10 January 2020 miserable 'United Nations' and about 9 years of Assad's, Iranian and Russian regime's war against the Syrian people: 10 January 2020: About 9 years of Assad's, Iranian and Russian regime's war against the Syrian people standing for continuous killing and destruction, while war criminals go unpunished, Russia and Iran are the regime’s winning cards, and geography of influence and control is constantly changing at the expense of millions of civilians, according to SOHR
26 January 2020 Haftar’s forces shell civilian areas in Tripoli as UN 'condemns' repeated ceasefire breaches in Libya: 26 January 2020: Haftar’s forces shell civilian areas in Tripoli, killing and injuring people, including children, as UN 'condemns' repeated ceasefire breaches in Libya following January 2020 ceasefire agreement in Berlin
29 January 2020 on the day of Liberation of Auschwitz in 1945 Russian forces kill civilians from the same family in Sarja village: 29 January 2020: Russian forces kill civilians from the same family in Sarja village in Idlib on 27 January, the day of Liberation of Auschwitz, 75 years on - 29 January 2020: Russian forces reportedly killed a girl in Einjara village in Aleppo on 28 January - 29 January 2020: Syrian Assad regime bombed Ali al Khatib Primary School in al Maghara village in Idlib on 28 January 28, dropping barrel bomb - 29 January 2020: Assad regime forces bomb south and west of Aleppo with hundreds of missiles and rockets as battles continue in the city’s western outskirts, as regime forces tried to advance after midnight in Tall Mostif in east Idlib countryside, repelled by opposition forces - 29 January 2020: Syria's Maaret al-Numan was a protest hub, before increased regime bombardment reduced it - without air defense - to a graffiti-daubed ghost town - 29 January 2020: News agency close to the Iranian military has revealed that its police were involved in the repression of Syrian protesters who went out in 2011 as part of the revolution against the Syrian regime, in a report coming days after the Syrian Assad regime confirmed that the Iranian terrorist Qassem Soleimani was involved in the first battle against rebels in Homs city
3 February 2020 Russian and Assad regime continue to murder civilians as Turkey retaliates: 3 February 2020: Over 220 regime and Russian airstrikes pound Aleppo and Idlib countryside since early morning, as SOHR documented a spike in the number of civilians who were killed today as a result of aerial bombardment on Aleppo countryside, and as 4 children and 3 females among 9 civilians were killed after targeting by regime jets to a vehicle carrying displaced people in Jam’eyyat Al-Rahal - 3 February 2020: Turkish, Assad regime troops killed as regimne forces face off in Idlib, and as Erdogan says initial information shows some 30 Assad regime soldiers 'neutralized in operation' involving F-16 warplanes on some 40 targets in Hama, Latakia and Idlib province - 3 February 2020: Turkish soldiers killed as battle for control of Idlib escalates, amid Russian airstrikes, which have already driven 700,000 civilians to the Turkish border
11 March 2020 despite UN embargo countries increasing deliveries of military supplies to warlord Haftar: 11 March 2020: International powers are increasing deliveries of suspected military supplies to factions in Libya’s civil war, ignoring a poorly enforced UN embargo as the shattered country braces for a new round of fighting, and as United Arab Emirates UAE, which is backing warlord Haftar is thought to have sent more than 100 deliveries by air since mid-January, according to flight-tracking data
11 February 2020 humanitarian disaster in Syria deteriorates amid ongoing international community’s shameful silence: 11 February 2020: Humanitarian disaster in rural Aleppo deteriorates to unprecedented serious levels as intensive aerial bombardment continues, and regime forces approach overpopulated areas amid ongoing international community’s shameful silence
12 March 2020 Assad's, Russia's and Iran's Syria war enters tenth year: 12 March 2020: Syria war enters tenth year with no hope in sight, as fighting and displacement still at its height, 9 years after demonstrators demanded the end of dictatorship
13 March 2020 UN too scared to stop breaches of arms ban to stop warlord Haftar: 13 March 2020: UN too scared to stop breaches of arms ban, says Libyan minister Fathi Bashagha, vowing to step up fight to end assault by Khalifa Haftar’s forces
14 March 2020 UN degenerated 'Human Rights' Council applauds Iranian criminal regime in periodic review: 14 March 2020: UN 'Human Rights' Council applauds Iranian regime in periodic review, as North Korean, Syria's Assad, Russia's Putin and Chinese Beijing regime praise Tehran's Mullahs for ‘protecting rights of vulnerable groups', ‘openness to dialogue’, after the January 2020 Iranian shooting down of Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752, murdering 176 international passengers and crew members, following the July 2014 Russian shooting down of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 in Ukraine, murdering 298 international passengers and crew members, followed in February 2020 by Dutch trial, after prosecution formally charged four suspects amid Russian murderous regime's denials and threats against witnesses
10th year of Assad's war and ongoing brutal violence, followed by refugee crises since 2011: 15 March 2020: After even UN's secretary general supported Assad's dictatorship, Assad's grip on power seems certain, but Syria's future is anything but as his war now rumbling into 10th year gripped by brutal violence, followed by refugee crises concerning millions of desperate people, as Russian, Iranian regime and Hezbollah terrorists continue their violence in Syria - 15 March 2020: Syrian Revolution nine years on, 586,100 persons killed and millions of Syrians displaced and injured, SOHR reports
27 April 2020 a ‘human tragedy of terrible proportions’, according to UN, as Bangladesh 'always asked to take care': 27 April 2020: In a ‘human tragedy of terrible proportions’, according to UN, as Bangladesh urged to open its ports and allow boats carrying hundreds of Rohingya refugees to come ashore so they can be given urgent medical care, food and water, as boats with children recently seen in the Bay of Bengal but have reportedly returned to the high seas, and as last week Bangladesh’s FM said the boats would not be allowed entry, adding 'Bangladesh is always asked to take care of the responsibility of other countries'
23 May 2020 UN accused of squabbling and failing: 23 May 2020: More than 660,000 people have been displaced from their homes in conflict zones around the world since March, despite a UN call for a global ceasefire during covid-19 pandemic, as NRC accuses the UN Security Council of failing to show leadership, and as NRC's Secretary-General Jan Egeland says 'while people are being displaced and killed, powerful members of the UN Security Council squabble like children in a sandbox', but 'now is not the time for kindergarten politics'
31 May 2020 75 years after WWII study shows that 60% of today's wars have lasted for at least a decade: 31 May 2020: After World War II lasted 6 years, 75 years on wars without end and the question why there is no peaceful solution to so much global conflict, as a new study shows that 60% of the world’s wars have lasted for at least a decade, from Afghanistan to Libya, Syria to Congo DRC, and as endless conflicts appear to become normalised, with politicians, generals, governments and international organisations incapable, uninterested or profiteering - Over 60% of armed conflicts ongoing for over ten years, shows 'International Institute for Strategic Studies' May 2020 Armed Conflict Survey
18 July 2020 75th anniversary of world’s 1st atomic test fuels debate about application of natural and social science: 18 July 2020: 75th anniversary of world’s 1st atomic test and terrible detonation, changing forever the course of history, ensuring the end of axis powers' World War II and their unprecedented crimes, leading to the development of the United Nations, expectations and hopes, but also marking the dawn of the atomic age, and then fueled nuclear debate and debate about contradictory application of natural and social science or rather about ignorance of social science
4 October 2020 after UN demanded an immediate end to fighting in September Armenia/Azerbaijan clashes continue: 4 October 2020 Armenia/Azerbaijan clashes continue after UN Security Council on 30 September called for an immediate end to fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh
5 October 2020 fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan has escalated: 5 October 2020: Fighting between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh has escalated dramatically after Baku accused Armenian forces of firing rockets at Azerbaijan’s second largest city of Ganja, which lies outside the contested territory - 5 October 2020 Armenia/Azerbaijan clashes continue after UN Security Council on 30 September called for an immediate end to fighting in Nagorno-Karabakh
October 2020 UN accused over failure to investigate 'war on drugs' killings in the Philippines: 8 October 2020: UN human rights council has been accused of a 'collective failure' over its decision not to call for an investigation into the tens of thousands of killings alleged to have occurred under Philippine president Duterte’s 'war on drugs', after 'World Organisation Against Torture' study in June concluded that children have been deliberately shot at and targeted as proxies
11 October 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh truce in jeopardy and ongoing ceasefire violations: 11 October 2020: Nagorno-Karabakh truce in jeopardy as accusations of violations fly, as Armenia and Azerbaijan accuse each other shelling civilian areas and escalating clashes, and as Azerbaijan’s foreign ministry said that overnight shelling by Armenian forces on country’s second largest city Ganja had left 7 people dead and 33 wounded including children, less than 24 hours after the halt to fighting was supposed to take effect - Since September 2020 Armenia/Azerbaijan clashes and ceasefire violations
17 October 2020 Azerbaijan says 12 civilians killed by shelling in Ganja: 17 October 2020: Azerbaijan says 12 civilians killed by shelling in Ganja, as rescuers pull men, women and children out of rows of houses turned to rubble and people died with 40 more wounded in a sharp escalation of the conflict with Armenia over the region of Nagorno-Karabakh
27 October 2020 Armenia accused of deadly missile attack: 27 octobre 2020: L’Azerbaïdjan a accusé mardi l’Arménie d’avoir tiré un missile sur la région azerbaïdjanaise de Barda, proche du Nagorny Karabakh en guerre, ayant tué quatre civils et fait une dizaine de blessés - 27 October 2020: With clashes over the disputed Caucasus region entering a second month, international mediators are pushing to bring a stop to frontline clashes and shelling of civilian areas that have left hundreds dead
8 November 2020 Azerbaijan says it has taken Karabakh's Shusha: 8 November 2020: Azerbaijan says it has taken Karabakh's Shusha, the second-largest city in the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave, Armenia denies it, as Shusha is of cultural and strategic importance to both side and as at least 1,000 people have died in nearly six weeks of fighting in and around Nagorno-Karabakh
20 November 2020 Tigray rebels launch rockets into Bahir Dar city in neighboring Amhara: 20 November 2020: As government troops close in on Tigray capital of Mekelle, the Tigray People's Liberation Front fired rockets into Amhara region in the second spate of rockets in the last fortnight, but no damage was reported, as Unicef said Friday, conflict in Ethiopia's Tigray region has left 2.3 million children in need of emergency aid
27 November 2020 UN Sudan expert's links to Russian oligarch Prigozhin and mercenaries revealed: 27 November 2020: After in 2018 the UN secretary general Guterres approved Dobronravin as Russia’s representative on a four-person UN expert panel on Sudan, leaked documents show links between the academic serving on the UN 'expert' panel on Sudan, and Yevgeny Prigozhin, the Russian oligarch under USA sanctions who has led Russia’s recent push into Africa, as - according to the USA - Prigozhin runs the Wagner group, which has sent mercenaries to countries including Sudan, Libya and the Central African Republic, and is also behind a notorious internet troll factory that supported Donald Trump
28 November 2020 Iranian regime just a border fence away from Israel: 28 November 2020: Creeping in through Syria, Iranian regime is just a border fence away from Israel
30 December 2020 Aden attack as blast rips through Yemen’s Aden airport targeting new cabinet members: On 30 December 2020 a plane carrying the newly formed Yemeni government landed at the Aden International Airport, as bombs exploded and gunmen opened fire, leaving at least 22 people dead, as Yemen’s Information Minister Moammar Al-Eryani blamed the attack on the Iran-backed Houthi rebels, adding that all the members of the government were safe - 30 December 2020: Aden airport blasts kill 26 in attack 'directed at Yemen government', as UN special envoy Griffiths to Yemen wished 'the cabinet strength in facing the difficult tasks ahead', while Yemen needs no new year wishes but deeds against Houthi, Iranian, Russian, Syrian and Beijing regimes alliance
11 March 2021 UN calls for 'utmost restraint' from military murderers as more deaths reported: 11 March 2021: After 7 more people were reported shot dead by the military regime in protests, UN calls for 'utmost restraint' from the murderers, as British-drafted UN statement watered down by China, Russia, India and Vietnam, as USA applied fresh pressure with some sanctions, and as Amnesty says military using battlefield weapons on protesters


Use of torture since 1948, abuse, mistreatment, murder of prisoners and death in custody by country
2014 torture in states worldwide: 13 May 2014: Nearly half of people around the world fear becoming a victim of torture if taken into custody, a poll for human rights group says showing that many states are carrying out torture or facilitating it in practice
Since 1932 Saudi-Arabian human rights abuses and torture: Since 1932 Islamic theocratic absolute monarchy in Saudi-Arabia, human rights abuses and torture
2015: 23 January 2015: Five worst human rights abuses in the reign of King Abdullah, torture, denied freedom of expression, persecution of minorities, non-Muslims and Shias, beheadings, violations of women's rights
June 2018: 6 June 2018: Saudi Arabia is systematically using anti-terror laws to justify torture, suppress all dissent and imprison human rights defenders, the UN has concluded following a five-day official inspection of the country at the invitation of the government
November 2018: 21 November 2018: Rights groups accused Saudi Arabia on Tuesday of subjecting several activists including some female human rights defenders detained since May to torture and sexual harassment - 21 November 2018: Saudi Arabia tortured female right-to-drive activists, says Amnesty
Since 20th century and 1979 torture in Iran: Since 1979 torture in Iran - Torture and mistreatment of prisoners in Iran - Since 1980s return of torture to Iran
1988: 1988 executions of political prisoners in Iran refers to the state-sponsored execution of political prisoners across Iran, starting on 19 July 1988 and enduring for approximately five months, 4,482 disappeared prisoners during this time, but as many as 30,000 dissidents may have been executed
2003: 10 January 2003: The Guardian Council rejected for a third time a bill approved by the reformist Parliament that would ban torture of prisoners
Since 20th century torture in North Korea: Prison camps and torture in North Korea
2013/2014: 17 September 2013: 'Unspeakable atrocities' reported by UN-mandated human rights inquiry on DPR Korea - 14 February 2014: UN rights inquiry to conclude North Korea should face international court over alleged starvation, extermination and abduction
Since 20th century torture in Russia: Since 20th century torture in Russia
May 2016 pro-Russian separatists tortured 4,000 people: 20 May 2016: Terrifying newspaper's report tells how pro-Russian separatists tortured 4,000 people in eastern Ukraine
September 2019 Ukrainian prisoner tortured by Putin regime: 16 September 2019: Ukrainian political prisoner Volodymyr Balukh, who has recently been freed from Russian captivity in a prisoner swap, has said he was tortured immediately after arriving in the Russian colony
Since 20th century torture in Syria: Torture in - Syria
2015: 14 March 2015: Nearly 13,000 Syrians, including 108 children, have been tortured to death in Syrian Assad regime prisons since March 2011, not including more than 20,000 detainees who have 'disappeared' in regime's prisons and whose fate remains unknown, and an estimated 200,000 people have been arrested over the past four years, according to Syrian Observatory for Human Rights - 1 October 2015: Inside Syrian Assad regime’s death machine - 'They were torturing to kill'
2016: 21 mai 2016: Au moins 60'000 personnes sont mortes en cinq ans sous la torture ou à cause des terribles conditions de détention dans les prisons du régime syrien, selon l'Observatoire syrien des droits de l'homme - 7 June 2016: Assad regime forces tortured Palestinian boy Mohamed Diab, who was detained three years ago at the age of 13 following protests in Hama city, to death for participating in demonstrations against the Assad regime, as the number of Palestinians tortured to death in Assad's prisons has reached 444 victims, according to the Action Group for Palestinians in Syria
2017 Syrian Assad regime killed at least 13,000 people since the start of the 2011 uprising: 7 February 2017: Syrian Assad regime killed at least 13,000 people since the start of the 2011 uprising in mass hangings at Saydnaya prison north of Damascus known to detainees as 'the slaughterhouse', according to Amnesty International, saying in a report that 20-50 people killed each week in 2011-2015 under authorization of senior Syrian officials as part of an extermination policy - 15 May 2017: Assad’s victims given voice in haunting new film by former BBC producers Sara Afshar and Nicola Cutcher, methodically documenting the brutality of the Assad government, its crackdown on democratic protests sinc 2011 and its jailing of activists including gripping firsthand testimony from some of the victims
29 July 2021 Syrian doctor charged in Germany with crimes against humanity: 29 July 2021: A Syrian doctor has been charged in Germany with crimes against humanity for allegedly torturing people in military hospitals in his homeland and killing one of them, as the federal prosecutor’s office in Karlsruhe said in a statement that Alla Mousa, who came to Germany in 2015 and practised medicine before he was arrested last year, was accused of 18 counts of torturing people in military hospitals in the Syrian cities of Homs and Damascus

Targeted killing, the premeditated killing of an individual or groups of individuals by a state, organization or institution outside a judicial procedure or a battlefield - An extrajudicial killing is the killing of a person by governmental authorities without the sanction of any judicial proceeding or legal process - Murder is the killing of another human being without justification - Homicides can be divided into many overlapping types, including murder, manslaughter, killing in war, euthanasia, and execution, depending on the circumstances of the death, and are treated differently in human societies

Targeted killing in Russia and by the Russian regime since 1996
Since 20th century worldwide terrorism by the KGB and FSB: Terrorism and support of terrorism worldwide by the KGB and FSB
2006 Russian regime's poisoning of British citizen Alexander Litvinenko: Russian regime's poisoning of British citizen Alexander Litvinenko and case of state-sponsored nuclear terrorism in London
March 2018 Salisbury 'novichok' poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal: 4 March 2018 poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salisbury using 'Novichok' nerve agent developed by the Soviet Union and Russia between 1971 and 1993
June/July 2018 Amesbury 'novichok' poisonings of two British nationals: 30 June 2018 Amesbury 'novichok' poisonings of two British nationals
14/15 September 2018: 14/15 September 2018: 'Bellingcat' investigation confirms that Russian nationals identified by UK authorities as obeying suspects in the Novichok poisonings on British soil in March and June are linked to Russian security services and military, directly contradicting claims by Russian regime's Putin on 12 September 2018, after one of the keys to identifying the insidious and coward murderous gang was the discovery of traces of novichok in their hotel room in London
26/27 September 2018: 26/27 September 2018: Anatoliy Chepiga, a Colonel in the GRU, who served in Chechyna and has received the highest honour usually awarded personally by Russian regime's Putin, is one of the suspects in the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal and the killing of Dawn Sturgess, having travelled to the UK under the name Ruslan Boshirov, according to British investigative website Bellingcat and its partner The Insider
22 November 2018: 22 November 2018: DS Nick Bailey, who was left critically ill after being exposed to novichok at Skripal’s home on the night of the Russian attack in March, said that while he had made a physical recovery, the psychological impact had been serious
December 2018 FSB gang member confesses to string of murders in Siberia: 14 December 2018: A former FSB officer has confessed to being part of a criminal group of security agents accused of contract killings, armed robberies and kidnappings, Znak news reported from court in Yekaterinburg
January 2019 Russian regime's use of criminals: 18 January 2019: Russian regime's use of criminals as assets abroad
June 2019 Denis Sergeyev commanded Russian military team in the UK: 29 June 2019: Denis Sergeyev, believed to hold the rank of major general in the GRU, the 'third man' involved in the Salisbury poisoning commanded the Russian military team which carried out the attack, phone records suggest, as Bellingcat Investigation Team uncovered more details on Sergeyev’s role in several international GRU operations, including 'Mission London'
August 2019 Salisbury attack in 2018 'likely' approved by Putin, Scotland Yard says: 7 August 2019: Scotland Yard has examined the role of the Russian president Vladimir Putin in the 2018 novichok nerve agent attack in Salisbury, saying Putin is assessed as 'likely’ to have approved of nerve agent attack on Skripals
2019 Kadyrov regime's oppression and death squads: 21 September 2019: Ramzan Kadyrov rules the Caucasus republic through fear and oppression, amid reports of torture, but those seeking asylum in Europe are not safe, as assassins hunt them down
August/September 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili: 23 August 2019 assassination of Zelimkhan Khangoshvili - 2 September 2019: The murder of Chechen Khangoshvili in Berlin looks like a Russian operation, but the CDU/SPD Merkel government is not making a public fuss about that - 27 September 2019: New evidence links Russian state to Berlin assassination of Chechen Khangoshvili by suspected 'Vadim Andreevich Sokolov', Bellingcat reports
14 July 2020 inquest must look into role of Russian officials in Salisbury attack: 14 July 2020: The role played by senior Russian officials in the Salisbury nerve agent attack should be investigated, the high court has been told, as lawyers for Dawn Sturgess’s family are arguing that public concern over the poisonings is so profound that her inquest should be widened to examine who ordered the attack and the network that backed the two agents accused of actually carrying it out
August 2020 'novichok' poisoning of Alexei Navalny: August 2020 'novichok' poisoning of Alexei Navalny who fell ill during a flight from Tomsk to Moscow and was hospitalized in Omsk, as his spokeswoman said that he was in a coma
7 September 2020 poisoned Russian opposition leader out of coma and responsive: 7 September 2020: Poisoned Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny’s condition has improved, allowing doctors to take him out of an induced coma, the German hospital treating him said, after tests last week showed 'proof without doubt' that Navalny was poisoned with a chemical nerve agent from the Novichok group, and after British authorities identified the Soviet-era Novichok as the poison used against Sergei Skripal and his daughter in Salisbury in 2018
14 September 2020 French and Swedish labs confirm Navalny's Novichok poisoning Germany says: 14 September 2020: Three laboratories have independently confirmed that Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny was poisoned with the Novichok nerve agent, Germany said Monday, renewing calls for Russia to explain the incident, also saying it had brought the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons into its investigation of the criminal poisoning, adding that the OPCW had taken samples from him to be examined in its reference laboratories
17 November 2020 security agencies believe that Russian Putin regime intended to kill critic Alexei Navalny: 17 November 2020: Western security agencies believe that Russian regime intended to kill Putin critic Alexei Navalny and only failed because of quick action by first responders, also saying that the high-profile nature of the attack also suggests it was approved by regime's Vladimir Putin
14 December 2020 Russian FSB hit squad poisoned Alexei Navalny according to Bellingcat: 14 December 2020: An undercover hit squad working for Russia’s FSB spy agency poisoned the opposition activist Alexei Navalny in August, after shadowing him on multiple previous trips, the investigative website Bellingcat has claimed, citing 'voluminous' telecoms and travel data, and reporting that the squad had secretly tracked Navalny since 2017, as recent regime's crime apparently began after he announced plans to stand against Putin in presidential elections
21 December 2020 Navalny says Russian agent has admitted to role in death plot: 21 December 2020: One of the operatives allegedly involved in the attempt to kill Alexei Navalny has confessed to his role in the plot, and has revealed that the Russian opposition leader was apparently poisoned via his boxer shorts, after Navalny phoned two members of the team from Russia’s FSB spy agency trying to murder him, as one recognised him immediately and hung up and the second operative, Konstantin Kudryavtsev, was seemingly duped into thinking he was talking to an aide working for a top FSB general
24 December 2020 Novichok diagnosed within days say Alexei Navalny's German doctors: 24 December 2020: The Berlin doctors who treated Alexei Navalny have published clinical details of his novichok poisoning, in what the Russian opposition leader called the medical proof repeatedly denied by Russian regime's Vladimir Putin, as Navalny says 'at every press conference, he (Putin) exclaims, agitating with his hands to ask when the Germans will give their data', adding 'that’s no longer important now, the medical data is now published and available to the entire world'
13 January 2021 Navalny will return to Ruassia after being poisoned: 13 January 2021: Alexey Navalny says he will return to Russia on 17 January after being poisoned, and after recent reporting from investigative group Bellingcat and CNN revealed that Russia's FSB had formed an elite team specializing in nerve agents that trailed Navalny for years, and that phone and travel records suggest that the unit followed Navalny to at least 17 cities since 2017
21 April 2021 Putin regime's police have arrested key supporters of Alexei Navalny: 21 April 2021: Putin regime's police have arrested key supporters of Alexei Navalny and begun closing down central squares in Moscow and other cities before demonstrations planned for Wednesday evening in support of the jailed opposition leader, while regime critic’s regional headquarters have also been raided as police seek to disrupt, and eventually liquidate, his political organisation across Russia, and as tensions have grown between regime and western capitals over concerns about Navalny’s health in prison, as well as Russia’s military build-up on the border with Ukraine, and accusations of aggressive Russian intelligence operations including a fatal explosion at a Czech ammunition dump in 2014
21 September 2021 Russia responsible for the 2006 killing of Alexander Litvinenko, ECHR has found: In September 2021, the European Court of Human Rights ECHR found that Russia was responsible for the killing of Alexander Litvinenko (a violation of Article 2). The Court ruled that there was a 'strong' case that Andrey Lugovoy and Dmitry Kovtun had been acting as agents of the Russian State, and that Russia had not carried out an 'effective domestic investigation', nor 'identifi[ed] and punish[ed] ... those responsible for the murder', as followoing the poisoning Lugovoy - a former KGB employee like Vladimir Putin - became a member of Russia's lower house of parliament Duma for the nationalist party LDPR - 21 September 2021 Judgment Carter v. Russia 'Russia was responsible for assassination of Aleksandr Litvinenko in the UK', ECHR's judgement document in PDF format

North Korean politically motivated criminal actions, including international abductions, terrorism and targeted killings - Concentration camps in North Korea
September 2013: 17 September 2013: 'Unspeakable atrocities' reported by UN-mandated human rights inquiry on DPR Korea
February 2017 assassination of Kim Jong-nam: 13 February 2017 assassination of Kim Jong-nam, attacked with VX nerve agent at Kuala Lumpur International Airport
April 2019: 1 April 2019: North Korea got away with the assassination of Kim Jong-nam, as no one from the regime will stand trial over the death of Kim Jong-un’s half-brother, leading to fears it will act again

Network of extralegal detention centers established by Chinese security forces and private security companies across the P.R. of China
Since 2014 Xinjiang extralegal detention centers: Since 2014 'Reeducation camps' operated secretly and outside of the legal system by the Xinjiang local government, people can be locked up without any trial and local authorities are reportedly holding hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs and Muslims from other ethnic minorities in these camps

Hong Kong–Beijing regime (mainland China) conflict
June 1898 'Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory': 9 June 1898 'Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory' between Qing China and the United Kingdom
December 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration: December 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration
Since July 1997 special administrative region of Hong Kong: Since July 1997 special administrative region of Hong Kong, when the United Kingdom ended administration for the colony of Hong Kong, returning control of the city and its territory that became a special administrative region and continues to maintain governing and economic systems separate from those of mainland China
Since December 2017 Hong Kong Watch to monitor the conditions of human rights, freedoms and rule of law in Hong Kong: Since December 2017 Hong Kong Watch, a non-governmental organisation based in the United Kingdom that was established to monitor the conditions of human rights, freedoms and rule of law in Hong Kong, founded by British human rights activist Benedict Rogers in December 2017, two months after he was barred from entering Hong Kong
30 July 2020 outcry in Hong Kong as 4 student activists arrested: 30 July 2020: Outcry in Hong Kong as 4 student activists arrested under new security law, the first political activists to be held since pro-Beijing legislation was imposed by the always more aggressive northern one-party state pretending to be China, ruling with police and military

Attacks on press freedom in China intensify after 2019/2020 covid-19 outbreak: 20 March 2020: Beijing regime's attacks on press freedom in China intensify after the covid-19 outbreak since November/December 2019
16 November 2020 citizen journalist facing jail in China for Wuhan covid reporting and warning the world: 16 November 2020: Chinese citizen journalist Zhang Zhan detained since May for reporting on the covid-19 outbreak from Wuhan is facing up to 5 years in jail after being formally indicted on charges of spreading false information, after she was arrested and held in a detention facility in Shanghai

Targeted killings in Pakistan, especially in Karachi and in Quetta, have been a rising form of violence and have contributed to security instability in the country

Wahhabism and targeted killings by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Political prisoners in Saudi Arabia - Torture in Saudi Arabia - Tiger Squad, a Saudi death squad that consists of approximately fifty members from the military and intelligence agencies and has a mandate to carry out covert operations and executions, allegedly created by Mohammad bin Salman to kill Saudi critics inside and outside of Saudi Arabia
October 2018 Khashoggi murder: 21 October 2018: As international condemnation grows over the 2 October 2018 disappearance of Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul and later admitted assassination, EU's foreign policy chief calls it a 'shocking violation' of international conventions - 23 October 2018: Khashoggi murder 'planned days in advance', Turkey's president says - 23 October 2018: Saudi sees $50 billion in deals at investment conference despite some boycotts over Khashoggi killing
9 November 2018 Emmanuel Macron PR man for Mohammed bin Salman following Khashoggi’s murder: 9 November 2018: French president Emmanuel Macron has been among the worst culprits, recently claiming that it was false to say Saudi Arabia is a major client of the French arms industry, but Macron's defence minister told lawmakers those arms sales were crucial for French jobs, as France is the world’s third-largest weapons dealer, with exports rising considerably during the past decade and Saudi Arabia was its second-largest customer in that period
November/December 2018 Emmanuel Macron, Putin and Trump PR men for bonesaw Mohammed bin Salman: 30 November 2018: G20 participants including Macron and Trump welcome Saudi prince at G20 stage, showing he’s not isolated and mocking humans, as Mohammed bin Salman and Russia's Putin both grinned broadly and greeted each other with an enthusiastic, thumping handshake that resembled a high-five, and hearty laughter - 1 December 2018: Macron's chat with bonesaw Saudi prince captured at G20
December 2018: 1 décembre 2018: Des messages interceptés par la CIA renforcent les soupçons sur le rôle du prince héritier saoudien dans la mort du journaliste Khashoggi en Turquie
February 2019 UN-led inquiry's evidence: 7 February 2019: UN-led inquiry into the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi said that evidence pointed to a brutal crime 'planned and perpetrated' by Saudi officials
June 2019 Khashoggi murder 'an international crime': 19 June 2019: The crown prince of Saudi Arabia should be investigated over the murder of the dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi because there is 'credible evidence' that he and other senior officials are liable for the killing, according to a damning and forensic UN report, as UN’s special rapporteur Agnes Callamard said the death of the journalist was 'an international crime'
4 February 2020 world has failed to punish Saudi Arabia, 'encouraged to do whatever it wants': 4 February 2020: Turkish scholar Hatice Cengiz, activist and fiancee of Jamal Khashoggi, has said the world has failed to hold Saudi Arabia to account over the journalist’s murder and the kingdom is being 'encouraged to do whatever it wants'
7 September 2020 Saudi court ruling farce mocking human rights: 7 September 2020: A Saudi court has overturned five death sentences over the murder of Jamal Khashoggi, in a final ruling that jailed eight defendants for between seven and 20 years, as Khashoggi’s fiance Hatice Cengiz on Monday branded the Saudi court ruling a 'farce', saying 'the ruling handed down today in Saudi Arabia again makes a complete mockery of justice' and that 'the international community will not accept this farce', because 'the Saudi authorities are closing the case without the world knowing the truth of who is responsible for Jamal’s murder', 'who planned it, who ordered it, where is the body', 'the most important questions ... remain totally unanswered'
21 October 2020 Jamal Khashoggi's fiancee sues Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman in the USA courts: 21 October 2020: Hatice Cengiz, the fiancee of the murdered Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, is suing the Saudi crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman, and two dozen other Saudis in the USA courts, accusing them of direct involvement in the dissident’s gruesome killing in Istanbul two years ago
November 2020 G20 Riyadh summit and community of corruption: 23 novembre 2020: Les organisateurs saoudiens interpellés sur l’affaire Khashoggi, un président américain au golf, des promesses sur l’accès aux vaccins …, ce qu’il faut retenir des deux jours d’un étrange sommet du G20 virtuel - 21–22 November 2020 G20 Riyadh summit, the fifteenth meeting of Group of Twenty in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia - 23 November 2020: Saudi Arabia denies crown prince met with Netanyahu, or any Israeli, after media reported that PM Netanyahu, Mossad chief flied to Saudi, held first known meet with crown prince, as meeting said held in presence of USA Secretary of State Mike Pompeo - 2 October 2018 assassination of Saudi dissident and journalist Jamal Khashoggi at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul perpetrated by agents of the Saudi government - Reactions to the assassination of Jamal Khashoggi, denounced by the majority of the international community, but not by G20
22 November 2021 murdered Jamal Khashoggi’s fiancee urges singer Bieber to cancel Saudi Arabia performance: 22 November 2021: Hatice Cengiz, the fiancee of murdered Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi, has called in an open letter on singer Justin Bieber to cancel his performance in the kingdom’s second-largest city Jeddah scheduled for 5 December, after Khashoggi was killed and dismembered in 2018 after walking into the Saudi consulate in Istanbul the day before his wedding with Hatice Cengiz, was waiting outside

6 February 2013: Globalizing torture, USA's CIA secret detentions and extraordinary renditions following the terrorist attacks of September 11 in 2001 'aided by 54 countries'
USA's 'Disposition Matrix' developed by the Obama Administration since 2010, going beyond existing kill lists, and creates a blueprint for tracking, capturing, rendering, or killing suspected enemies of the USA government - USA drone strikes in Pakistan 2004-present - List of drone strikes in Pakistan since 2004 - 'Unmanned: America's Drone Wars' documentary film released in October 2013
Civilian casualties from USA drone strikes
2014: 24 November 2014: Attempts to kill 41 men resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1,147 people as of 24 November, one of the facts of the Obama administration's drone strikes, revealed by new analysis of data in Yemen and Pakistan and study by legal charity 'Reprieve'
2015: 16 October 2015: Snowden and Ellsberg hail leak of drone documents from new whistleblower, as classified documents on USA assassination program confirm, that the administration firmly prefers kill over capture despite claiming the opposite, that the USA does not know who it's killing, and that the military labels unidentified people it kills in targeted strikes as 'enemies killed in action', although victims may be family members or associates of actual targets or may just have been nearby, or mistakenly targeted
2016: 20 July 2016: 2004 to present CIA and USA military drone strikes just in Pakistan resulting in 172-207 killed children, 424-966 killed civilians, 2,499-4,001 total killed people, 1,161-1,744 injured people
Civilian casualties of the USA-led intervention in Syria
July 2016: 18 July 2016: To July 18th 2016, an overall total of between 3,181 and 4,267 civilian non-combatant fatalities had been alleged from 493 separate reported incidents in Iraq and Syria, of these Airwars presently estimates that a minimum of 1,422 civilians are likely to have died in USA-led coalition actions
2016; 19 juillet 2016: Près de 60 civils, dont 11 enfants, morts et des dizaines de blessés mardi dans des raids de la coalition menée par les Etats-Unis près du village d'al-Toukhar tenu par Daech dans la province d'Alep, selon l'OSDH - 20 July 2016: USA airstrikes on a Syrian village have killed at least 73 civilians, a majority of them women and children, activists say

Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for an alleged crime or offense carried out without legal process
Forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, placing the victim outside the protection of the law

Human rights abuses
November 2018 fundamental rights under attack in 111 of 196 countries: 28 November 2018: The report by Civicus Monitor, an alliance of civil society groups, found that fundamental rights – such as freedom of expression and peaceful assembly – were under attack in 111 of 196 countries, as countries use censorship, harassment or violence to repress public debate
February 2021 at least 331 human rights defenders murdered in 2020, report finds: 11 February 2021: At least 331 human rights defenders promoting social, environmental, racial and gender justice in 25 countries were murdered in 2020, with scores more beaten, detained and criminalised because of their work, analysis has found, as Latin America - the most dangerous continent in the world in which to protect environmental, land and human rights - accounted for more than three-quarters of all the murders of human rights defenders in 2020

Human rights abuses by country
Human rights abuses in Afghanistan
Human rights abuses in Burma in the 21st century called Myanmar
2 May 2021 eight citizens killed as Myanmar military regime's forces open fire on protesters: 2 May 2021: Eight citizens killed as military regime's forces open fire on protesters in Myanmar, and as protests against military rule were some of the biggest in days after a spell of dwindling crowds, as protests were now coordinated with demonstrations in Burmese communities around the world to mark what organisers called 'the global Myanmar spring revolution'
Human rights abuses and discrimination in P.R. China
Human rights abuses and torture in Iran
Human rights abuses and torture in North Korea
Human rights abuses in Pakistan
Human rights abuses in Russia
Human rights abuses and torture in Saudi Arabia
Human rights abuses in Syria
Human rights abuses in Yemen


Intelligence agencies by country

List of Secret police organizations - Death squads conduct extrajudicial killings or forced disappearances of persons for the purposes of political repression, genocide, or revolutionary terror, often conducted in ways meant to ensure the secrecy of the killers' identities
Secret police organizations and history: List of former and still existing secret police organizations by country, as they changed their names, and as few still exist under the same name as legitimate police forces
Since April 1933 NSDAP ruled Germany's 'Geheime Staatspolizei' Gestapo, SD and RSHA, GFP: Since April 1933 'Geheime Staatspolizei', abbreviated 'Gestapo', the official secret police of NSDAP ruled Germany and in German-occupied Europe, as the force was created by Hermann Göring in 1933 by combining the various security police agencies of Prussia into one organisation, as on 20 April 1934 oversight of the 'Gestapo' passed to the head of the SS Heinrich Himmler, who was also appointed Chief of German Police by Hitler in 1936 - 'Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS', the intelligence agency of the SS and the NSDAP originating in 1931, as the organization was the first Nazi intelligence organization to be established and was considered a connected organization with the Gestapo since 1933 through integration of SS members and operational procedures, as the SD was administered as an independent SS office between 1933 and 1939, after which it was transferred to the authority of the Reich Main Security Office 'Reichssicherheitshauptamt' - Geheime Feldpolizei, the secret military police of the German NSDAP 'Wehrmacht' until the end of the Second World War in May 1945

List of current secret police organizations
Since 1983 'Ministry of State Security' in Beijing: Since 1983 'Ministry of State Security', the civilian intelligence, 'security' and secret police agency of Beijing's regime, responsible for counter-intelligence, foreign intelligence and political 'security' (its military counterpart is the Intelligence Bureau of the Joint Staff), as the MSS has been described as one of the most secretive intelligence organizations in the world, until today headquartered in Beijing
Since 1999 Beijing regime's '610 Office': Since 1999 '610 Office' is or was an agency in the P.R. of China, named for the date of its creation and established for the purpose of coordinating and implementing the persecutions, as in 2018 the office was reorganized and its functions delegated to the Central Political and Legal Affairs Commission and the Ministry of Public Security - Chinese intelligence activity abroad
Since 1983 'VAJA', the primary intelligence agency of the Iranian Mullah regime: Since August 1983 'Ministry of Intelligence of the Islamic Republic of Iran', the primary intelligence agency of the Iranian Mullah regime and a member of the 'Iran Intelligence Community', also known as VAJA and initially known as SAVAMA, after it took over the Shah's intelligence apparatus SAVAK, as the agency today is one of the three 'sovereign' ministerial bodies of Iran due to nature of its work at home and abroad
1988–1998 chain murders of Iran: 1988–98 chain murders of Iran, a series of murders and disappearances of certain Iranian dissident intellectuals who had been critical of the Mullah regime system, as the murders and disappearances were carried out by Iranian government internal operatives - referred to as 'chain murders' because they appeared to be linked to each other -, as the victims included more than 80 writers, translators, poets, political activists, and ordinary citizens, killed by a variety of means such as car crashes, stabbings, shootings in staged robberies, and injections with potassium to simulate heart attack, and as the pattern of murders did not come to light until late 1998 when Dariush Forouhar, his wife Parvaneh Eskandari Forouhar, and three dissident writers were murdered over a span of two months
Since 2005 'Oghab 2' Mullah regime's counter-espionage agency: Since 2005 'Oghab 2', an Iranian counter-espionage agency tasked to protect Mullah regime's nuclear facilities from threats, including sabotage and cyber warfare, as according to The New York Times, the Iranian regime has acknowledged that it is fighting nuclear espionage, and has foiled attempts to recruit spies and defectors to pass secrets out of their enrichment facilities
Since 1995 'Federal Security Service' FSB of the Russian Federation: Since 1995 'Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation FSB', the principal 'security' agency of Russia's Putin regime and the main successor agency to the Soviet Union's KGB since 1954 until today
October 2018 own goals by Russian spies expose GRU lost its way in the age of internet: 5 October 2018: String of own goals by Russian spies exposes a strange sloppiness, as GRU seems to have lost its way in the age of internet search and as bungling agents leave Putin exposed in the global spotlight, after hatefully saying 'traitors will kick the bucket'
Since 1971 Syrian Assad regime's 'General Intelligence Directorate': Since 1971 'General Intelligence Directorate', the most important civil intelligence service of Syria's regime of Hafez al-Assad and his son Bashar al-Assad, playing a leading role in suppressing opposition and quelling internal dissent - 'Political Security Directorate', divided into an Internal Security Department and an External Security Department, and active against the Syrian opposition - Military Intelligence Division, the military intelligence service of Syria, with roots going back to the French mandate period 1923–1943, as its current organization was established in 1969, headquartered at the Defense Ministry in Damascus - Since 1963 'Air Force Intelligence Directorate', an intelligence service of Syria, possibly the country's most powerful and owing its importance to Hafez al-Assad's role as the Air Force commander, as despite its name, it is mainly involved with issues other than air force intelligence, taking an active part in the suppression of opposition since the Muslim Brotherhood rebellion in the 1980s

Police brutality - History of police brutality, as police violence is legally defined as a civil rights violation where law enforcement officers exercise undue or excessive force against a subject, that includes, but is not limited to, bullying, physical or verbal harassment, physical or mental injury, property damage, and death
Overview of cases of police brutality in Asia: Overview of cases of police brutality by continent and country including People's Republic of China, Middle East, Pakistan, Turkey etc. in Asia
Overview of cases of police brutality in Europe: Overview of cases of police brutality in Europe
Overview of cases of police brutality in the Americas: Overview of cases of police brutality in the Americas

Surveillance - Mass surveillance - Global surveillance refers to the mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders and can be traced back to the 20th century and a United Kingdom and USA agreement - Phone surveillance - Telephone tapping - Phone hacking - Computer and network surveillance
23 September 2020 Putin investigators targeting Navalny and others use imported phone-hacking tech: 23 September 2020: Putin investigators targeting Navalny and others use Israeli phone-hacking tech, as committee headed by Putin associate Alexander Bastrykin claims it used Cellebrite’s technology more than 26,000 times for hacking phones
23 September 2020 treated in Berlin for Novichok poisoning Russian opposition leader Navalny's condition improved enough for him to be released: 23 September 2020: The German hospital treating Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny for poisoning said Wednesday that his condition improved enough for him to be released, and suggested a 'complete recovery' from the Russian nerve agent was possible

Censorship - Political censorship - Censorship by religion
Internet censorship is the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative, as internet censorship puts restrictions on what information can be put on the internet or not - An Internet outage or Internet blackout is the complete or partial failure of the internet services, that can occur due to censorship, cyberattacks, disasters, police or security services actions - Since 2009 usage of Internet 'kill switch' in Beijing regime's China, in the area of Iran's Mullah regime, and more countries
Censorship by country: Censorship by country - 'Press Freedom Index' and 'Internet censorship and surveillance' maps are showing a very serious situation in a range of countries including P.R. China (one party Beijing regime), Iran (Islamist Mullah regime), Syria (Assad Ba'ath Party regime), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (wahhabism regime), Belarus (Lukashenko regime) and some other countries
Since 2009 usage of Internet 'kill switch' in Beijing regime's China: Since 2009 usage of Internet 'kill switch' in Beijing regime's China, in the area of Iran's Mullah regime, and more countries
Januar 2019 Beijing regime's China model for controlling what people in Africa and Asia can say and do online: 2 January 2019: As citizens of the D.R. of the Congo DRC pointlessly refresh their web browsers this week, they are getting a preview of just what Chinese-crafted cyberspace rules look like. The DRC on Monday became the latest country to cut its people off from the internet, as voters await the results of this weekend's highly-contested presidential election, after internet and social media shutdowns have become more and more common across Africa and Asia in recent years, particularly as authoritarian governments look to China as the model for controlling what people can say and do online
22 September 2021 Lithuania tells citizens to throw out Chinese phones over built-in ability to detect and censor terms such as 'democracy movement': 22 September 2021: Lithuania tells citizens to throw out Chinese phones over censorship concerns, as defence ministry has recommended that consumers avoid buying Chinese mobile phones and advised people to throw away the ones they have now, after a government report found the devices had built-in censorship capabilities. Flagship phones sold in Europe by China’s smartphone giant Xiaomi Corp have a built-in ability to detect and censor terms such as 'free Tibet', 'long live Taiwan independence' or 'democracy movement', Lithuania’s state-run cybersecurity body said on Tuesday


Cyberwarfare - Cyberterrorism - Information warfare - Cyberwarfare by country
Cyberwarfare by Russia including denial of service attacks, hacker attacks, dissemination of disinformation and propaganda, participation of state-sponsored teams in political blogs, internet surveillance using SORM technology, persecution of cyber-dissidents and other active measures, some of these activities have been coordinated by the Russian signals intelligence, which is part of the FSB (former KGB) but others have been directed by the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Military of Russia
2007/2008 cyberattacks on Estonia and during the Russo-Georgian War: 2007 cyberattacks on Estonia - 2008 Cyberattacks during the Russo-Georgian War
Since 2013 'Trolls from Olgino' and Russian–Ukrainian cyberwarfare: Since 2013 'Trolls from Olgino' and 'Olgino's trolls' have become general terms denoting trolls who spread pro-Russian propaganda - Since 2013 Russian–Ukrainian cyberwarfare
2016 Russian interference in the USA elections: Russian interference in the 2016 USA elections
2017 suspected Russian interference in the French elections: 7 May 2017: Russian effort suspected in French election hacking attack, as Paris’ cybersecurity agency begins to probe leak of Macron campaign documents and as expert notes ‘Cyrillic script in the metadata’ of hacked files - 7 May 2017: WikiLeaks finds Russian trace in hacker attack on Macron's headquarters
June 2017 Russian hacker attacks: 23 June 2017: To stop Russia and other hackers, we need to overhaul the internet, says Israeli cyber expert Prof. Isaac Ben-Israel says ahead of next week’s Tel Aviv University 'Cyber Week 2017', calling for a radical overhaul of the internet in order to counter cyber warfare
June 2019 Russian 'spoofing': 27 June 2019: Russian regime blamed for disruption of GPS systems at Ben Gurion Airport, appearing to stem from electronic warfare known as 'spoofing' and to originate in Syria, where Russian troops and aircraft are fighting on behalf of the country’s dictator Bashar Assad - 28 June 2019: Signals disrupting satellite navigation for planes flying through Israeli airspace in recent weeks originate inside a Russian air base inside Syria, according to USA researcher, saying signals are detectable from space, appearing to come from new deployment of Russian regime’s electronic warfare systems

Cyberwarfare by and in China
23 September 2021 experts say China’s low-level cyber war is becoming severe threat: 23 September 2021: Experts say China’s low-level cyber war is becoming severe threat, as Beijing regime's state-sponsored hacking is at record levels, western experts say, accusing Beijing of engaging in a form of low-level warfare that is escalating despite USA, British and other political efforts to bring it to a halt

Cyberwarfare by Iran
28 January 2021 Hezbollah-linked network Lebanese Cedar APT attacked companies worldwide: 28 January 2021: Hezbollah-linked network Lebanese Cedar APT has breached 250 companies worldwide, as an Israeli cybersecurity firm's report shows that victims attacked include companies in the USA, the United Kingdom, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and the Palestinian Authority

Computer crime and cyberattacks - Computer security - Outline of computer security - Computer systems at risk - Computer vulnerability
List and timeline of cyberattacks: List of cyberattacks - List of data breaches - Timeline of computer security hacker history
May 2013 hackers steal $45 million in global plot: 10 May 2013: Hackers steal $45 million in global plot involving bank databases, debit cards and cash machines
May 2017 WannaCry malware attack infecting computers in 99 countries demanding ransom: May 2017 WannaCry malware cyber attack, infecting over 75,000 computers in 99 countries, demanding ransom payments - 12 May 2017: Computers in thousands of locations have apparently been locked by a program that reportedly demands $300 in Bitcoin
Since May 2017 governments at the heart of global cyberattacks including 'Petya': 15 May 2017: Microsoft warns governments against storing computer vulnerabilities like the leaked one at the heart of the global cyberattack that has crippled computers in more than 150 countries, partly laying blame with the USA government and its agencies for the weekend assault - June 2017 global Petya cyberattacks, primarily targeting Ukraine - 27 June 2017: 'Petya' ransomware attack strikes companies across Europe and USA - 23 August 2017: Researchers who warned robot manufacturers in January about vulnerabilities in their home, business and industrial robots, say only a few of the problems have been addressed
December 2017 North Korea 'directly responsible' for the so-called WannaCry cyber attack USA says: 19 December 2017: North Korea is 'directly responsible' for the so-called WannaCry cyber attack that crippled hospitals, banks and other companies across the globe earlier this year, according to USA official
January 2021 cybersecurity attacks targeting healthcare organizations amid covid-19 pandemic have spiked globally: 5 January 2021: Cybersecurity attacks targeting healthcare organizations amid the covid-19 pandemic have spiked globally, and since the start of November these attacks have surged 45%, Israel's Check Point Software Technologies said in a new report


Manifestations of information pollution: Manifestations of information pollution, in two groups including those that provoke disruption, and those that damage information quality
7. Dezember 2017 'Das Internet ... wird verseucht', Kriminelle können mit Routern, Webcams und Toastern fast jede Webseite lahmlegen: 7. Dezember 2017: 'Das Internet ... wird verseucht', Kriminelle können mit Routern, Webcams und Toastern fast jede Webseite lahmlegen - Verseuchte Webseiten sind mittlerweile ein beliebter Weg, um die Rechner von Internet-Surfern mit Trojanern oder Spionageprogrammen zu verseuchen, und dabei nutzen Hacker gerade bekannt gewordene oder im Untergrund gehandelte Sicherheitslücken in Browsern oder Betriebssystemen aus
February 2019 ongoing internet pollution provoking disruptions and more: 21.02.2019: Wenn ein Klick den Computer verseucht, gefährliche Webseiten und 'cookies'


Crime by country
Crime by country: Crime by country
Crime by country by type: Crime by country by type
Violence by country: Violence by country
Murder by country: Murder by country - Murder by decade and country - 1900s murders in Germany (not including by German empire) - Herero and Namaqua genocide, the first genocide of the 20th century waged by the German Empire against the Herero (Ovaherero), the Nama, and the San in German South West Africa (now Namibia), between 1904 and 1908 - 1910s murders in Germany (not including by German empire) - German war crimes since pre-World War I and in World War I - World War I crimes by Imperial Germany - 1920s murders in Germany
1930s murders in Germany (not including by German empire) - 1940s murders in Germany (not including by German empire) - 20th-century mass murder in Germany, including World War II prisoners of war massacres by Nazi Germany - Massacres committed by Nazi Germany - NSDAP-ruled German empire's World War II war crimes - Nazi war crimes by country - Myth of the clean Wehrmacht - The Holocaust by country
Mass shootings by country: Mass shootings by country
Terrorism by country: Terrorism by country - Terrorist incidents by country
Torture by country: Torture by country
Police brutality by country: Police brutality by country - Crimes against police officers by country
Violence against children by country: Violence against children by country
School corporal punishment: School corporal punishment
Domestic violence by country: Domestic violence by country - Effects of domestic violence on children play a tremendous role on the developmental growth of children, as children experiencing domestic violence in the home often believe that they are to blame and live in a constant state of fear - Countries that have completely prohibited corporal punishment of children
Violence against women by country: Violence against women by country
Human trafficking by country: Human trafficking by country
Human rights abuses by country: Human rights abuses by country
Robberies by country: Robberies by country
Corruption, fraud and 'white collar' crimes by country: Corruption by country - Fraud by country

Organized crime - Organized crime by country - Transnational organized crime
September 2012: 27 September 2012: Organised crime is a big player in illegal logging, which accounts for up to 30% of all wood traded globally, the UN and Interpol are warning
July 2013: 24 juillet 2013: Le crime organisé international rapporte 870 milliards de dollars par an grâce aux trafics de drogue et d'êtres humains et à la cybercriminalité, selon une estimation de l'ONU
March 2017: March 2017: The fight against transnational crime needs to be redirected to combatting the money the crimes generate and shutting down the global shadow financial system that facilitates the moving and secreting of illicitly generated funds
December 2017: 7 December 2017: The global homicide rate rose last year for the first time in more than a decade, according to 'Small Arms Survey’s report', estimating that 385,000 people were killed in homicides across the world in 2016
October 2018: 16 October 2018: USA designates terrorist organization Hezbollah a transnational crime threat, having a sprawling network involved in money-laundering, drug trafficking, and organized crime as well as terrorism, whose reach extends across Africa and into Central and South America, and also well-documented links with drug cartels
Arms trafficking
2011/2012: 3 novembre 2011: 'Marchand de mort' Viktor Bout reconnu coupable de trafic d'armes - 6 April 2012: Russian arms dealer Viktor Bout sentenced to 25 years in prison by a New York judge after being convicted on terrorism charges
2012: 30. Januar 2012: Friedensforschungsinstitut Sipri prangert fehlende Kontrollen von Waffenschmuggel und Transportverboten an
2015: 8 décembre 2015: Les transferts irresponsables d'armes effectués vers l'Irak depuis des décennies sont à l'origine du redoutable arsenal utilisé par le groupe Etat islamique, provenant d'au moins 25 pays dont une bonne partie de Russie, selon un ONG rapport
List of countries by firearm-related death rate
2012-2016: 44% of all homicides globally involve gun violence and there were 1.4 million firearm-related deaths globally between 2012 and 2016, according to Amnesty International
Homicide statistics by country and gender according to data given by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime - Statistics of sex differences in crime
Human trafficking - Human trafficking by country
2012: 25 September 2012: USA President Obama has decried human trafficking as 'modern slavery'
Contemporary slavery refers to the institutions of slavery that continue to exist in the present day - Contemporary slavery by continent and country
2013: 17 octobre 2013: 30 millions de personnes réduites en esclavage dans le monde
2016: 31 May 2016: More than 45 million men, women and children globally are trapped in modern slavery, far more than previously thought, with two-thirds in the Asia-Pacific, a 'Walk Free Foundation' study shows
2017: 19 September 2017: An estimated 40.3 million people were victims of modern slavery in 2016, a quarter of them children, according to new global slavery statistics released by UN’s International Labour Organisation and the Walk Free Foundation
2018: 19 July 2018: The Global Slavery Index, that describes modern slavery as a complex and often hidden crime that crosses borders, sectors and jurisdictions, reports an estimated 40.3 million global total number of enslaved people with most victims in Asia, published by the 'Walk Free Foundation'
Illegal drug trade - Illegal drug trade by country - Drug cartels, criminal organizations with the intention of supplying drug trafficking operations, ranging from loosely managed agreements among various drug traffickers to formalized commercial enterprises
9 December 1926 Gandhi tries to get colonial Britain to ban opium in India: 9 December 1926: As addiction, particularly among the poor, has become a serious problem, Gandhi tries to get colonial Britain to ban opium in India
Since 1990s Afghan and Taliban opium smuggling into Iran: Since 1990s Afghan and Taliban opium smuggling into Iran
Since 2009, 2017 Obama administration covertly derailed DEA Hezbollah/Iran investigation: 18 December 2017: The Obama administration covertly derailed a campaign by the USA Drug Enforcement Administration that targeted the Iranian-backed Hezbollah terrorist group and its weapons and drug trafficking practices in order to help solidify the 2015 Iran nuclear accord, according to an investigative report by Politico
May 2015 rising opium production, the cash crop of the Taliban: 5 May 2015: Afghan poppy farmers say new seeds will boost opium output, the cash crop of the Taliban and the scourge of Afghanistan
December 2017 review of DEA Hezbollah/Iran investigation: 23 December 2017: USA attorney general orders review of DEA Hezbollah investigation, vowing to pursue terror groups, drug traffickers in wake of report asserting Obama administration derailed DEA campaign in order to clinch Iran nuke deal
June 2019 deaths from drug-related crimes and abuse on the rise: 29 June 2019: Deaths from drug-related crimes and abuse are on the rise according to a new UN report, as about 271 million people aged 15–64 used drugs in 2016
8 December 2020 Mexico's Sinaloa cartel has created a global network to rule the fentanyl trade: 8 December 2020: Not seriously held accountable, Mexico's Sinaloa cartel has created a global network to rule the fentanyl trade, as drugs bust in India sheds light on how adaptable cartels have come to dominate the lucrative global trade in the powerful synthetic opioid
Piracy modern age - worldwide

White collar crime - White-collar criminals by nationality
Corporate crime
Tax evasion - Tax avoidance - Tax haven - List of offshore financial centres - Lists of identified offshore financial centres - OECD's List of Unco-operative Tax Havens
Since 2002 tax haven Monaco: Tax haven Monaco's absence of a personal income tax has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy 'tax refugee' residents who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco - 24 October 2002 Franco-Monégasque treaty greatly increases Monaco’s ability to conduct it own foreign relations, alleging that the Principality is an independent and sovereign State - Franco-Monégasque economic and political ties, including an agreement that French citizens with less than five years of residence in Monaco and companies doing more than 25% of their business outside the country would be taxed at French rates
In 2012/2013 up to $32 trillion of hidden financial assets in offshore tax havens: 23 July 2012: Rich individuals have at least $20 trillion - perhaps up to $32 trillion - of hidden financial assets in offshore tax havens, a study says - private 'elites' of 139 developing countries also putting wealth beyond the reach of local tax authorities - 3 April 2013: ICIJ investigating a cache of 2.5 million files cracks open the secrets of more than 120,000 offshore companies and trusts, exposing hidden dealings of politicians, con men and the mega-rich
Since April 2013 Offshore Leaks: April 2013 Offshore Leaks, the name of a report originating from the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, disclosing details of 130,000 offshore accounts in and called the biggest hit against international tax fraud of all times
Since November 2014 'Luxembourg Leaks': November 2014 'Luxembourg Leaks' financial scandal based on confidential information from 2002 to 2010, making available to the public tax rulings for over three hundred multinational companies based in Luxembourg
Since February 2015 'Swiss Leaks': February 2015 'Swiss Leaks' journalistic investigation of a giant tax evasion scheme allegedly operated with the knowledge and encouragement of the British multinational bank HSBC via its Swiss subsidiary HSBC Private Bank Suisse
June 2015 Profit-shifting and tax abuse deprive countries of resources needed to combat poverty: 2 June 2015: Profit-shifting and tax abuse by multinational corporations deprives developing countries of resources needed to combat poverty, says report by NGOs
Since April/May 2016 'Panama Papers': April 2016 'Panama Papers' set of 11.5 million leaked documents detailing financial and attorney–client information for more than 214,000 offshore companies associated with the Panamanian firm Mossack Fonseca - 3 May 2016: The Netherlands, Luxembourg along with the USA, Britain, Switzerland and Ireland were among the top destinations for funds from corporations seeking to avoid tax last year, as the British Virgin Islands and Cayman Islands received $72bn of investment becoming a focus for businesses in Russia, China, the USA and Hong Kong, according to the UN
10 May 2016 ICJ consortium makes data on 200,000 entities available on its website: 10 May 2016: 'International Consortium of Investigative Journalists', that has published the names of thousands of offshore companies at the heart of the Panama Papers, makes data on 200,000 entities available on its website
List of people named in the 'Panama Papers': List of people named in the 'Panama Papers', including heads of state (King of Saudi Arabia Salman, UAE's Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, president of the UAE and emir of Abu Dhabi, PM of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif), former heads of state, former heads of government, government officials of a very wide range of global states, and many more
July-September 2017: 25 July 2017: Almost 40% of corporate investments channelled away from authorities and into tax havens travel through the UK or the Netherlands, according to a study of researchers at the University of Amsterdam, showing the importance of developed countries cleaning up their financial sectors - 12 September 2017: Slow UK aid for hurricane-hit islands linked to tax haven ties, as Anguilla’s ex-attorney general Rupert Jones says UK government may fear exposing its role in Caribbean territories’ tax arrangements
Since November 2017 'Paradise Papers': November 2017 'Paradise Papers', a set of 13.4 million leaked documents relating to offshore investment, among those whose financial affairs are mentioned are Queen Elizabeth II and USA Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross
List of people named in the November 2017 'Paradise Papers': List of people named in the November 2017 'Paradise Papers', including heads of state (Queen of the UK Elizabeth II, and further her son Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the British throne), former heads of state and governments (including Pakistan's Shaukat Aziz, Germany's Gerhard Schröder, Qatar's Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani), cabinet officials, members of legislatures etc. from a very wide range of global states
5 November 2017 world’s biggest businesses, heads of state, global figures in politics, entertainment, sport involved: 5 November 2017: The world’s biggest businesses, heads of state and global figures in politics, entertainment and sport who have sheltered their wealth in secretive tax havens are being revealed in a major new investigation 'Paradise Papers' into Britain’s offshore empires, 'The Guardian' reports
6 November 2017 reaction around the world to release of 'Paradise Papers': 6 November 2017: Reaction around the world to release of 'Paradise Papers'
December 2017 EU's tax haven lists name 17 and 47 countries: 5 December 2017: EU named and shamed 17 countries in its first ever tax haven blacklist and put a further 47 on notice, including British overseas territories and the crown dependencies of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man
January 2018 offshore services, terrorist financing and transnational organised crime including Assad regime: 23 January 2018: The firm 'Appleby' at the heart of the Paradise Papers leak provided offshore services to FBME bank accused of facilitating terrorist financing, transnational organised crime and the Syrian government’s chemical weapons programme
October 2018 list of 21 countries with 'golden passport' schemes: 16 October 2018: A blacklist of 21 countries, including the 3 European countries Malta, Monaco and Cyprus, whose so-called 'golden passport' schemes, fast-expanding $3bn citizenships turning nationality into a marketable commodity, threaten international efforts to combat tax evasion, has been published by the OECD
April 2019 'Panama Papers' aftermath and escape: 3 avril 2019: 3 ans après le scandale des 'Panama Papers', les 22 Etats concernés par ce tentaculaire scandale d'évasion fiscale ont à ce jour réussi à recouvrer 1,2 milliard de dollars, selon le consortium d'enquête à l'origine des révélations
September 2019 bankers called 'the men who plundered Europe' on trial: 21 September 2019: Bankers called 'the men who plundered Europe' on trial for siphoning €60bn, as Shields and Diable are accused of tax fraud in ‘cum-ex’ scandal that exposes London City’s pursuit of profit
25 September 2020 Vatican cardinal Angelo Becciu resigns amid financial scandal: 25 September 2020: Head of the Vatican’s saint-making office cardinal Giovanni Angelo Becciu caught up in a real estate scandal resigned and gave up his right to take part in an eventual conclave to elect a pope, in one of the most mysterious episodes to hit the Holy See in years, as Pope Francis had accepted the resignation - Financial dealings of Italian prelate of the Roman catholic church Giovanni Angelo Becciu
March 2021 Britain’s overseas territories have topped a list of the world’s most significant tax havens: 9 March 2021: Britain’s overseas territories have topped a list of the world’s most significant tax havens ahead of Switzerland, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, according to the campaign group Tax Justice Network, as the British Virgin Islands were ranked as the 'greatest enabler of corporate tax abuse', with the Cayman Islands in second place and Bermuda third - Corporate Tax Haven Index - 2021 Results (full ranking 1 - 70)
29 April 2021 an overhaul of the global tax system can wait no longer, according to OECD: 29 April 2021: An overhaul of the global tax system can wait no longer, according to OECD's Angel Gurria, saying the covid-ravaged global economy is at a crossroads: we can commit to greater tax cooperation or risk a tax-driven trade war
October 2021 'Pandora Papers', published by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists ICIJ: October 2021 'Pandora Papers' - 11.9 million leaked documents - were published by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists ICIJ beginning on 3 October. The news organisations of the ICIJ described the document leak as their most expansive exposé of financial secrecy yet, containing documents, images, emails and spreadsheets from 14 financial service companies, in nations including Panama, Switzerland and the UAE, and surpassing their previous release of the Panama Papers in 2016
List of heads of state, policians, businesspeople named in the Pandora Papers: List of heads of state named in the Pandora Papers (including Jordanian king Abdullah II, Dominican Republic's president Luis Abinader, Azerbaijan's president Ilham Aliyev, Montenegro's president Milo Ðukanovic, Kenya's president Uhuru Kenyatta, Ecuador's president Guillermo Lasso, Gabon's president Ali Bongo Ondimba, Chile's president Sebastián Piñera, Republic of the Congo's president Denis Sassou Nguesso, Emir of Qatar Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani, Ukraine's president Volodymyr Zelensky), former heads of state, former heads of government, heads of organizations, policians, businesspeople, football managers, players and more sport and entertainment professionals - Heads of government and former heads of government, including Côte d'Ivoire's PM Patrick Achi, Czech Republic's PM Andrej Babiš, UAE's PM and emir of Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Lebanon's PM Najib Mikati, former PM of the UK Tony Blair, former PM of Italy Silvio Berlusconi, former Chief Executive of Hong Kong Tung Chee-hwa, former Chief Executive of Hong Kong Leung Chun-ying, former PM of Lebanon Hassan Diab
3 October 2021 partial list of people named in the Pandora Papers including 35 current and former national 'leaders': List of people named in the Pandora Papers, a partial list of people named in the Pandora Papers including shareholders, directors and beneficiaries of offshore companies. In total, 35 current and former national leaders appear in the leak, alongside 400 officials from nearly 100 countries. More than 100 billionaires, 29,000 offshore accounts, 30 current and former leaders, and 300 public officials were named in the first leaks in October 2021
3 October 2021 Russian nationals disproportionately represented in the Pandora Papers: 3 October 2021: For rich Russians, the offshore world plays a special role in securing the wealth of oligarchs, cronies and public officials, after Vladimir Putin’s corrupt system made many of them rich. Russian nationals are disproportionately represented in the Pandora Papers, as ICIJ’s October 2021 analysis reveals that Russians are behind about 14% of the more than 27,000 companies whose ownership details are revealed by the leak. Among them, at least 46 Russian oligarchs were using offshore companies, the analysis found
Reactions to the Pandora Papers: Reactions to the Pandora Papers
Money laundering - Offshore financial centre
Since 1989 FATF: Since 1989 'Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering' FATF
Since 2000/2008: Since 2000 Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes - OECD 'gray list' - 2 April 2009: A progress report on the jurisdictions surveyed by the OECD global forum in implementing the international agreed tax standard
September 2018 Russian oligarch Abramovich case: 26 September 2018: Abramovich, one of the closest businessmen to Russian regime's Novichok/Polonium/Sarin-Putin, who once referred to him in an interview as 'our oligarch', known for 'suspicion of money laundering and presumed contacts with criminal organisations', seen as 'a danger to public security' by Swiss police, as Russian regime since 1990s has become a 'mafia state'
14 July 2020 investigation reveals money laundering network funding Assad regime: 14 July 2020: Global Witness published an investigation that revealed, for the first time, an active Russian-Syrian international network for money laundering that has been financing the Assad regime since the beginning of 2012, as investigation reveals the mechanism used to operate a money laundering network led by Mudalal Khoury, a Russian-Syrian banker with ties to Muhammad Makhlouf, who is the uncle to the head of the regime Bashar al-Assad
20 September 2020 leaked reports reveal money laundering and suspected terrorist-linked payments: 20 September 2020: Massive leak of financial intelligence reports reveals that Jordan-based 'Arab Bank' facilitated payments to organizations and bodies suspected to be connected to terrorism, even after the Jordan-based bank had agreed to pay massive amounts in compensation to terror victims, as information appears in a confidential financial intelligence report compiled by British SCB bank, which served as a correspondent bank for Arab Bank, detailing in thousands of documents $2 trillion of potentially corrupt transactions that were washed through the USA financial system and have been leaked to an international group of investigative journalists
Terrorism financing - State-sponsored terrorism - countries - State Sponsors of Terrorism - USA list - List of charities accused of ties to terrorism
Since 1979 Iranian regime's state-sponsored terrorism: Since 1979 the Iranian regime has been accused by members of the international community of funding, providing equipment, weapons, training and giving sanctuary to terrorists
Since 1982 Iranian regime's support of Hezbollah: Since 1982 Iranian regime's support of Hezbollah terrorist group and its terror attacks
Since 2000/2001 global fight against terrorist financing: Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering FATF blacklist issued since 2000 of 'Non-Cooperative Countries or Territories', perceived to be non-cooperative in the global fight against money laundering and terrorist financing
June 2017: 23 June 2017: In its on-going review of compliance with the AML/CFT standards, the FATF identifies jurisdictions that have strategic AML/CFT deficiencies - 23 June 2017: The FATF remains concerned by the D.P.R. of Korea’s failure to address the significant deficiencies in its anti-money laundering and combating the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) regime and the serious threat this poses to the integrity of the international financial system
March 2018 Iran transfers millions to Hamas and Islamic Jihad: 8 March 2018: Iran transfers $100 million every year to Hamas and Islamic Jihad in the Gaza Strip, as $70 million is transferred to Hamas, while Islamic Jihad gets $30 million, and the vast majority of this money is used by the two organizations to further bolster their military wings, instead of aiding the civilian population in the Gaza Strip
Since September 2018 EU and Iranian regime: 25 September 2018: European Union EU said its members would set up a payment system to allow oil companies and businesses to continue trading with the Iranian regime in a bid to evade sanctions, siding with its state-sponsored terrorism and war once again, as Iran video threatens missile strikes on UAE and Saudi Arabia, also threatening Israel
January 2019 Islamic Jihad's and Hamas' threats: 6 January 2019: Senior Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas figures praise Iran’s military support and threaten that in the next war the rocket fire from the Gaza Strip will reach all the cities in Israel
January 2019: 19 January 2019: Illegally shipped Iranian fuel financing Yemen Houthi rebels' war, UN report finds
25 February 2019 Iran supports missiles to attack Israel: 25 February 2019: In documentary on Iranian TV, Gaza-based Palestinian terror group 'Islamic Jihad' says Iranian regime helped it make new projectile that can hit Tel Aviv and beyond, as well as precision missiles
Financial crimes - Securities fraud - Insider trading - Binary option operations, fraud and regulations
Illicit financial flows - Capital flight
Commercial crimes

Corruption - Corruption by country - Bribery
Since 1995 Corruption Perceptions Index: Corruption Perceptions Index since 1995, annually ranking countries 'by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys' - The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, promoting public awareness about how countries manage their oil, gas and mineral resources
2011 Russia and China come bottom of bribe-paying: 2 November 2011: Russia and China come bottom of bribe-paying Transparency-International survey
2013 dirty money leaving developing world jumped: 12 December 2013: Amount of dirty money leaving developing world jumped 14% in 2011, Global Financial Integrity report says - 2013 Corruption Perceptions Index
2014: 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index - Eritrea, Libya, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iraq, South Sudan, Afghanistan, Sudan, North Korea, and Somalia highest rankings
2015: 2015 Corruption Perceptions Index - 68% of countries worldwide have a serious corruption problem, half of the G20 are among them, not one single country is corruption-free
2016 tax havens: 9 May 2016: More than 300 leading economists from 30 countries have today written to world leaders warning that there is no economic justification for allowing tax havens to continue, and urging them to bring an end to offshore financial secrecy - 12 May 2016: To end corruption, start with the USA and UK, allowing it in broad daylight, British newspaper says - 12 May 2016: British PM Cameron casts doubt at the close of 2016 'corruption summit' in London on whether the USA could be truly considered part of a coalition committed to the fight against corruption, saying some USA states fall far short on tax transparency and are less open than the United Kingdom’s crown dependencies
2016/2017 UN payments to Assad regime's companies: 1 August 2017: The UN paid at least $18 million in 2016 to companies with close ties to Bashar Al Assad, some of them run by cronies of the Syrian dictator who are on USA and EU blacklists
2016/2017 Transparency-International's Corruption Perceptions Index: 25 January 2017: Transparency-International's Corruption Perceptions Index 2016, shows growing levels of public sector corruption and more countries declining than improving compared with figures for last year - 17 février 2017: Les procureurs généraux de 11 pays se sont engagés jeudi à créer des équipes de travail communes pour coordonner leurs enquêtes sur le scandale de corruption d'Odebrecht, le groupe de BTP brésilien
January 2020 Airbus to pay record £3bn in fines for 'endemic' corruption: 31 January 2020: Europe’s largest aerospace multinational Airbus is to pay a record £3bn in penalties after admitting it had paid huge bribes on an 'endemic' basis to land contracts in 20 countries, including including China, Russia, Japan, Kuwait, Brazil, Turkey, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Taiwan, Ghana etc., and after judges declared that the corruption was 'grave, pervasive and pernicious, as planemaker agreed to pay the penalties on Friday after reaching settlements with investigators in the UK, France and the USA to end inquiries that started four years ago
15 April 2021 oil firm bosses’ pay ‘incentivises them to undermine climate action’: 15 April 2021: Oil firm bosses’ pay 'incentivises them to undermine climate action’, as lucrative pay and share options linked to continued extraction of fossil fuels by ExxonMobil, Chevron, Shell and BP, and as compensation packages for CEOs, often in excess of $10m, are linked to continued extraction of fossil fuels, exploration of new fields and the promotion of strong market demand through advertising, lobbying and government subsidies, the report says
Political corruption - Forms of political corruption include Bribery, Cronyism, Crony capitalism, Electoral fraud or vote rigging, Extortion, Graft (politics) Influence peddling, Kleptocracy, Lobbying, Nepotism, Patronage, Plutocracy, and Slush funds - Repression of political opponents and political repression, Police corruption and general police brutality also considered political corruption
Politicians convicted of corruption
3/4 August 1914 SPD members of parliament voted 96-14 to support Central powers' war: After the SPD leadership on 25 July 1914 appealed to its membership to demonstrate for peace and large numbers turned out in orderly demonstrations, SPD members of parliament voted 96-14 on 3 August 1914 to support Central powers' war (Germany, Austria-Hungary), the next day voting the money for the war in the parliament, sending the working people and people around the world to war and death
Since August 1914 pro-war socialist parties of the Central Powers: April 1915 'Vienna Socialist Conference of 1915' gathered representatives from the Socialist parties of Germany, Austria and Hungary to the only meeting of the pro-war socialist parties of the Central Powers during World War I
Since summer 1914 efforts to save peace and the international social democracy destroyed by Germany: Since 1900 International Socialist Bureau, the permanent organization of the Second International, established at the Paris congress of 1900 - September 1915 'Zimmerwald Conference' in Switzerland, the first of three international socialist conferences convened by anti-militarist socialist parties from countries that were originally neutral during World War I and subsequent conferences held at Kienthal and Stockholm, known jointly as the Zimmerwald movement, began the unraveling of the coalition between revolutionary socialists (the so-called Zimmerwald Left) and reformist socialists - Since February 1915 Inter-Allied Socialist Conferences of World War I
15 January 1919 assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht: On 15 January 1919 Rosa Luxemburg, who had seen and saw the behaviour of the 'Social Democratic Party of Germany' as a complete betrayal, sending the working people in war and death, killed in SPD-linked ordered assassination in Berlin
Since 2002 Worldwide Governance Indicators: Worldwide Governance Indicators annually updated since 2002
2012: 18 February 2012: Germany's president quits over corruption charges
Since 2014 Crony-capitalism index: Crony-capitalism index since 2014
2016 UN payments to Assad's regime: 29 August 2016: Saying that it is perverse that UN and its agencies committed to human rights are throwing a lifeline to a regime that has no qualms about burning the entire country just to stay in power, expert in war studies Leenders reveals that UN agencies had paid 'lucrative procurement contracts to Syrian regime cronies who are known to bankroll the very repression and brutality that caused much of the country’s humanitarian needs', as the UN calls Assad's war against the Syrian people the 'world’s largest humanitarian crisis' but as brave and principled UN aid workers who were kicked out by the regime for refusing to comply with illegal restrictions on humanitarian access receive no support from their headquarters, as UNHCR is the biggest customer of the 'Four Seasons' in Damascus spending $6,822,445 at the hotel since the start of Assad's war crimes, as UN paid and pays tens of millions to Assad regime, as UN's $4bn aid effort in Syria, called morally bankrupt, and UN operations have quietly secured deals with individuals and companies under both Europe and USA sanctions - 8 September 2016: More than 70 aid groups have suspended cooperation with the UN in Syria and have demanded an immediate and transparent investigation into its operations because of concerns Syrian dictator al-Assad has gained 'significant and substantial' influence over the relief effort
2016/2017 UN payments to Assad regime's companies: 1 August 2017: The UN paid at least $18 million in 2016 to companies with close ties to Bashar Al Assad, some of them run by cronies of the Syrian dictator who are on USA and EU blacklists
2017 USA payments against Paris climate accord: 1 June 2017: Twenty-two senators and Republicans who urged Trump to pull out of Paris climate accord writing a letter to the president when he was said to be on the fence about backing out, are big oil darlings and received more than $10m from oil, gas and coal companies the past three election cycles
May 2018 Spanish PP's Bárcenas jailed: 24 May 2018: Spain’s ruling party PP has suffered a major blow after its former treasurer Bárcenas was jailed for 33 years for fraud and money laundering, and the party itself was found to have profited from an illegal kickbacks-for-contracts scheme, in a case that has become emblematic of political corruption in Spain
June 2018 UN's Guterres meets Putin and attends propaganda soccer match: 12 June 2018: UN Secretary-General Guterres will travel to Russia, where he is scheduled to meet with murderous Russian regime's Vladimir Putin on 20 June and attend a World Cup soccer match at Moscow’s Luzhniki Stadium
October 2018 Trump won't halt Saudi arms sales despite assassination of Khashoggi: 11 October 2018: Trump announces investigation concerning Jamal Khashoggi, who vanished at the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, but says he won't halt Saudi arms sales, triggering questions and troubling memories of governments' recent decisions not to punish 'ruthless' regimes in China, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Russia, Syria etc. for fear of jeopardising lucrative deals and due to obsequiousness
March 2019 oil firms lobbying to block climate change policies: 22 March 2019: Top oil firms, including BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell and Total, spending millions lobbying to block climate change policies, 'InfluenceMap' report says

Overview of Corruption in the Media
March 1914: March 1914: German newspapers beat the war drums
August 1914 German massacres of hundreds of unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant: On 21/22 August 1914 German infantry and pioneers advanced into Dinant, killing seven civilians and burning 15–20 houses, on 23 August 1914 the Germans massacred 674 unarmed Belgian civilians in Dinant, civilians were lined up against a wall and shot, including men over 70, women or girls, children under 14 and even babies, 1,200 houses were burned down and 400 people were deported to Germany as an area of Dinant was systematically looted and burned down by the Germans, also destroying public and historic buildings, including the collegial church and the town hall - 1914/1915 official report of massacres of peaceable citizens, women and children by the German army and testimony of eye-witnesses - 1915/1917 'Le sac de Dinant et le légendes du livre blanc allemand du 10 mai 1915', par M. Tschoffen, procureur du roi de l'arrondissement de Dinant - 12 May 1915 Bryce Report into German Atrocities in Belgium
1914 Western Front German massacres: Atrocités allemandes en 1914 en Wallonie, en Flandre et en France
1914 Unterstützung der Massaker von Dinant durch die SPD und ihre Presse: 1914 verfassen Adolf Köster, Redakteur des SPD-Zentralorgans Vorwärts sowie des Hamburger Echos, und Gustav Noske, SPD-Abgeordneter im Reichstag, Chefredakteur der Chemnitzer Volksstimme und Wehrexperte der Partei, eine Schrift, die die Massaker von Dinant unterstützt und den Standpunkt des deutschen Heeres teilt
1918-1945 Nazi propaganda: The propaganda used by the German NSDAP in the years leading up to and during Adolf Hitler's dictatorship of Germany 1933–1945 was a crucial instrument for acquiring and maintaining power, and for the implementation of NSDAP, SS and Gestapo policies
1933-1945 and since 1945 German media corruption: Peter Köpf, 1995: Schreiben nach jeder Richtung - Goebbels-Propagandisten in der westdeutschen Nachkriegspresse

During World War II USA's 'Commission on Freedom of the Press': During World War II 'Commission on Freedom of the Press' (Hutchins Commission), formed to inquire into the proper function of the media in a modern democracy and established as a response to criticism from the public and government over media ownership - Media bias - Media bias controversies - Media manipulation - Propaganda

Media bias - Media bias controversies - Media manipulation - Concentration of media ownership
Propaganda - Propaganda by country - Propaganda organizations by country - Propaganda by topic - Propaganda by war
21st-century propaganda overview: Overview of 21st-century propaganda, including the Middle East (Afghan War, Iraq War, following conflicts and wars), North Korea, Mexican drug cartels, Mainland China (propaganda in the P.R. of China)
2016 Syrian 'message to an obsessed world': 18 July 2016: In 'a message to an obsessed world' Syrian artist Mohamed Youssef has taken advantage of the global preoccupation with the Pokemon game, featuring Pokemon in his designs alongside the tragic life Syrians are living, amid military operations and continuous bombardment, in an attempt to draw attention to a country where 9 million people have been forced to flee their homes and where cities have been obliterated by Assad’s regime, Russia, and allied militias, especially those backed by Iran

Commercialism, Kommerzialisierung von Sport/Profisport, Advertising and Crowd manipulation
Promotion and marketing: Promotion, marketing refers to any type of marketing communication used to inform target audiences of the relative merits of a product, service, brand or issue, most of the time is persuasive in nature, as helping marketers to create a distinctive place in customers' mind, it can be either a cognitive or emotional route, and as the aim of promotion is to increase awareness, create interest, generate sales or create brand loyalty
Promotion and marketing communications: Promotion and marketing communications
Advertising marketing communication: Advertising, a marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea, as sponsors of advertising are typically businesses wishing to promote their products or services - Advertising management
History of advertising: History of advertising
Since 1900 history of advertising by continent and country: Since 1900 history of advertising by continent and country
Since 1914 history of public relations and wartime propaganda: Since 1914 history of public relations and wartime propaganda in World War I and II
Media manipulation: Media manipulation
Online advertising and online marketing using the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers: Online advertising, also known as online marketing, Internet advertising, digital advertising or web advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers, as many consumers find online advertising disruptive and have increasingly turned to ad blocking for a variety of reasons
Since 1990s history of online advertising: Since 1990s history of online advertising, after in early days of the Internet online advertising was mostly prohibited
Crowd manipulation: Crowd manipulation, the intentional use of techniques based on the principles of crowd psychology to engage, control, or influence the desires of a crowd in order to direct its behavior toward a specific action
Herd behavior, apathy, indifference and dumbing down of people: Apathy, a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern about something, a state of indifference, or the suppression of emotions such as concern, excitement, motivation, or passion - Herd behavior in social and political contexts, following dumbing down of people by a governing power or market fads, aiming herd behavior of people, easily controlled - 'Herd behavior' is often a tool in marketing to increases in sales and even changes to the structure of society

State media by country - L'audiovisuel public, in english public broadcasting, connecté avec l'état représente l'ensemble des stations de radio, chaînes de télévision et autres média électroniques dont la mission officiellement déclarée est le service public, lors que ces institutions sont en général détenues partiellement ou dans leur totalité par l'État ou toute autre institution publique connectée avec l'état - Audiovisuel public, in english public broadcasting, listed by continend and by country
Concentration of media ownership, also known as media convergence, is a process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organizations control increasing shares of the mass media, contemporary research demonstrates increasing levels of consolidation, with many media industries already highly concentrated and dominated by a very small number of firms, companies or organisations - Concentration of media ownership by continent and in particular nations
16 March 2015 corruption in the media is killing ethical journalism: 16 March 2015: Corruption in the media is killing ethical journalism, European Federation of Journalists EJN says
17 March 2015 conflict of journalism and HSBC tax evasion's patrons: 17 March 2015: The conflict of interest between advertiser power and journalism revealed by Peter Oborne, who walked out of Britain's Daily Telegraph accusing the management of censoring stories about HSBC bank and tax evasion, is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to corruption inside media
April 2018 Hungarian journalists admit role in forging anti-migrant 'atmosphere of fear': 13 April 2018: Hungarian journalists admit role in forging anti-migrant 'atmosphere of fear' ahead of Victor Orbán’s election victory this week, as the 'Guardian' spoke to several employees of the taxpayer-funded MTVA network to hear the inside story of how its channels pumped out government messaging, and at times false stories, with the goal of winning support for Orban's anti-immigration message
June 2018 Fifa’s World Cup is toxic handing World Cup to kleptomaniac murderers who run Russia: 9 June 2018: Fifa’s World Cup is toxic, British Guardian/Observer columnist Nick Cohen explains, after Zurich’s masters of corruption Fifa handed the World Cup first to kleptomaniac murderers who run Russia and then to the overseers of a serf economy in Qatar
15 April 2021 Beijing regime turns things upside down with its warnings against 'playing with fire': 15 April 2021: Beijing regime's 'increasingly aggressive' breaches of Taiwan air zone, at the same time turning things upside down with its warnings against 'playing with fire'

Film and film industry promotion by television and radio
List of wars in fiction by country, by warfare, by period etc.
2015 echoes, traditions of films and propaganda: 17 December 2015: Echoes of famous films, including Nazi propaganda, in USA's 2015 'Star Wars' movie
Corruption, match-fixing, cheating, doping in sport
2002: 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal
2015/2016: 2015/2016 FIFA corruption case - 19 April: USA judge released transcripts of guilty pleas from three prominent defendants in the Fifa corruption investigation in which they expressed regret and suggested that bribes in the organization were standard practice
2016: 11 May 2016: 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games corruption claims bring scandal back to the IOC - 18 July 2016: Wada's devastating and damning report into Russian sport has found that the country’s government, security services and sporting authorities colluded to hide widespread doping across 'a vast majority' of winter and summer sports - 25 July 2016: IOC’s decision against imposing a ban on the Russian Olympic contingent is a declaration of bankruptcy in the fight against doping, the winners are those who cheat, journalist says, who exposed the systematic doping in Russian athletics, adding that in the end the IOC kowtowed to the Russian regime - 31 July 2016: 13 national anti-doping organisations, including those from the USA, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands and Japan have given a damning verdict on the IOC’s 'hasty and ill-conceived' response to state-sponsored doping in Russia and accused its leaders of being open to political and commercial influence at the expense of clean sport - 1 August 2016: Rio Olympic boxing tournament hit by corruption allegations - 4 August 2016: Wada-commissioned lawyer Richard McLaren accuses IOC of misrepresenting his doping report and findings, which were never designed to prove individual doping cases, but is about state-sponsored systemic doping over a period of four years across the majority of Olympic sports, manipulation of results, swapping of samples, preparation of wash-up schemes
2017: 5 December 2017: Russia’s Olympic Committee banned from the Winter Olympics in 2018 for doping and 'unprecedented attack on the integrity of the Olympic Games and sport' - 22 December 2017: Two ex-soccer officials found guilty in New York on multiple charges of corruption - 26 December 2017: Russian deputy PM Vitaly Mutko, who was banned for life from the Olympics this month, quits football role before 2018 World Cup
April 2018: 18 April 2018: After Fifa’s Gianni Infantino favoured Crimean Shampanskoye over Millennium Hotel's tea, fantastical diversions emerge to stop fretting about Russia and to start meddling with Qatar
June 2018 toxic Fifa’s World Cup: 9 June 2018: Fifa’s World Cup is toxic, British Guardian/Observer columnist Nick Cohen explains, after Zurich’s masters of corruption Fifa handed the World Cup first to kleptomaniac murderers who run Russia and then to the overseers of a serf economy in Qatar - Der Kick des Geldes, Frankfurt/M. 2015, von Jens Berger
January 2019 assassination of journalist Ahmed Hussein-Suale: 17 January 2019: Assassinated investigative journalist Ahmed Hussein-Suale had told CPJ in September 2018 that people had attempted to attack him and that he feared for his life following comments about him and the publication of his image on the national television channel Net 2 TV, which Agyapong owns, by Assin Central's MP Kennedy Agyapong - 17 January 2019: Speaking without showing his face, journalist Anas Aremeyaw Anas says that his team, which had investigated corruption in Ghana's football leagues, face daily death threats
19 December 2020 Olympic Committee accused of ignoring human rights for 2022 Beijing Games: 19 December 2020: Olympic Committee accused of ignoring human rights for 2022 Beijing Games, as groups speaking for Tibetans, Uighurs and others representing Hong Kong say international body has ‘turned a blind eye’ to systematic violations
Nationalism and sport are often intertwined, as sports provide a venue for symbolic competition between nations and sports competition often reflects national conflict - Racism in sports has been a prevalent issue throughout the world, and in particular racism towards African-Americans has been especially bad over the course of the history of sports in the USA and around the world - Racism in association football - Antisemitism in the Olympic Games
'Fake news' is a type of hoax or deliberate spread of misinformation in social media or traditional news media with the intent to mislead in order to gain financially or politically - Fake news by country, said to have influenced political discourse in multiple countries - Fake news websites deliberately publish hoaxes, propaganda, and disinformation purporting to be real news — often using social media to drive web traffic and amplify their effect
Disinformation, intentionally false or misleading information that is spread in a calculated way to deceive target audiences - Propaganda - Propaganda techniques
November 2017: 14 November 2017: Governments of 30 countries around the globe are using armies of so-called opinion shapers to meddle in elections, advance anti-democratic agendas and repress their citizens, a new Freedom House report shows
December 2017: 31 December 2017: Syria Campaign’s report 'Killing the Truth: How Russia is fuelling a disinformation campaign to cover up war crimes in Syria' found, that co-ordinated groups of 'bots' and trolls linked to Russian Putin regime have reached millions during key moments of 2016 and 2017
April 2018: 19 April 2018: Russian regime's leaks have revealed its use of disinformation over the shooting down of Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 in 2014, as hacked emails linked to senior Russian officials contained a briefing document that set out eight separate messaging 'lines to take' over the crash which killed 298 people, sought to blame Ukraine for the crime although the Boeing airliner was shot down by a Russian BUK surface-to-air missile
December 2018: 10 December 2018: The Russian regime launched a year-long disinformation campaign to soften up public opinion before its recent seizure of three Ukrainian ships and their crews in the Sea of Azov, according to the EU’s security commissioner Julian King, saying false claims included that Ukraine had infected the sea with cholera and that its secret services had been trying to transport a nuclear bomb to occupied Crimea
June 2020 Beijing regime tries to reshape global news landscape: 25 June 2020: China is reshaping the global news landscape and weakening the Fourth Estate, as Beijing’s involvement in media overseas is growing almost faster than it can be tracked – the ultimate aim is both ideological and geopolitical - 25 June 2020: A survey of journalist unions across 58 countries found that through study tours, control of media infrastructure, and the provision of pro-Beijing content, China is 'running an extensive and sophisticated long-term outreach campaign … [in] a strategic, long-term effort to reshape the global news landscape with a China-friendly global narrative'

Censorship by country - overview collecting information on censorship, Internet censorship, Freedom of the Press, Freedom of speech, and Human Rights by country and presents it in a sortable table, together with links to articles with more information, as in addition to countries, the table includes information on former countries, disputed countries, political sub-units within countries, and regional organizations - Censorship by types, by media - Censorship by country
Internet censorship: Internet censorship, the control or suppression of what can be accessed, published, or viewed on the Internet enacted by regulators, or on their own initiative - Internet censorship by continent
Internet censorship and surveillance by country: Internet censorship by country - Internet censorship and surveillance by country
Censorship of Wikipedia: Censorship of Wikipedia has occurred in several countries, including China, France, Iran, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Kingdom, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela, as some instances are examples of widespread internet censorship in general that includes Wikipedia content, and others are indicative of measures to prevent the viewing of specific content deemed offensive

Commercialization of social media, interactive computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks - Trustworthiness and reliability of social networks - Social network - Timeline of social media
December 2014: December 2014: A Review on Social Media Use or Abuse
May 2019: 15 May 2019: A 16 year-old girl has reportedly killed herself in Malaysia, after posting a poll on her Instagram account asking followers if she should die or not, and 69% of responders voting that she should
Platform Weaponization, a form or type of information warfare and psychological warfare involving the unaccounted for potential or actual actions that result in outside agents leveraging a technology platform to serve ends that run counter to those of the intended use for the system
Terrorism and social media, as due to the convenience, affordability, and broad reach of social media platforms such as YouTube, Facebook and Twitter, terrorist groups have increasingly used social media to further their goals and spread their message


Dans le domaine des sciences sociales, la brutalité se réfère à la rudesse et à la violence qui peuvent s'exprimer dans un caractère ou un comportement
Cruelty (cruauté) is indifference to suffering, and even pleasure in inflicting it
Lists of murder, murder rates and lists of assassinations by region and by country: Lists of assassinations, including lists of assassinations by region and by country (insufficiently regarding the context of events) - Murder and murder rates, by period, by continent, by country and by city - Hinrichtungsarten früher und heute - Extrajudicial killing by country - Judicial murder
Torture: Torture - List of methods of torture, including specification of some origins
Chronological list of (known) poisonings: List of known poisonings since ancient times, in chronological order by the date of death of the victim(s), also including mass poisonings and confirmed attempted poisonings


Crimes against humanity, acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population, the first prosecution for crimes against humanity took place at the Nuremberg trials, and have since been prosecuted by other international courts - Genocide, the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, cultural, religious or national group, defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 1948 as 'any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the groups conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group'
1490-1914 genocides in Africa: 1490-1914 genocides in Africa, including 1885-1908 Atrocities in the Congo Free State under the rule of King Leopold II of Belgium, 1827-1857 French conquest of Algeria, 1904-1908 Herero and Nama genocide, a campaign of extermination and collective punishment by the German Empire in South West Africa (now Namibia) and considered the first genocide of the 20th century, 1815-1840 Mfecane, a period of widespread chaos and warfare among indigenous ethnic communities in southern Africa, following the Portuguese introduction of maize, a ten-year drought and a resulting competition for land and water resources among the peoples of the area
1490-1914 genocides in Americas: 1490-1914 genocides in Americas, including since the early 1500s colonialism and genocide in the Americas by England, France, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain, later Great Britain and the USA, also responsible for the, California Genocide, the violence, relocation, and starvation that led to a decrease in the indigenous population of California as a result of the USA occupation of California
Since 16th century Brazil: Genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil since 16th century
Since 16th century colonialism and genocides by the British Empire: Since 16th century Colonialism and genocides by the British Empire - in places like North Americas, Australia, New Zealand, settler colonialism caused the indigenous population to decrease by over half after becoming a British colony, foreign land viewed as attractive for settlement was declared as terra nullius or 'nobody's land', the indigenous inhabitants were therefore denied any sovereignty or property rights in the eyes of the British, justifying invasion and the violent seizure of native land to create colonies populated by British settlers causing a large decrease in the indigenous population from war, newly introduced diseases, massacre by colonists and attempts at forced assimilation, the gradual violent expansion of colonies into indigenous land could last for centuries
Since the 1640s Russian conquest of Siberia: Since the 1640s Russian conquest of Siberia, accompanied by massacres due to indigenous resistance to colonization by the Russian Cossacks, who savagely crushed the natives
Since 1869 Japanese colonization of Hokkaido: Since 1869 Japanese colonization of Hokkaido

Genocides in the 20th and 21th century (from 1914-1918 World War I)
Since 1500 until today genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil: Since 1500 genocide of indigenous peoples in Brazil, that began with the Portuguese colonization of the Americas, starting the process that led to the depopulation of the indigenous peoples in Brazil, because of disease and violent treatment by European settlers, their gradual replacement with colonists from Europe and Africa, described as a genocide, and continuing into the modern era with the ongoing destruction of indigenous peoples of the Amazonian region - In modern Brazil over 80 indigenous tribes disappeared between 1900 and 1957, and of a population of over one million during this period 80% had been killed through repression, disease, or murder
1904-1908 Herero and Namaqua genocide by the German Empire: 1904-1908 Herero and Namaqua genocide or the Herero and Nama genocide, the first genocide of the 20th century, waged by the German Empire against the Herero (Ovaherero), the Nama, and the San in German South West Africa (now Namibia)
May 2021 Germany agrees to pay Namibia €1.1bn over historical Herero-Nama genocide: 28 May 2021: Germany agrees to pay Namibia €1.1bn over historical Herero-Nama genocide, as Germany calls atrocities ‘genocide’ but omits the words ‘reparations’ or ‘compensation’ from a joint statement
1914-1923 Armenian Genocide by the Ottoman empire in World War I and later: 1914-1923 Armenian Genocide, the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire
Since 1915 Armenian Genocide recognition by country: 1915-1923 Armenian Genocide recognition by country
April 2019 recognition by 30 states: As of April 2019, 30 states had officially recognized the historical events of the 1915-1923 Armenian Genocide as genocide, as well as many other states of unions or federations, regions, provinces, municipalities and parliamentary committees
1914-1924 Assyrian or Syriac genocide by the Ottoman empire in World War I and later: 1914-1924 Assyrian or Syriac genocide, referring to the mass slaughter of the Syriac Christian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides - Timeline of recognition of the Assyrian or Syriac genocide
1913-1922 Greek genocide by the Ottoman empire in World War I and later: 1913-1922 Greek genocide, the systematic killing of the Christian Ottoman Greek population carried out in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath on the basis of their religion and ethnicity
1937/1938 Nanjing Massacre and Japanese war crimes since late 19th century until 1945: 1937/1938 Nanjing Massacre, an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing during the Second Sino-Japanese War - Since late 19th century war crimes committed by the Empire of Japan in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II, as most Japanese war crimes were committed during the first part of the Showa Era, the name given to the reign of Emperor Hirohito, until the surrender of the Empire of Japan in 1945
1933-1945 genocides and war crimes by Germany and in Nazi-occupied Europe: 1933-1945 genocides and war crimes by Germany and in Nazi-occupied Europe, including The Holocaust, Romani genocide, racial policy of Nazi Germany, Nazi crimes against the Polish nation, Generalplan Ost, World War II casualties of the Soviet Union, World War II persecution of Serbs, Nazi eugenics, Action T4, Child euthanasia in Nazi Germany, persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany, and persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany
1939-1945 war crimes of the Wehrmacht: Since 1871 the 'Imperial German Army' inherited much of the traditions and concepts of the Prussian Army, which was its largest component army - 1871-1919 Imperial German Army, the unified ground and air force of the German Empire (excluding the maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy), command and military role in foreign policy decisions - 'Wehrmacht', the unified armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945 - During World War II, the Germans' combined armed forces (Heer, Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe) committed systematic war crimes, including massacres, mass rape, looting, the exploitation of forced labor, the murder of three million Soviet prisoners of war, and participated in the extermination of Jews
1935-1945 Romani genocide: 1935-1945 Romani genocide, also known as the Porajmos, the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people
1939-1945 Nazi crimes against the Polish nation: 1939-1945 Nazi crimes against the Polish nation
Since 1939 'life unworthy of life' policy: Since 1933 'life unworthy of life', a Nazi designation for the segments of the populace which, according to the Nazi regime of the time, had no right to live including people with serious medical problems and those considered grossly inferior according to the racial policy of Nazi Germany and were targeted to be euthanized by the state, usually through the compulsion or deception of their caretakers
1941-1945 The Holocaust, a genocide during World War II: 1941-1945 The Holocaust, a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by local collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe in the period
1939/1941-1945 World War II casualties and losses of the Soviet Union: 1939/1941-1945 World War II casualties and losses of the Soviet Union from all related causes were about 27,000,000, both civilian and military, as the post-Soviet government puts the 'losses' at 26.6 million on the basis of the 1993 study by the Russian Academy of Sciences, including people dying as a result of battle and war related exposure
1941-1945 persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, also known as the Genocide of the Serbs: 1941-1945 persecution of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, also known as the Genocide of the Serbs, including the extermination, expulsion and forced religious conversion of hundreds of thousands ethnic Serbs by the genocidal policies of the Ustashe regime in the Independent State of Croatia during World War II, as the Ustashe regime systematically murdered approximately 300,000 to 500,000 Serbs out of whom up to 52,000 died at the Jasenovac concentration camp
1975-1979 Cambodian genocide: 1975-1979 Cambodian genocide, carried out by the Khmer Rouge regime under the leadership of Pol Pot, resulting in the deaths of between 1.671 and 1.871 million people or 21-24% of Cambodia’s 1975 population
1981-1983 Guatemalan genocide: 1981-1983 Guatemalan genocide refers to the massacre of Maya civilians during the Guatemalan military government's counterinsurgency operations, including massacres, forced disappearances, torture and summary executions at the hands of USA-backed security forces
April-July 1994 Rwandan genocide: April-July 1994 Rwandan genocide, a mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda during the Rwandan Civil War, directed by members of the Hutu majority government
July 1995 Bosnian genocide and Srebrenica massacre: July 1995 Bosnian genocide refers to either genocide at Srebrenica and Žepa committed by Bosnian Serb forces in 1995 or the wider ethnic cleansing campaign throughout areas controlled by the Army of Republika Srpska, that took place during the 1992–1995 Bosnian War - July 1995 Srebrenica massacre of more than 8,000 Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War

Racism - Racism by country - 'White supremacy' racist ideology centered upon the sight, that 'white' people are superior in certain characteristics, traits, and attributes (in fact the means of violence mainly developed in Europe since many centuries and now worldwide) to people constituting the majority of the world's population - 'White supremacy' by continent
History of slavery from ancient times to the present day: History of slavery from ancient times to the present day, when slavery is no longer legal anywhere in the world (with the exception of penal labour), but when human trafficking remains an international problem and an estimated 25-40 million people are enslaved today, the majority in Asia - Slavery in antiquity - Slavery in Northern Africa, where chattel slavery had been legal and widespread when the region was controlled by the Roman Empire 145 BC – ca. 430 AD and by the Eastern Romans from 533 to 695
Since 7th century history of slavery in the Muslim world: Since 7th century history of slavery in the Muslim world - Arab slave trade mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe, occurring chiefly between the medieval era and the early 20th century - Slavery in the Ottoman Empire
15th - 19th centuries from Africa Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets, following practises of slavery in antiquity and slavery in ancient Rome
Since 16th century slavery, forced labour and ongoing culture shock: African origins and regions of Africa African Americans, who were forced into slavery after being captured, as major ethnic groups that the enslaved Africans belonged to included the Hausa, Bakongo, Igbo, Mandé, Wolof, Akan, Fon, Yoruba, and Makua, among many others. and although these different groups varied in customs, religions and language, what they had in common was a way of life which was different from that of the Europeans after their centuries of wars since anciemt times, as originally a majority of the future slaves came from these villages and societies, however, once they were sent to the Americas and enslaved, these different peoples had European standards and beliefs forced upon them, causing them to do away with tribal differences and forge a new history and culture that was a 'creolization' of their common past, present, and European culture - Slavery and culture shock - Cultural 'assimilation' - 'Americanization'
Since 1618 English/British 'headright' system to populate the colonies and to import slaves: Since 1618 English/British 'headright' system in colonies, as most headrights were for 1 to 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) of land, and were given to anyone willing to cross the Atlantic Ocean and help populate the colonies, headrights were granted to anyone who would pay for the transportation costs of a laborer or slaves
1802-1804 resistance to slavery, repression and French atrocities in Haiti: In 1802, when it became apparent that the French under Napoleonic rule intended to re-establish slavery in Haiti black cultivators revolted in the summer of 1802, Leclerc's successor Vicomte de Rochambeau fought an even more brutal campaign, waged a near-genocidal campaign against the Haitians, killing everyone who was black, importing about 15,000 attack dogs from Jamaica, who had been trained to savage blacks and mulattoes, also drowning blacks - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior'
Since the early 1900s German crimes against humanity in Africa: Decades before Nazi Germany tried to annihilate the Jews, German colonialists in Southwest Africa dehumanized, built death camps for, and slaughtered tens of thousands of tribespeople in a systematic genocide, 'subhumans', 'cattle car transports', even the 'Final Solution' have their sinister antecedents in Africa in the early 1900s
1914-1918 War goals of the German empire and crimes: 1914-1918 War goals of the German empire included making the French economy dependent on Germany, ending trade between France and the British Empire, annexation of Belgium or making it a 'vassal state', annexation of Luxembourg, making the Netherlands dependent on Germany, creation of buffer states carved out of the western Russian Empire, such as Poland, which would remain under German sovereignty 'for all time', creation of a 'Mitteleuropa economic association' dominated by Germany, expansion of the German colonial empire first in central Africa ('Mittelafrika') at the expense of the French and Belgian colonies - World War I crimes by Imperial Germany
Since 1933 Nazi Germany and 'Aryanization': Since 1933 Nazi Germany and 'Aryanization', the term coined during Nazism referring to the forced expulsion of so-called 'non-Aryans', resulting in mass murders and genocide - Racial policy of Nazi Germany, targeting Jews, Sinti and Roma, Afro-Germans, Poles, Russians, other Slavs, and other groups
1939-1945 War goals of the German empire: 'New Order of Europe' ('Neuordnung Europas'), the political order which Nazi Germany wanted to impose on the conquered areas under its dominion, publicly proclaimed by Adolf Hitler in 1941 - 'Generalplan Ost' was the Nazi German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans - Hunger Plan ('Hungerplan'), a plan developed by Nazi Germany during World War II to seize food from the Soviet Union and give it to German soldiers and civilians, entailing the death by starvation of millions of so-called 'racially inferior' Slavs following Operation Barbarossa, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union
1939-1945 German war crimes: 27. Juli 2009: Die 'Wehrmacht' des nationalsozialistischen Deutschlands verletzte systematisch - in Deutschland jahrzehntelang geleugnet und verdrängt - die Genfer Kriegskonvention und verübte z.B. 1940 aus rassistischen Motiven Kriegsverbrechen, die der Historiker Raffael Scheck anhand von Dokumenten beschreibt, die belegen wie Wehrmachtseinheiten innerhalb nur eines Monats, zwischen dem 24. Mai und dem 24. Juni 1940 mindestens 3.000 schwarze Soldaten Frankreichs ermordeten, obwohl die sich bereits ergeben hatten oder verwundet waren und nicht mehr im Kampf standen - War crimes of the Wehrmacht

'White supremacy' by continent - White supremacy in Europe - White supremacy in North America - White supremacy in South America
White supremacy by country - List of white nationalist organizations by continent and country - White supremacy and nationalism in the media
August 2019 global rise in white nationalist violence: 5 August 2019: More than 175 people have been killed in at least 16 high-profile attacks linked to white nationalism around the world since 2011
February 2020 white supremacists increasingly collaborating across borders inspired by attacks and Putin's wars: 21 February 2020: White supremacists increasingly collaborating across borders, according to 'Global Project Against Hate and Extremism' and other, saying extremists forming alliances, working together, inspiring each other in growing international movement similar to jihadism, as the long-running wars by Russia's Putin regime - and involving it in other regions - in Syria and eastern Ukraine have created a fertile training ground for white supremacists, in recent years holding conferences in different countries including Russia - 20 February 2020: German terrorist Rathjen published online manifesto in January calling for eliminating entire countries, including Israel, Egypt, Morocco, Turkey, Iran, Indian, Pakistan, Vietnam and the Philippines, before killing 10 citizens, including 5 Kurds, in the city of Hanau in Germany - 21 February 2020: Hanau attack part of pattern of white supremacist violence flowing from USA, according to 'The Guardian'
5 June 2020 calls to act against racism following USA turmoil: 5 June 2020: As protests against the death of unarmed black man George Floyd at the hands of USA police sweep also other nations and spark wider debates, major brands taking to social media to condemn racial inequalities are challenged to back up their words with action to tackle problems in many firms and entrenched racial pay gaps, and campaigners, skeptical over what they fear are empty platitudes, call for business leaders to put their money where their mouth is and tackle economic exclusion, in short 'we need action', according to NAACP's Marc Banks, after dozens of major firms have shared online posts condemning racism and calling for change across society in the USA, today in the grip of Donald Trump's administration

Neo-Nazism by continent - Neo-Nazism in Europe - Neo-Nazism in Asia - Neo-Nazism in North America - Neo-Nazism in South America - Neo-Nazism in Africa
February 2020 USA's violent ultranationalists finding ideological common ground, aid and shelter in Putin’s Russia: 2 February 2020: USA's violent ultranationalists (like the paramilitary race war inciters 'The Base') dedicated to destabilizing America are finding ideological common ground, aid and shelter in Putin’s Russia, Israel's 'Haaretz' says, as neo-Nazi Rinaldo Nazzaro, running 'The Base' from Russia, also lives in Russia
Wars by continent - Wars involving the states and peoples of Europe - Wars involving the states and peoples of Asia - Wars involving the states and peoples of North America - Wars involving the states and peoples of Africa
April 2018 Warsaw ghetto Marian Kalwary says 'I am terrified by the rebirth of fascism and nationalism': 19 April 2018: Paying homage to the hundreds of Jewish fighters who took up arms in the 1943 rebellion against the German forces that occupied Poland during World War II in the April-May Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Polish survivor of the Warsaw ghetto Marian Kalwary says 'I am terrified by the rebirth of fascism and nationalism and I can see nationalism being glorified and put on a pedestal as something noble'
Since 1945 neo-Nazism in Germany: Neo-Nazism in Germany
1 September 2019 neo-Nazi linked German AfD party make big gains: 4 September 2019: Anti-immigration and neo-Nazi linked AfD, the third-biggest party in the 2017 German general election, main opposition, and able to mobilise several hundred thousand people who had never voted before, overtakes German Left, Greens and SPD in Saxony and German CDU, Greens and Left in Brandenburg in state elections
7/8 September 2019 CDU, SPD and FDP elected neo-Nazi to head local authority: 8 September 2019: All representatives, including representatives of the CDU, SPD and FDP, of the Ortsbeirat of Altenstadt-Waldsiedlung had voted neo-Nazi Deputy NPD state chairman Stefan Jagsch as their head

Antisemitism - Antisemitism by country or region - Geography of antisemitism - Timeline of antisemitism, since Antiquity
Since Antiquity antisemitism in Europe and Germany: European antisemitism - prejudice, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews for reasons connected to their Jewish heritage - has experienced a long history since the days of ancient societies, with most of it having originated in the Christian and pre-Christian societies of Europe - Since the middle ages antisemitism in Germany and the Holocaust in Germany and German occupied Europe 1938-1945
1st century-8th century establishment of antisemitism: Since 1st century antisemitism in Christianity after Christian theologians and writers established the intellectual and doctrinal foundations of Christianity, flourishing in a historical period since the 1st and 2nd centuries AD and ending approximately around AD 700, as the 27 BC – AD 476 Roman empire, after the 8th century BC founding of a city, was followed by by the 800–888 Carolingian Empire, the large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages, ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, and by the 962–1806 Holy Roman Empire ('Sacrum Imperium Romanum', a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars
Since the middle ages Europe's fine art's anti-Semitism until today: 23 February 2015: From Notre Dame to Wittenberg, in Europe the fine art of anti-Semitism is on public display at many of the continent’s most visited landmarks
April 2020 researchers say Vatican archives show pope Pius XII knew of WWII killing of Jews: 30 April 2020: Researchers studying the newly opened Vatican archives of pope Pius XII have already found evidence that the World War II-era pope knew about the mass killing of Jews from his own sources but kept it from the USA government, the Washington Post reported Wednesday, saying documents indicate pope was aware of massacre of Jews in Warsaw and Lviv from own sources, but denied it to Americans
Since 7th century Islam and antisemitism: Islam and antisemitism, with the origin of Islam in the 7th century and its spread in the Arabian peninsula and beyond by military conquests, Jews (and many other people) came to be subject to the rule of Muslim rulers - Islam and war - from the time of the Muhammad many Muslim states and empires have been involved in warfare
10 November 1975 UN General Assembly's anti-Semitism marking the 37th anniversary of Nazi Germany's November 1938 'Kristallnacht': On 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions) UN General Assembly adopted resolution 3379, that 'determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination', with the support of the Arab- and Muslim-majority countries, many African countries, the Soviet bloc, and a few others including Portugal after its Socialist Party PS won the April 1975 election for the Constituent Assembly - Throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s UN documents systematically denied the existence of the Jews, Israel ancient history, the Holocaust, and the notion that Jews deserve the same rights granted to other groups, as most infamous example of this trend was the passage of UN General Assembly's resolution 3379, which equated Zionism with racism on 10 November 1975, the first postwar 'ideology' to ever be condemned in the United Nations' history, as many observers noted that the resolution was passed on the 37th anniversary of November 1938 'Kristallnacht' in Nazi Germany, the pogrom historians agree marked the beginning of the Holocaust
Antisemitism in Iran: Antisemitism in Iran
Since 1979 Iranian regime's antisemitism: Since the 1979 establishment of the 'Islamic Republic' Iranian regime's antisemitism, terrorism and support of terrorism
Since 1989 increased Iranian regime's antisemitism: Since 1989 increased Iranian regime's antisemitism
Since 1982 Hezbollah's antisemitism: Since 1982 Hezbollah's antisemitism
Since 1988 Hamas antisemitism: Since 1988 Palestinian Hamas Charter containing both antisemitic passages and irredentist claims - Since the 1980s Islamism in the Gaza Strip
July 2019 Hamas leader calls to murder all Jews: 14 July 2019: Fathi Hammad, a member of the Hamas political bureau, calls for the slaughter of Jews in the world
17/18 January 2020 leaving Al-Aqsa Mosque following prayers Muslims chanted about killing Jews: 17 January 2020: Beginning as worshipers were leaving the mosque following prayers, hundreds of Muslims chanted about killing Jews outside the Al-Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem on Friday morning, prompting police to disperse the crowd - 18 January 2020: Woman pulls knife on police in Jerusalem’s Old City, saying suspect in her 50s brandished weapon at security forces near Damascus Gate, and one officer lightly injured after falling during arrest of the perpetrator

21th century timeline of antisemitism: 21th century timeline of antisemitism - Geography of antisemitism
December 2000 Iran's Ali Khamenei calls for the destruction of Israel: 15 December 2000: Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei calls for the destruction of Israel, describing it as a 'cancerous tumor' in the Middle East
March 2015 Iran's Mohammad Reza Naqdi threatens 'erasing Israel off the map': 31 March 2015: Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Basij commander Mohammad Reza Naqdi said that 'erasing Israel off the map' is 'nonnegotiable', according to an Israel Radio report
November 2018 Iran's Rouhani calls Israel a 'cancerous tumor’: 24 November 2018: Iran’s Rouhani calls Israel a 'cancerous tumor’ established by West
28 January 2019: 28 January 2019: Iran general Hossein Salami says Tehran aims to wipe Israel off the 'global political map', one day after the, International Holocaust Remembrance Day, as Iranian regime's Ali Shamkhani says our missiles are ready to launch from Gaza and Lebanon, and regime reportedly carries out daily cyberattacks against Israel
December 2019 Iranian regime's Khamenei praises French Holocaust denier: 16 December 2019: Iranian regime's Khamenei, who in the past has questioned historicity of Nazi genocide of the Jews, marks 21st anniversary of conviction of French Holocaust denier Roger Garaudy by praising him, criticizing France
3 January 2020 impunity of Iranian war criminal IRGC Qasem Soleimani stopped: 3 January 2020 USA airstrike against Iranian convoy near Baghdad International Airport carrying Iranian IRGC Quds Force commander Qasem Soleimani and Iraqi Popular Mobilization Forces commander Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, amid escalating crisis in the Middle East since 2011
11 February 2020 Iranian Expediency Council's Mohsen Rezaei threatens to 'raze Tel-Aviv to the ground', looking for pretext: 11 February 2020: Secretary of Iran’s powerful Expediency Council Mohsen Rezaei, speaking to Hezbollah-affiliated al-Mayadeen TV station, has warned that Iran is just looking for an excuse to attack Israel and 'raze Tel-Aviv to the ground'
1 February 2021 'Israel has a clear objective' 'that Iran not be nuclear' as USA warns Iran can produce nuclear bomb very quickly: 1 February 2021: 'Israel has a clear objective: that Iran not be nuclear. It is not just an Israeli interest. It is first and foremost a global and regional interest', according to Defense minister Gantz, saying Israel will take military action against nuclear Iran if needed, adding that any future war would involve Hezbollah and Hamas targeting Israeli cities, and Israel in turn hitting missile stores in civilian areas - 1 February 2021: USA Secretary of State Anthony Blinken warns that Iran may be able to produce enough material for nuclear bomb in 'a matter of weeks'
7 May 2021 Iranian Mullah regime's Khamenei says fight against Israel is a 'public duty': 7 May 2021: Iranian Mullah regime's Khamenei says fight against Israel is a public duty, calling on Muslim nations on Friday to keep fighting against Israel
21 May 2021 Iran's regime says 'in the future the Zionists (Israel) can expect to endure deadly blows from within the occupied territories': 21 May 2021: Iranian Mullah regime's - which does not recognise Israel but supports the Islamist militants of Hamas, who rule the Gaza Strip, and after Hamas and the Islamic Jihad group fired hundreds of rockets into Israel before Friday's truce - leader urges Muslim states to back Palestinians militarily, financially, saying 'All influential elements of (Israel's) regime and the criminal (Prime Minister Benjamin) Netanyahu must be prosecuted by international and independent courts', as regime's Foreign Ministry earlier said Palestinians had won a 'historic victory' over Israel, as Iran's Revolutionary Guards said 'The intifada (Palestinian uprising) has gone from using stones to powerful, precise missiles ... and in the future the Zionists (Israel) can expect to endure deadly blows from within the occupied territories', after leaders of Hamas and Islamic Jihad have praised Iran’s financial and military support, after regime's Khamenei last year hailed Tehran's supply of arms, saying Iranian regime had transformed the military balance of power between Israel and the Palestinians, and as regime now on Friday displayed an Iranian-made combat drone that it said had a range of 2,000 km, naming it 'Gaza' in honour of the Palestinians' struggle against Israel, state media reported
Since 2006 Hezbollah's antisemitism, wars and Iranian regime's military expansionism: Since 2000 Hezbollah's antisemitism, terrorist attacks, wars, involvement in Syrian Assad regime's war against the Syrian people and Iranian regime's military expansionism
August 2019 Iran delivered special propellants mixer: 28 August 2019: Iran delivered special propellants mixer - used in Hezbollah's manufacturing ballistic missiles - to Lebanon in violation of international treaties
1 September 2019 Hezbollah missiles narrowly missed 5 Israeli soldiers: 3 September 2019: Hezbollah missiles narrowly missed Israeli armored car with 5 soldiers inside, as Nasrallah vows 'no more red lines against Israel' after missile attack, praised by the Iranian regime and by Syria's Assad regime, expressing 'pride', as Hamas chief praises Iranian support, including by supplying weapons, in a letter to Iranian regime's Khamenei, as Iranian and French delegations hold talks for over ten hours in Paris to shield Iranian regime's economy from USA sanctions, and as Iran’s Rouhani says no intention of holding bilateral talks with USA
6 September 2019 UN investigation of Hezbollah missile attack on Israel: 6 September 2019: UN peacekeepers conducted an independent investigation of Sunday’s Hezbollah missile attack on Israel at IDF’s request, visiting the areas hit in the strikes, will present findings to UN, as UNIFIL's head called the Hezbollah missile attack a 'serious incident in violation of UN Security Council resolution 1701', referring to the decision that ended the 2006 Second Lebanon War and required all armed terror groups remain north of the country’s Litani River
Since 2001 Hamas rocket and terrorist attacks: Since 2001 Hamas terrorist attacks - 2001 List of Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel - Since 2001 Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel
January 2002 some Arab states still want to destroy Israel: 18 January 2002: Some Arab states still want to destroy Israel
January 2019 Assad regime's threats against Tel Aviv: 24 January 2019: After Syrian Assad regime’s envoy to the UN threatened that the regime could attack Ben Gurion International Airport outside Tel Aviv, Israeli defense forces take precautionary measure of setting up additional air defenses in central and southern Israel, as shots fired at IDF troops on Syrian border overnight
21th century antisemitism in Europe and Germany: Antisemitism in Europe in the 21st century - antisemitism has increased significantly since 2000, with significant increases in verbal attacks against Jews and vandalism such as graffiti, fire bombings of Jewish schools, desecration of synagogues and cemeteries, taking place not only in Germany and France, where antisemitic incidents are the highest in Europe but also in countries like Belgium, Austria, and the United Kingdom, as physical assaults against Jews including beatings, stabbings and other violence increased markedly, in a number of cases resulting in serious injury and even death
9 October 2019 Halle synagogue attack: 9 October 2019 Halle synagogue attack - 10 October 2019: Jews demand action from Germany to protect the community after at least two people were shot dead in the eastern German city of Halle in an anti-Semitic gun attack on the holy day of Yom Kippur
20 June 2020 German courts and anti-Semitism: 20 June 2020: German church in Calbe near Berlin covers anti-Semitic ‘Jew pig’ sculpture installed in the 15th century it was forced to keep, as pastor denounces carving as ‘an insult to Jewish citizens’ and didn’t want the relief to be reinstalled at all, and as German Jews and others have campaigned to have the anti-Semitic imagery removed, with limited success, because in February German appeals court in Karlsruhe rejected a motion to remove one Judensau relief from a church in Wittenberg, saying Jewish plaintiff seeking removal of ‘Judensau’ sculpture didn’t prove that it is of ‘slanderous character’ or violates his rights
26 June 2020 German church goes to high court to take down perverse anti-Semitic carvings: 26 June 2020: German church goes to high court to take down perverse anti-Semitic carvings, as landmarks commissions and German courts are protecting ancient 'Judensaus' sculptures, dozens of which are adorning churches that don’t want them in the 21st century, and as Israeli historian Isaiah Shachar in 2017 said there are 'Judensaus' in Portugal, France, Poland and Sweden, but most are in German-speaking countries
17 May 2021 anti-Israel protests in Germany prompt calls for antisemitism crackdown: 17 May 2021: Anti-Israel protests in Germany prompt calls for antisemitism crackdown, Israeli flags burned as thousands attend demonstrations in Berlin, Cologne and other cities
21th century antisemitism in Asia: Antisemitism in Asia
19 May 2021 Israel accuses Chinese state TV of 'blatant antisemitism' in Gaza conflict coverage: 19 May 2021: Israel accuses Chinese state TV of 'blatant antisemitism' in Gaza conflict coverage, as the Israeli embassy to China tweeted 'we are appalled to see blatant antisemitism expressed in an official Chinese media outlet' (the overseas channel of state broadcaster CCTV), discussing the ongoing violence in Gaza and elsewhere, adding 'we have hoped that the times of the 'Jew’s controlling the world’ conspiracy theories were over, unfortunately antisemitism has shown its ugly face again'
21th century antisemitism in North America: Antisemitism in North America
21th century antisemitism in USA: Antisemitism in the USA
27 October 2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting: 27 October 2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting, as eleven people were killed and seven (including the perpetrator) were injured, while Shabbat morning services were being held
21th century antisemitism in South America: Antisemitism in South America
19 June 2020 Brazilian pastor prays for second Holocaust: 19 June 2020: Brazilian pastor prays for second Holocaust to ‘destroy the Jews like vermin’, as in sermon at Rio de Janeiro church Tupirani da Hora Lores is joined by congregants in calling on God to ‘massacre the Jews, and as Jewish groups file police complaint
21th century antisemitism in Australia: Antisemitism in Australia
11 October 2019 threats against Jewish boy forced to kiss Muslim classmate’s shoes: 11 October 2019: Australian Jewish boy forced to kiss Muslim classmate’s shoes gets threats, as reports say 12-year-old boy warned he’ll be slaughtered and asked if he wants to 'talk about suicide’

Antisemitic attacks and incidents (21th century)
April 2014 Kansas Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting: 13 April 2014 Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting committed by neo-Nazi terrorist, klansman and former political candidate Glenn Miller
August 2014 surge in anti-Semitic incidents worldwide: 14 August 2014: The USA-based Anti-Defamation League recorded a 'dramatic surge' in anti-Semitic incidents worldwide since the beginning of Israel's Operation Protective Edge in July against Hamas rocket and tunnel attacks
February 2015 Tehran competition on Shoah denial: 21 February 2015: As upcoming Tehran competition to offer first place prize of $12,000 for best drawing on Shoah denial, Israel asks UN to condemn Iran Holocaust cartoon contest
2016 Simon Wiesenthal Center's list of worst anti-Semitic/anti-Israel incidents: Simon Wiesenthal Center's list of anti-Semitic/anti-Israel incidents in 2016
2017: 4 January 2018: Wiesenthal Center releases 2017 top ten list of worst global anti-Semitic/anti-Israel incidents
April 2018 global resurgence of antisemitism: 11 April 2018: Feelings of insecurity are widespread among European Jews as a result of the resurgence of the extreme right, a heated anti-Zionist discourse on the left and radical Islam, according to a global study of antisemitism, examining the prevalence of antisemitism in Europe, the post-Soviet region, the USA, Canada, Australia, South America and South Africa
12 April 2018: Warning of 'rising anti-Semitism’, Israel ambassador to the UN Danny Danon accompanied a group of fellow diplomats to the world body in participating in the March of the Living on Israel’s Holocaust Remembrance Day, visiting the death camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau, telling fellow ambassadors that the 'international community must act with determination to ensure that such things never happen again'
1 May 2018 Mahmoud Abbas' anti-Semitism: 1 May 2018: Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas said that the Holocaust was not caused by anti-Semitsm, but by the 'social behavior' of the Jews, including money-lending - 2 May 2018: Leading scholars and activists came down on Abbas after he appeared to attribute the Nazi genocide of European Jewry to Jewish behavior and money-lending
14 May 2018: 14 May 2018: After the German Nazis adopted the phrase 'The Jews are our misfortune', in 2018 a banner with the colors of the Israeli flag that said 'The state Israel is our misfortune' was held by neo-Nazis in Dortmund, expressing their alleged solidarity with Palestinians by waving PLO flags against both the opening of the USA embassy in Jerusalem and the founding of the State of Israel
October 2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting: 27 October 2018 Pittsburgh synagogue shooting - 27 October 2018: Eleven people were killed and six wounded in a shooting at a synagogue in USA's Pittsburgh by gunman Robert Bowers, who reportedly walked in yelling 'all Jews must die'
27 January 2019: 27 janvier 2019: Le ministre israélien de la Diaspora, Naftali Bennett, a dénoncé dimanche une hausse des attaques antisémites dans le monde
April 2019: 22 April 2019: 'Disturbed by this ghastly revival of medieval anti-Semitism', the World Jewish Congress expressed its 'disgust and outrage' following reports that an effigy made to look like a stereotypical Jew was hanged and burned in the Polish town of Pruchnik as part of an Easter ritual, as residents including children beat and burned the effigy representing Judas, the discipline of Christ who betrayed him according to the New Testament, given a brimmed hat and sidelocks, making it resemble an ultra-Orthodox Jew, along with a long nose, a trope used by Nazi Germany and by anti-Semites worldwide to demonize and dehumanize Jews
27 April 2019 Poway synagogue shooting: 27 April 2019 Poway synagogue shooting, when 19-year old John T. Earnest fired shots inside the Chabad of Poway synagogue in California, killing a woman and injuring three other people, having an AR-style rifle in his possession
May 2019 spike in number of Jews murdered worldwide in 2018: 1 May 2019: More Jews were murdered in anti-Semiitc attacks around the world in 2018 than in any other year over the past several decades, according to a report by Kantor Center at Tel Aviv University and European Jewish Congress
28 December 2019 New York's Monsey Hanukkah stabbing: 28 December 2019 Monsey Hanukkah stabbing by accused Grafton E. Thomas - 30 March 2020: The most critically injured victim of the 28 December 2019 stabbing attack, prosecuted as a case of domestic terrorism, in the New York Orthodox town of Monsey, Josef Neumann, has died from his injuries

Boycotts of Israel - Antisemitic boycotts - Boycotts of Israel by organizations
History of antisemitic boycotts: Antisemitic boycotts and history
19th century antisemitic mayor of Vienna: 19th century antisemitic mayor of Vienna, who inspired Hitler, campaigned for a boycott of Jewish businesses
Since 1933 Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses: Since 1 April 1933 Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, an early governmental action against the Jews of Germany by the National Socialist government, and then a state-managed campaign of ever-increasing harassment, arrests, systematic pillaging, forced transfer of ownership actions that culminated in the 'Final Solution'
Since 1933 international impact of the Nazi boycott: Since 1933 international impact of the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, inspiring similar boycotts in other countries
4 January 2021 French government allocated millions to a Palestinian leading promoter of the boycott Israel movement: 4 January 2021: The French government has allocated about $10 million to a Palestinian organization that is a leading promoter of the boycott Israel movement, even as promoting that boycott has been found illegal in France in several high-profile cases
Boycotts of Israel in sports by country - Antisemitism in the Olympic Games
August/September 2019 asylum request against Iranian boycott: 31 August 2019: Iranian judoka Saeid Mollaei who was allegedly pressured into throwing a match to avoid facing off against an Israeli opponent has requested asylum in Germany, as International Judo Federation confirmed his asylum request and expressed its backing of him - 2 September 2019: Iranian judoka Saeid Mollaei, who fled his home country after criticizing Iranian regime for pressuring him to throw matches to avoid competing against an Israeli opponent, has congratulated Israeli Sagi Muki on winning a gold medal
18 September 2019 Iran suspended from IJF: 18 September 2019: Iran suspended from world judo federation over Israel boycott policy


State ideologies - List of political ideologies

Since 19th century 'Bonapartism', the political ideology of Napoleon Bonaparte in France, his followers and successors, and more generally the ideology for political movements that advocate a dictatorship or authoritarian centralized state, with a strongman charismatic leader based on anti-elitist rhetoric, army support, and conservatism - The 'Band of the 10th of December' (also known as 'Society of December 10'), a secret Bonapartist society organized mainly from impoverished parts of the population, opportunists, and military leaders, as this thrown together pile oranization helped progress Napoleon III's election as president of the Republic of France on 10 December 1848 and his coup d'état of 2 December 1851, a self-coup staged by Charles Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte - at the time President of the French Second Republic - as his coup ended in the successful dissolution of the French National Assembly and the subsequent re-establishment of the French Empire the next year
1851/1852 'The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon', written by Karl Marx: 1851/1852 'The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon' ('Der 18te Brumaire des Louis Napoleon'), an essay written by Karl Marx and originally published in 1852 in New York City

Since World War I worldwide Fascism, a form of authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and strong reglementation of society and of the economy, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe as the first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I before it spread to other European countries
Since 1914-1918 World War I fascist ideology developed in Italy: Italian Fascism, the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy by Giovanni Gentile and Benito Mussolini since World War I, as Italian Fascism was rooted in Italian nationalism, national syndicalism, revolutionary nationalism and the desire to restore and expand Italian territories, starting at remembering millennial Roman empire and identifying modern Italy as the heir to the Roman Empire and Italy during the Renaissance, promoting the cultural identity of 'Romanitas', as Italian fascism historically sought to forge a strong Italian empire as a 'Third Rome', and as Italian fascism is also associated with the post-war Italian neo-fascist movements
1922-1943 economy of Italy under fascism: 1922-1943 economy of Italy under fascism refers to the economy in the Kingdom of Italy between 1922 and 1943, when it was controlled by fascism, as Italy had emerged from World War I in a poor and weakened condition and, after the war, suffered inflation, massive debts and an extended depression, and as by 1920 its economy was in a massive convulsion, with mass unemployment, food shortages, strikes and more
Economics of fascism: Economics of fascism

1930-1945 Showa Statism in Japan, a political syncretism of Japanese chauvinistic political ideologies, developed over a period of time from the Meiji Restoration, also referred to as Showa nationalism or Japanese fascism, as this movement dominated Japanese politics during the first part of the Showa period - reign of Emperor Hirohito - and was a mixture of ideas such as Japanese ultranationalism, militarism, fascism and state capitalism - Since 1930 Showa Restoration with the goal of restoring power to the newly enthroned Japanese Emperor Hirohito and abolishing the liberal Taisho democracy, as the aims of the 'Showa Restoration' were similar to the Meiji Restoration as the groups who envisioned it imagined a small group of qualified people backing up a strong Emperor, and the 'Cherry Blossom Society' envisioned such a restoration - 'Cherry Blossom Society', an ultranationalist secret society established by young officers within the Imperial Japanese Army in September 1930, with the goal of reorganizing the state along totalitarian militaristic lines, as their avowed goal was a 'Showa Restoration', free of party politics and evil bureaucrats in a new military dictatorship

Since 1933 National Socialism in Germany, the ideology and practices associated with the National Socialist German Workers' Party NSDAP, a form of fascism but also incorporating fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and eugenics into its creed, as its extreme nationalism came from Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement prominent in the German nationalism of the time, and it was strongly influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after defeat of the German empire in World War I, from which came the party's 'cult of violence' which was 'at the heart of the movement'
Following World War I racial policy of Nazi party, Nazi Germany and the Holocaust during World War II: Since 19th century secular or racial antisemitism in German states, as in 1850 amid the Prussian crackdown of the democratic revolution since 1948 the German composer Richard Wagner – who has been called 'the inventor of modern antisemitism' – published 'Das Judenthum in der Musik', as after the establishment of the German empire since 1871 and following World War I the racial policy of Nazi Germany became a set of policies and laws implemented since 1933 based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race - 1930s Nuremberg Laws, antisemitic and racist laws that were enacted in Nazi Germany on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting of the Reichstag convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party, as two laws were the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour, and the Reich Citizenship Law, which declared that only those of German or related blood were eligible to be Reich citizens, leading to the mass exterminations of the Jews of Europe during World War II
Since 1934 Austrofascism, the authoritarian system installed in Austria with the May Constitution of 1934 (which ceased with the annexation of the newly founded Federal State of Austria into Nazi Germany in 1938), based on a ruling party, the Fatherland Front (Vaterländische Front) and the Heimwehr (Home Guard) paramilitary militia
Three empires Axis and 1939-1945 World War II: The Axis 1940–1945, including 1922–1943 Italy and Italian Fascism, 1931–1945 Japan and statism in Showa Japan, and 1933–1945 Germany and German Nazism, and 1939-1945 World War II

Since 1936-19939 during Spanish civil war Francoism in Spain, including above all totalitarianism, ultranationalism, national Catholicism, monarchism, militarism, national conservatism, anti-Masonry, anti-Catalanism, pan-Hispanism and anti-liberalism - Since 1939 Falangism, the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards, of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the 'Falange') as well as derivatives of it in other countries, becoming in Spain under the leadership of Francisco Franco the ideology connected with Francoist Spain

Since 1932 Wahhabism, an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, which became the state ideology of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Since 1970 Assadism and Saddamism in Syria, based on Ba'athism, an Arab nationalist ideology that promotes the development and creation of a unified Arab state through the leadership of a vanguard party, supporting the creation of one-party states and rejects political pluralism in an unspecified length of time, also based on principles of Arab nationalism and pan-Arabism
Since 1979 ideology of the Iranian Revolution, a combination of Shia Islamic religious radicalism, militarism, antisemitism, nationalism, political populism and authoritarian system
Since 2014-2019 ideology of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL, which controlled territory primarily in Iraq and Syria, has been described as being based on Salafism, Salafi Jihadism, and Wahhabism

Since 1924 Stalinism and the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, following Stalin's introduction of the concept 'Socialism in One Country' in 1924, saying the Soviet Union did not need a socialist world revolution to construct a socialist society
Since 1949 ideology of the Communist Party of China - Since 1949 Maoism, the variety of measures that the Chinese Communist Party under Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the one-party-state called the 'People's Republic of China'
Since 1955 North Korea's 'Juche', the official state ideology of North Korea, described by the government as 'Kim Il-sung's original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought', that postulates that 'man is the master of his destiny', that the Korean masses are to act as the 'masters of the revolution and construction' and that by becoming self-reliant and strong a nation can achieve true socialism

Since 1999 intelligence state Russia, where the FSB has the right to electronically monitor the population, control political groups, search homes and businesses, infiltrate the federal government, create its own front enterprises, investigate cases, and run its own prison system, as the political system of Russia formed during the leadership of Vladimir Putin is characterized by the concentration of political and financial powers by 'siloviks', coming from overall 22 governmental enforcement agencies, the main of them being FSB, police and army
December 2010: 1 December 2010: Russia today is a corrupt, autocratic kleptocracy centred on the leadership of Vladimir Putin, in which officials, oligarchs and organised crime are bound together to create a 'virtual mafia state', according to leaked secret diplomatic cables that provide a damning USA assessment
12 September 2019 Putin regime raids opposition: 12 September 2019: Following successful election strategy which cut the presence of pro-government candidates in Moscow legislature by a half, Putin regime's police are raiding homes and offices of supporters of Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny in 43 Russian cities in more than 150 raids, including robbery attempts to confiscate equipment, as police have also searched the home of Sergei Boyko, who came second with nearly 20% of the vote in the mayoral election in Novosibirsk, and homes of three of Golos monitoring group's regional coordinators
August 2020 'novichok' poisoning of Alexei Navalny: August 2020 'novichok' poisoning of Alexei Navalny who fell ill during a flight from Tomsk to Moscow and was hospitalized in Omsk, as his spokeswoman said that he was in a coma
21 December 2020 Navalny says Russian agent has admitted to role in death plot: 21 December 2020: One of the operatives allegedly involved in the attempt to kill Alexei Navalny has confessed to his role in the plot, and has revealed that the Russian opposition leader was apparently poisoned via his boxer shorts, after Navalny phoned two members of the team from Russia’s FSB spy agency trying to murder him, as one recognised him immediately and hung up and the second operative, Konstantin Kudryavtsev, was seemingly duped into thinking he was talking to an aide working for a top FSB general

List of worldwide fascist and Nazi movements since 1920 - List of fascist movements by country since 1919, including countries establishing fascism and countries establishing Nazism, also including corresponding political parties and alliances - List of fascist movements by country A–F, by country G–M, by country N-T, by country U-Z
Fascism in Asia: Fascism in Asia
Fascism in Europe: Fascism in Europe, the set of various fascist ideologies practiced by governments and political organizations in Europe, after fascism was born in Italy amid and following World War I, and other fascist movements, influenced by Italian Fascism, subsequently emerged across Europe, as among the political doctrines identified as ideological origins of fascism in Europe are the combining of a traditional national unity and anti-democratic rhetoric
Fascism in North America: Fascism in North America
Fascism in South America: Fascism in South America


Religion-based wars - State religion - Confessional state - Freedom of religion by country - Religion and politics
Ancient world's wars in individual religious traditions: Since antiquity the concept of 'Holy War' in individual religious traditions, as in the Middle East region 740-701 BCE Isaiah (Tanakh 2:4) says that peoples 'shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks', and 'nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more', reacting with a sharp social criticism as large sections of the population became impoverished, developing thoughts for peace and justice
Since transition of antiquity to the middle ages Christianity and violence: Christianity and violence
Middle of the 5th century until 751 Merovingian dynasty: After in 486 Clovis I defeated Syagrius - a Roman military leader who competed with the Merovingians for power in northern France -, he won the Battle of Tolbiac against the Alemanni in 496, at which time Clovis adopted his wife Clotilda's Orthodox (i.e. Nicene) Christian faith. He subsequently went on to decisively defeat the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in the Battle of Vouillé in 507. After Clovis's death, his kingdom was partitioned among his four sons. This tradition of partition continued over the next century. Even when several Merovingian kings simultaneously ruled their own realms, the kingdom - not unlike the late Roman Empire - was conceived of as a single entity ruled collectively by these several kings (in their own realms) among whom a turn of events could result in the reunification of the whole kingdom under a single ruler.
Since 732 rise of the Carolingians: 732–768 rise of the Carolingians. Though Charles Martel chose not to take the title of king (as his son Pepin III would) or emperor (as his grandson Charlemagne), he was the absolute ruler of virtually all of today's continental Western Europe north of the Pyrenees. Only the remaining Saxon realms, which he partly conquered, Lombardy, and the Marca Hispanica south of the Pyrenees were significant additions to the Frankish realms after his death. Martel cemented his place in history with his defense of Christian Europe against a Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in 732.
Since 622 early Muslim conquests continuing and expanding slavery: Jihad, an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim, as in classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers - Since 622 early Muslim conquests
Quran containing a number of verses aimed at regulating slavery: The Quran contains a number of verses aimed at regulating slavery and mitigating its negative impact, as Muhammad himself was a slave owner, never expressed any intention of abolishing the practice, but saw it 'as part of the natural order of things' (beneficial for the owners)
History of slavery in the Muslim world, expansion: Praxis der Sklaverei in der Geschichte islamischer Länder seit dem frühen 7. Jahrhundert. Die Versklavung anderer Ethnien beginn sofort in der Frühzeit des Islam mit dem islamischen militären Anfgriff anf die 'Banu Quraiza'. Dieser jüdische Stamm aus Yathrib/Medina wurde nach der Grabenschlacht von den Muslimen unter Führung Mohammeds angegriffen. Nachdem die Banu Quraiza aufgegeben mußten, wurden die Männer des Stammes geköpft und die Knaben, Frauen und Mädchen versklavt. Der Historiker Robert C. Davis veröffentlichte 2004 eine Untersuchung über die Versklavung durch Muslime im Mittelmeerraum – darüber hinaus auch bis nach England und Island –, wo zwischen 1530 und 1780 1,25 Mio. Christen den Piraten des Maghreb zum Beispiel aus Algier, Tunis und Tripolis in die Hände gefallen sein sollen. In Algier fand die Piraterie erst mit der Eroberung durch Frankreich 1830 ein Ende. Laut dem Historiker Egon Flaig übertrafen die Sklavenimporte der islamischen Welt jene des römischen Reiches bei weitem, was dazu führte, dass die 'Versklavungsprozesse so angeheizt wurden, wie es bis dahin in der Weltgeschichte noch nie geschehen war'.
7th-16th centuries Medieval Arabic sources, 16th–19th centuries European texts, other sources: 7th-16th centuries Medieval Arabic sources, 16th–19th centuries European texts, other sources including historical manuscripts such as the Tarikh al-Sudan, the Adalite Futuh al-Habash, the Abyssinian Kebra Nagast, and various Arabic and Ajam documents, beginning with African oral tradition
711-1492 Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula: 711-1492 Reconquista, the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492, followed by the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest (Columbus got royal support in Granada in 1492, months after its conquest) of the Americas, indigenous peoples and native communities, ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires
Since 1299 invasions by the Ottoman Empire: since 1299 invasions by the Ottoman Empire
Since 1299 list of Ottoman conquests, sieges and landings: List of Ottoman conquests, sieges and landings since 1299
1453–1550 growth of the Ottoman Empire: 1453–1550 growth of the Ottoman Empire
1550-1700 transformation of the Ottoman Empire: 1550-1700 transformation of the Ottoman Empire
1700–1827 stagnation of the Ottoman Empire: 1700–1827 stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
1828–1908 decline of the Ottoman Empire: 1828–1908 decline of the Ottoman Empire
1922 dissolution of the Ottoman empire following lost WWI: 1922 dissolution of the Ottoman empire following lost imperial World War I

Since 20th century Nagorno-Karabakh religious, ethnic and territorial conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan: Since 20th century Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, an religious, ethnic and territorial conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh and seven surrounding districts, which are internationally recognized as de jure part of Azerbaijan
2008 UN resolution which 'reaffirmed Azerbaijan's territorial integrity': March 2008 UN General Assembly adopted a resolution which 'reaffirmed Azerbaijan's territorial integrity, expressing support for that country's internationally recognized borders and demanding the immediate withdrawal of all Armenian forces from all occupied territories there', adopted by a vote of 39 in favor to 7 against, while most countries either abstained or were absent
Since 27 September timeline and casualties in the September 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh religious war: Since 27 September casualties in the September 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh religious war, already including many civilian victims


Religious violence and Sectarian violence - Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress
Persecution of Jews
Persecution by Christians - Sectarian violence among Christians - Persecution of Christians
Persecution by Muslims - Sectarian violence among Muslims - Persecution of Muslims
Persecution by Buddhists - Persecution of Buddhists
Persecution by Hindus - Persecution of Hindus
Persecution of critics of religion and atheists - Discrimination against atheists - Criticism of religion, disengagement from religion, in Christianity, Islam etc., and punishment
Religious 'cleansing', a term sometimes used to refer to removal of a population from a certain territory based on its religion, as since antiquity population cleansing was largely motivated by economic and political factors, although ethnic factors occasionally played a role
November 2018: 1 November 2018: Thousands of Islamist protesters have brought Pakistan to a standstill, burning rickshaws, cars and lorries to protest against the acquittal of Christian Asia Bibi who spent eight years on death row on false charges of blasphemy - Since 2010 Asia Bibi 'blasphemy' case - 3 November 2018: Pakistan’s government has been accused of signing the 'death warrant' of Asia Bibi after it said it would begin the process of preventing the Christian farm labourer leaving the country, who was acquitted of blasphemy after spending eight years on death row after she drank from the same cup as a Muslim, prompting false allegations that she insulted the prophet Muhammad - 3 novembre 2018: L'avocat d'Asia Bibi fuit, craignant pour sa vie

So-called 'ethnic cleansing', the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous, involving various forms of forced migration (deportation, population transfer), intimidation, as well as genocide - List of ethnic cleansing campaigns since ancient and medieval periods - Ethnic cleansing by continent
1683 'code noir' and expelling of Jews by French colonial forces: In 1683, the Jews were expelled from Haiti and all of the other French colonies, due to the 'Code Noir', which not only restricted the activities of free black people, but forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism (it included a provision that all slaves must be baptized and instructed in the Roman Catholic religion), and in turn ordered all the Jews out of France's colonies
1802-1804 resistance to slavery, repression and Napoleonic France's atrocities in Haiti: In 1802 French Vicomte de Rochambeau fought a brutal campaign to re-establish slavery in Haiti, waged a near-genocidal campaign against the Haitians, killing everyone who was black, importing about 15,000 attack dogs from Jamaica, who had been trained to savage blacks and mulattoes, also drowning blacks - In 2005 French historian Claude Ribbe accused Napoleon of having used sulphur dioxide gas for the mass execution of more than 100,000 rebellious black slaves when trying to put down slave rebellions in Saint-Domingue (now Haiti) and Guadeloupe, saying Napoleon was racist, instituted slavery, and was the first man in history that 'asked himself rationally the question how to eliminate, in as short a time as possible, and with a minimum of cost and personnel, a maximum of people described as scientifically inferior'
Since 1885 mass deportation of Poles by the German Empire: Since 1885 mass deportation of Poles from territories controlled by the German Empire
August 1914 German destruction and sacking of Kalisz: August 1914 destruction and sacking of the city of Kalisz by German Empire troops at the beginning of World War I, also known as the Pogrom of Kalisz or Poland’s Louvain, a part of German 'Schrecklichkeit' atrocities
Since 1914 'Germanisation' by the German empire: Since 1914 'Germanisation' by the German empire, including violence,aggression and world wars, turning into a policy of ethnic cleansing and later into the genocide of some non-German ethnic groups
1937-1939 German 'Special Prosecution Book-Poland': 1937-1939 'Special Prosecution Book-Poland', the proscription list prepared by the Germans immediately before the onset of war, that identified more than 61,000 of Polish people including scientists, activists, intelligentsia, scholars, actors, former officers, and prominent others, who were to be interned or shot on the spot upon their identification following the 1939 invasion, compiled by the 'Zentralstelle IIP Polen' unit of the 'Geheime Staatspolizei' with help from some members of the German minority living in pre-war Poland
1939/1940 German mass murder 'Intelligenzaktion': 1939/1940 German 'Intelligenzaktion', a secret mass murder conducted by NSDAP-Germany against the Polish third level educated people including teachers, priests, physicians, scientists) early in the German war 1939–45, conducted to realise the 'Germanization' of regions of occupied Poland before territorial annexation to the German Reich
1940 German mass murder 'Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion' in Poland: 1940 German 'Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion' in Poland, a second stage of the Nazi German campaign of violence and mass murder during World War II aimed to eliminate the intellectuals and the upper classes of Polish society across the territories slated for eventual annexation, as most of the killings were arranged in a form of mass disappearances from multiple cities and towns upon the German arrival, and in the spring and summer of 1940, more than 30,000 Poles were arrested by the Nazi authorities in German-occupied central Poland, about 7,000 of them including community leaders, professors, teachers and priests were subsequently massacred secretly at various locations including at the Palmiry forest, the others were sent to German concentration camps
1942-1943 German 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna: 1942-1943 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna by NSDAP and SS ruled Germany
'Social cleansing', a class-based killing that consists of elimination of members of society considered 'undesirable', including but not limited to the homeless, criminals, street children, the elderly, sex workers, and sexual minorities

Progroms, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities
Progroms targeting the Jewish people since antiquity and Jewish minorities across the globe since ancient periods
9/10 November 1938 Nazi Germany's 'Kristallnacht': 9/10 November 1938 'Kristallnacht' in Nazi Germany, the pogrom historians agree marked the beginning of the Holocaust




Impunity refers in the international law to the failure to bring perpetrators of human rights violations to justice - Command responsibility
1914 Western Front German massacres: Atrocités allemandes en 1914 en Wallonie, en Flandre et en France
Since 1920 impunity for German war crimes, atrocities and terrorism in World War I: Im Februar 1920 forderten die Alliierten gemäß dem Friedensvertrag von Versailles die Auslieferung von rund 900 deutschen Kriegsverantwortlichen, unter ihnen Offiziere aller Dienstgrade bis hinauf zum Feldmarschall, Unteroffiziere, einfache Soldaten und Zivilisten einschließlich des früheren Reichskanzlers Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, aber schon am 17. Februar 1920 gaben die Alliierten deutschem Druck nach und überliessen die Anklage der Verdächtigen dem Reichsgericht in Leipzig mit dem zu erwartenden Ergebnis weitestgehender Straffreiheit
1935-1945 pre-war events, World War II: Since 1935 pre-war events, World War II, since 1936 'Francoist Repression', crimes committed by the Nationalist movement during the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 and during the first decade of Franco's dictatorship 1936-1975, the mass killings of the Spanish Republican loyalists occurred from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, in July 1936, and continued unabated until 1945, since 1939 Nazi war crimes, the Holocaust, a genocide in which some six million European Jews were killed by Nazi Germany and its World War II collaborators, the victims included about 1.5 million children and represented about two-thirds of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe, a broader definition of the Holocaust includes non-Jewish victims of the Nazi campaign of mass murder, based on other ethnic or biological factors, such as the Romani, and the Aktion T4 patients who were mentally and physically disabled, Japanese war crimes, Italian war crimes - War crimes of the German 'Wehrmacht', impunity and the 'Clean Wehrmacht' legend, proven false by the Wehrmacht's own documents
Since 1938 responsibility for, international response to the Holocaust and for war crimes: Responsibility for the Holocaust and war crimes of World War II - Collaboration with the Axis Powers, also including persons, organizations, or countries that were not under occupation by the Axis Powers but that ideologically, financially, or militarily, before or during World War II, supported Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, or World War II-era Imperial Japan - International response to the Holocaust - in the decades since the Holocaust, some national governments, international bodies and world leaders have been criticized for their failure to take appropriate action to save the millions of European Jews, Roma, and other victims of the Holocaust, as such intervention, particularly by the Allied governments, might have saved substantial numbers of people
May 2018, in 2012 only some 6,498 people convicted for their part in the Holocaust: 21 May 2018: As by 2012 only some 6,498 people had been convicted for their part in the Holocaust, in 2018 Germany’s Nazi hunters in final straight of race against time, urgently trying to track down and bring to justice the last remaining Holocaust war criminals
November 2018 in Germany fewer than 600 Holocaust war criminals received heavy sentences: 10 November 2018: Though up to a million people are believed to have actively participated in the extermination of millions of Jewish people during the Holocaust, only around 20,000 were ever found guilty of crimes, and fewer than 600 received heavy sentences, according to British Holocaust historian Mary Fulbrook, examining the German justice system’s prosecution of Nazi war crimes following World War II, saying that 'the total number of persons convicted under the Federal Republic for Nazi crimes was in itself fewer even than the number of people who had been employed at Auschwitz alone' and noting that West Germany’s post-war legal system was populated by many ex-Nazis


Responsibility and personal responsibility: Responsibility and Personal responsibility - 'Verantwortung', juristisch, politisch, moralisch, wirtschaftlich, in den Wissenschaften, in den Medien, in der Überlieferung (geschriebene Sprache) seit den westasiatischen Propheten wie dem hebräisch/israelischen Propheten Abraham (reportedly about 2150 BCE - c. 1975 BCE), dem hebräisch/israelischen Propheten Jesajas, dem hebräisch/israelischen Propheten Moses, dem Wissenschaftler der griechischen Antike Aristoteles, sehr viel später 1818-1883 Karl Marx (Kritik der politischen Ökonomie und Anwendung) und Friedrich Engels (auch 'Zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie'), Max Weber - 1871-1919 Rosa Luxemburg's Schrift Januar 1916 'Die Krise der Sozialdemokratie' - Rosa Luxemburgs 'Leitsätze über die Aufgaben der internationalen Sozialdemokratie' - October/November 1917 'Second Congress of the Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies 'Decree on Peace' - 1865-1948 Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's struggle for Indian independence (1915–1947, and his ideas on life, society, women, self-rule, favouring an education system with far greater emphasis on learning skills in practical and useful work - After antimilitarist Jean Jaurès was assassinated at the beginning of German empire's World War I first targeting Luxembourg, Belgium and France, by a 29-year-old French nationalist, as Jaurès had been due to attend an international conference on 9 August in an attempt to dissuade the belligerent parties from going ahead with the war, as Villain later - tried after World War I and acquitted - was killed by Spanish Republicans in 1936 - 1905-1980 Jean-Paul Sartre, philosopher and political activist, who nfluenced sociology, anti-colonial policy, and the 'Combat' French newspaper, created during NSDAP ruled German empire's Second World War as a clandestine newspaper of the French Resistance movement, as leading contributors were Jean-Paul Sartre, André Malraux, Emmanuel Mounier, Raymond Aron, Pierre Herbart and from 1943 to 1947 Albert Camus as its editor-in-chief - 1929-1968 Martin Luther King, education and studies,survived knife attack 1958, sit-ins, prison sentence, 1960 elections, Selma voting rights movement and 'Bloody Sunday' 1965, Chicago open housing and Freedom Movement, opposition to the Vietnam War, Poor People's Campaign 1968, 4 April 1968 assassination, death and aftermath with 'King assassination riots' and legacy - 1918-2013 Nelson Mandela, end of apartheid 1951, 1991, 1994-1999, und sehr viel mehr Vorkämpfer und Mitstreiter für Demokratie und Menschenrechte


Opposition, resistance and rebellions against the Roman Empire until AD 395 – 476/480 (western) and AD 395–1453 (eastern) - Opposition and rebellions against empires - Opposition and rebellions against the Spanish Empire - Jewish resistance against the world challenging and threatening Germa0n empire - Opposing German empire's (and and allied forces) war crimes resistance movements during World War II - Oppostion and internal resistance to apartheid - Ongoing resistance movements in the 20th and 21st centuries




Since World War II 'Ratlines' system of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists: Since World War II 'Ratlines' system of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists fleeing Europe in the aftermath of their war and crimes, as these escape routes mainly led toward havens in Latin America, particularly Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Colombia, Brazil, Uruguay, Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, Ecuador, and Bolivia, as well as the USA, Spain and Switzerland
'Ratlines' system with two primary routes: 'Ratlines' system of escape routes for Nazis and other fascists had two primary routes, the first went from Germany to Spain, then Argentina, the second went from Germany to Rome to Genoa, then South America,as the two routes developed independently but eventually came together, also supported by clergy of the Catholic Church, and historian Michael Phayer claims this was supported by the Vatican
April 2020 researchers say Vatican archives show pope Pius XII knew of WWII killing of Jews: 30 April 2020: Researchers studying the newly opened Vatican archives of pope Pius XII have already found evidence that the World War II-era pope knew about the mass killing of Jews from his own sources but kept it from the USA government, the Washington Post reported Wednesday, saying documents indicate pope was aware of massacre of Jews in Warsaw and Lviv from own sources, but denied it to the USA

Germany's and Austria's responsibility for the Holocaust: German people's responsibility for the Holocaust, religious hatred and racism, implementation by German and Austrian Nazis and obedience - Anti-Jewish legislation in pre-war Nazi Germany since 1933 - Since September 1939 German invasion of Poland, marking the beginning of World War II - January 1942 'Wannseekonferenz' meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel SS leaders held in Berlin, as the purpose of the conference, called by the director of the 'Reich Main Security Office' SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, was to ensure the co-operation of administrative leaders of various government departments in the implementation of the 'Final solution to the Jewish question' (Endlösung der Judenfrage)
Since 1939 'Myth of the clean German Wehrmacht': Myth of the clean Wehrmacht, the fictitious notion that the regular German armed forces (the Wehrmacht) were not involved in the Holocaust or other war crimes during World War II, denying the culpability of the German military command in the planning and preparation of war crimes, even where the perpetration of war crimes and the waging of a war of extermination, particularly in the Soviet Union, where the Nazis viewed the population as 'subhumans' ruled by 'Jewish Bolshevik' conspirators, has been acknowledged, they are ascribed to the 'Party soldiers', the Schutzstaffel SS, and not the regular German military
Since 1935 Nuremberg Laws, Hans Globke (later CDU and 1953-1963 Head of the German Chancellery): Since 1935 Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze), antisemitic and racist laws in Nazi Germany, enacted by the Reichstag on 15 September 1935, at a special meeting convened during the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party - Since 1933 Hans Globke (later CDU) in the Office for Jewish Affairs in the Ministry of the Interior, wrote a legal annotation on the anti-semitic Nuremberg Race Laws that did not express any objection to the discrimination against Jews, and placed the Nazi Party on a firmer legal ground, setting the path to The Holocaust

Groups and numbers of Holocaust survivors and issues: Groups and numbers of Holocaust survivors - Immediate aftermath of the Holocaust, displaced persons camps and searching for survivors, hidden children, immigration and absorption, second generation of survivors
Aftermath of the Holocaust: Aftermath of the Holocaust
Criticism of Holocaust denial: Criticism of Holocaust denial is directed against people who claim that the genocide of Jews during World War II in the Holocaust did not occur in the manner or to the extent described by reputable scholarship
26 January 2021 as Holocaust denial rises global commemoration increasingly important: 26 January 2021: As Holocaust denial rises, global commemoration that marks Auschwitz-Birkenau’s liberation by Soviet forces on 27 January 1945 increasingly important, as International Holocaust Remembrance Day 2021 to focus on 1.5 million children killed by Nazis
16 May 2021 first-hand accounts from survivors of Nazi death marches go on display: 16 May 2021: First-hand accounts from survivors of Nazi death marches, which formed a last ruthless chapter of NSDAP-Germany's genocide, when tens of thousands of people died on roadsides of exhaustion, shot for failing to keep up, or murdered in seemingly random massacres as the Nazis moved people from concentration camps before liberation by the allies, as 'The Wiener Holocaust Library' aims to bring light to these 'mobile concentration camps' in its new London exhibition, as accounts will also be available for free online, the British 'Guardian' reports, as Warsaw Ghetto Uprising last day was 16 May 1943

1942 - April 2017 archive of the UN war crimes commission: 1943-1949 United Nations War Crimes Commission, a commission of the UN that investigated allegations of war crimes committed by Nazi Germany and the other Axis powers in World War II, beginning its work at the behest of the British government and the other Allied nations prior to the formal establishment of the United Nations itself in October 1945
Since 1945 German people and Axis personnel convicted of crimes against humanity: German people convicted of crimes against humanity - Nazis convicted of war crimes - List of Axis personnel indicted for war crimes
Since 1939 'Myth of the clean German Wehrmacht': Myth of the clean Wehrmacht, the fictitious notion that the regular German armed forces (the Wehrmacht) were not involved in the Holocaust or other war crimes during World War II, denying the culpability of the German military command in the planning and preparation of war crimes, even where the perpetration of war crimes and the waging of a war of extermination, particularly in the Soviet Union, where the Nazis viewed the population as 'subhumans' ruled by 'Jewish Bolshevik' conspirators, has been acknowledged, they are ascribed to the 'Party soldiers', the Schutzstaffel SS, and not the regular German military
Since 1945 Germany refused to extradite war criminals convicted in Italy: List of Germans convicted of war crimes committed in Italy during World War II, mostly never extradited by Germany
Allied knowledge of German and Axis powers' war crims: Allied knowledge of German and Axis powers' war crims, atrocities and the Holocaust
April 2017: 18 April 2017: The once-inaccessible archive of the UN war crimes commission, that was closed in the late 1940s and its use of the records was effectively suppressed, as West Germany was transformed into a pivotal ally at the start of the cold war and as many convicted Nazis were granted early release after the anti-communist USA senator Joseph McCarthy lobbied to end war crimes trials, is being opened by the Wiener Library in London with a catalogue that can be searched online
April 2017 'powers knew and did not act': 23 April 2017: Citing recently released UN documents that show the Allies were aware of the scale of the Holocaust in 1942, Israeli PM Netanyahu says in a speech marking Holocaust Remembrance Day that this new research assumed the 'terrible significance' that 'the powers knew and did not act', adding that global indifference persisted and is persisting, as evidenced by the horrors in Biafra, Cambodia, Rwanda, Sudan and Syria
Since 2002 (updated in 2018) 'Annual Status Report on the Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi war criminals': Since 2002 'Annual Status Report on the Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi war criminals' produced by Efraim Zuroff of the Simon Wiesenthal Center which, since at least 2004, has included a list of 'most-wanted' Nazi criminals who had never been convicted, as the list was last updated in 2018

1914-1918 Central Powers Mediterranean U-boat Campaign, impunity and World War II: 1914-1918 Mediterranean U-boat Campaign during World War I in the Mediterranean Sea, fought by Austria-Hungary and German Empire (with some support by the Ottoman Empire) against the Allies, characterised by the ability of the Central Powers to raid with near military impunity during the first years of the war, causing substantial shipping losses, until the introduction of the convoy system allowed the Allies to drastically cut their losses from 1917 on, followed by legal and judicial impunity after Central Powers defeat
1939-1945 submarine warfare in German, Italian and Japanese empires' World War II: Submarine warfare in World War II and personnel continuity of 1914-1918 war criminals

People convicted of crimes against humanity by nationality and/or country - People convicted of war crimes by nationality and/or country - People convicted of genocide by nationality and/or country

Duty of preventing and prosecuting war crimes in accordance with the Nuremberg Trials international law, developping the concept of command responsibility and saying that military commanders are imposed with individual responsibility for war crimes, committed by forces under their effective command and control - Duty to rescue and regulations by country - Omission (law), a failure to act, which generally attracts different legal consequences

Since 2006 Russian regime's poisoning of British citizen Alexander Litvinenko in London, remaining unpunished, international relations and foreign relations of many countries characterized by malice aforethought and insidiousness, cowardice and denial

Since 2004 'Impunity Watch', a project of the Dutch development organisation 'Solidaridad' - 'Impunity Watch' is an international non-profit human rights organisation, seeking to promote accountability for past atrocities, notably in countries emerging from a violent past - Since 2007 'Impunity Watch', online publication and interactive website by the Syracuse University College of Law, dedicated to inform the world about state violations of citizens' and human rights, operating as a law review, message board, and blog to of give a voice to people who are silenced
Since 2008 international impunity reported by 'Impunity Watch' and newspapers: Since 2008 international news published by Dutch 'Impunity Watch' - European Rights Watch - Inter-American Rights Watch - Africa Rights Watch
August 2018 Neo-Nazism in Russia, Berlin and Vienna: 19 August 2018: Neo-Nazis marched through Berlin on Saturday to commemorate the anniversary of the death of Hitler's aide Rudolf Hess, carrying a banner reading 'I don't regret anything', as Putin and Merkel had a quiet drink outside Berlin, showing memory and admiration for Russian, Iranian and Assad's assaults on the Syrian people, murdering hundreds of thousands, for the effects of Sarin, BUK-missiles, Polonium-tea and Novichok-perfume, after Putin's dancing arm-in-arm with Austria's neo-Nazi linked FM Karin Kneissl at her wedding on Saturday
15 January 2019 terrorism remains unpunished: 15 January 2019: 100 years after the assassination of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht in Berlin, that remained unpunished, and 25 years after the 1994 bombing of the AMIA Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, the worst terrorist attack ever committed on Argentine soil, also facing this crime without punishment for decades, Argentines need to decide whether to pursue justice or surrender to terrorists
17 July 2019 MH17 crash ascribed to Russian regime: 17 juillet 2019: Les familles des victimes du crash du vol MH17 abattu en 2014 au-dessus de l'Ukraine se sont rassemblées mercredi à l'occasion du 5e anniversaire de la catastrophe et ont à nouveau réclamé justice, après les Pays-Bas et l'Australie ont ouvertement imputé en mai 2018 à la Russie la mort de leurs concitoyens
April 1944 - 24 July 2019 former SS soldier Karl Muenter charged: 24 juillet 2019: Suite à la plainte de familles de victimes du massacre de 86 civils à Ascq, commis dans la nuit du 1er au 2 avril 1944 par des SS y compris Karl Münter, ce l'ancien SS, qui a assuré que le chiffre de 6 millions de juifs assassinés par les nazis était exagéré lors d'un entretien à la chaîne publique ARD diffusé le 29 novembre 2018, qui a estimé que les victimes d'Ascq étaient aussi responsables de leur mort, est enfin mis en accusation maintenant pour incitation à la haine, après en mars 2018, le Parquet allemand avait en effet annoncé l'abandon des poursuites parce que le suspect avait déjà été condamné à mort par contumace par un tribunal militaire en France en 1949 et qu'il ne pouvait donc être jugé une seconde fois pour ces mêmes faits
January 2020 and about 9 years of Assad's, Iranian and Russian regime's war against the Syrian people: 10 January 2020: About 9 years of Assad's, Iranian and Russian regime's war against the Syrian people standing for continuous killing and destruction, while war criminals go unpunished, Russia and Iran are the regime’s winning cards, and geography of influence and control is constantly changing at the expense of millions of civilians, according to SOHR

Violation of human rights in Russia
2019 annual review of human rights in Russia: 2019 annual 'Human Rights Watch' review of human rights in Russia

Violation of human rights in Iran
2019 annual review of human rights in Iran: 2019 annual 'Human Rights Watch' review of human rights in Iran

'Syria Watch' website of Impunity Watch online publication
February 2016: 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 23 February 2016: The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights considers that the silence of the International community for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Syria encourages the criminals to kill more and more Syrian people, because they have not found anyone that deter them from continuing their crimes that killed more than 270,000 people, injured more than 2 million, some of them with permanent disabilities, displaced more than 11 million Syrian people, and destroyed the infrastructure and private and public properties
January 2020 'letting the world know you cannot kill an American without impunity', raises question who will do this for other citizens and children worldwide: 4 January 2020: South Carolina Senator Lindsey Graham told TV news 'I really appreciate President Trump letting the world know you cannot kill an American without impunity', raising the question who will promise and do this for other citizens and children worldwide - 4 January 2020: Five children and four adults have been killed by a missile that hit a school and a camp for displaced people in Syria’s Idlib region, and 19 people were injured, including a teacher who is in a critical condition, the latest attack on civilian infrastructure in opposition held areas, as spokesman for the civil defence office in the town of Sarmin Mustafa Al Rashid said 'fortunately, most students had left only 10 minutes before the bombing, but there were some still playing in front of the school'

Since 2009 International Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists is marked annually on 23 November by advocates for free expression, following the 2009 Ampatuan massacre in the Philippines, when 57 individuals were murdered, including 32 journalists and media workers - 'International Day to End Impunity' website

CPJ’s Campaign Against Impunity
2015: 8 October 2015: Getting Away With Murder - CPJ's 2015 Global Impunity Index spotlights countries where journalists are slain and the killers go free
2016: 27 October 2016: CPJ’s 2016 Global Impunity Index spotlights countries where journalists are slain and the killers go free
2017: April 2017: List of 20 deadliest countries for journalists

People indicted for international crimes

List of people indicted in the International Criminal Court

Lawlessness - Crimes against humanity - Global politics without conscience
December 2016 absence of political will to act against war crimes: 7 December 2016: 'People ... have lost trust in everyone - in world leaders, in the international organisations that are watching them being killed, they lost faith in the United Nations, and they just count the days to their death' says Syria Relief's Dr Mounir Hakimi, the chairman of one of the last NGOs on the ground in Aleppo, as a joint statement by Canada, France, Germany, Italy, UK and USA contains no commitments to new action and the USA ambassador to the UN Samantha Power tells AP that diplomatic efforts appeared to have failed, saying 'diplomacy has not delivered for the people of Aleppo, it is not us that walked away from diplomacy' - 8 December 2016: Western diplomats have conceded that there are no technical obstacles to a plan to deliver airdrops of food and medicine to Aleppo using a GPS-guided parachute system, but the scheme has been stalled in the face of reluctance among military commanders and an absence of political will
October 2018 many years Sudan's dictator al-Bashir travelled freely around the world: 21 October 2018: Sudan's Omar al-Bashir has been travelling freely around the world despite an eight-year-old international warrant for his arrest on charges of war crimes and genocide, according to human rights lawyers, saying at least 33 countries ignored International Criminal Court’s warrants
December 2018 Nobel winners demand prosecution of criminals: 10 December 2018: Nobel Peace winners Dr. Denis Mukwege of Congo and Nadia Murad of Iraq urge global action against sexual violence, as Mukwege criticized the international community for allowing Congolese to be 'humiliated, abused and massacred for more than two decades in plain sight', and as Murad told the ceremony that she wants world leaders to translate sympathy for victims into action against the abusers, saying 'the fact remains that the only prize in the world that can restore our dignity is justice and the prosecution of criminals'
10 November 2020 Ukrainian rabbi says lack of serious action by world leaders encouraged Nazi crimes: 10 November 2020: European synagogues keep on their lights to mark 1938 'Kristallnacht' pogroms, as Ukraine's chief Rabbi Yaakov Dov Bleich wrote 'the reason Kristallnacht led to the Holocaust was the lack of serious action by world leaders' during the event and afterward

A cover-up is an attempt, whether successful or not, to conceal evidence of a crime, wrongdoing, error, incompetence or other embarrassing information, in a passive cover-up, information is simply not provided, in an active cover-up, deception is used
Cases of cover-ups by subject and country
Since 1914-1918 cover-ups of German World War I crimes: Since 1914-1918 cover-ups of World War I crimes by Imperial Germany
Since 1936-1939 cover-up of Franco's war crimes: Since 1936-1939 cover-up of war crimes of Franco's war against the Spanish Republic
Since 1939-1945 cover-ups of Nazi crimes and World War II crimes: Since 1939-1945 German efforts to destroy all evidence of mass extermination and cover-ups of Nazi crimes and war crimes - Holocaust denial - 9 May 2018: Germany's AfD decides not to expel critic of Holocaust memorial - 12 June 2018: AfD party ended a drive for the expulsion of member Bjoern Hoecke who suggested the country end its tradition of acknowledging and atoning for its Nazi past
Since 1945 cover-up of Japanese war crimes: Since 1931-1945 cover-up of Japanese war crimes after the end of World War II - 1938-1939 Nanjing Massacre denial - Japanese history textbook controversies concern government-approved history textbooks and nationalist efforts to whitewash the actions of the Empire of Japan during World War II
1955-1975 cover-ups of crimes in USA's Vietnam War: 1955-1975 cover-ups of crimes in USA's Vietnam War - Cover-up of the March 1968 My Lai Massacre, the mass murder of unarmed South Vietnamese civilians by USA troops in South Vietnam
Since the 1990s cover-ups of killings of journalists in Russia: Since the 1990s cover-ups of killings of journalists in Russia under Putin
Since 2006 Russian cover-up of the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko: Since 2006 Russian cover-up of the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko
2011-2018 Russian cover-up of doping: From 2011 to 2018, more than hundreds of Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from cover-ups, following systemic nature of doping in Russian sports
Since 2011 cover-ups of Assad's, Iranian and Russian war crimes: Since 2011 cover-ups of war crimes in Assad's war against the Syrian people
Since March 2018 Russian cover-up of the Salisbury poisoning: Since March 2018 Russian cover-up of the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal, Dawn Sturgess and Charlie Rowley
Since October 2018 Saudi-Arabian cover-up of the murder of Jamal Khashoggi: Since October 2018 Saudi-Arabian cover-up of the murder of Jamal Khashoggi - 10 November 2018: France, Germany, Saudi Arabia, UK and USA 'have Khashoggi tapes', after Turkey has shared audio recording of Saudi journalist’s killing - 12 November 2018: Amid international demands of satisfactory explanations of the murder, Simon McDonald, who serves as British PM May’s special envoy, is in Saudi Arabia and has met crown prince Mohammed bin Salman, the first such visit since the international outrage over the Saudi Arabian regime's killing of Jamal Khashoggi in its consulate in Istanbul, as journalist's disturbing last words revealed and Jamal Khashoggi's fiance warns not to 'cover up' death - 21 November 2018: USA's Trump administration accused of trying to turn a blind eye to the murder of the Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Istanbul
7 February 2020 puniahed by regime, whistleblower Li Wenliang died from Wuhan coronavirus: On 7 February 2020 Li Wenliang, a Chinese ophthalmologist at Wuhan Central Hospital and a whistleblower who warned about the 2019–2020 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak on 30 December 2019, but was summoned and admonished by Wuhan police on 3 January 2020 for 'making false comments on the Internet', died from the infection after later returning to work and contracting the virus from an infected patient - 3/4 January 2020: Li Wenliang's punishment for 'rumor mongering' was aired on CCTV, signalling central government endorsement for the reprimand - 7 February 2020: Demands for freedom of speech in the wake of Li Wenliang’s death have been censored by the Beijing regime
16 February 2020 Chinese regime's Xi aware of danger of coronavirus weeks before sounding alarm: 16 February 2020: Beijing regime's Xi aware of potential danger of coronavirus weeks before sounding alarm
11 April 2020 China is cracking down on academic research about covid-19: 11 April 2020: Chinese regime is cracking down on publication of academic research about the origins of the novel coronavirus and covid-19, in what is likely to be part of a wider attempt to control the narrative surrounding the pandemic, according to documents published online by Chinese universities
18 August 2020 after decades UK's lead role in 1953 Iran coup d'etat exposed: 18 August 2020: UK's lead role in 1953 Iran coup d'etat exposed, as recently discovered transcript of an interview with a British intelligence officer who played a leading role in the 1953 coup that restored powers to the shah of Iran claims that Britain was the driving force behind the overthrow of Iranian PM Mohammed Mossadegh, after for decades UK government has not officially admitted its fundamental role in the coup, and 'finding the Darbyshire transcript is like finding the smoking gun'
19 August 2020 Hezbollah behind the assassination of Rafik Hariri and attempts to block a fair investigation: 19 August 2020: Israel responded Tuesday evening to a UN-backed tribunal’s conviction of a Hezbollah member for involvement in the assassination of former Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri, saying the terror group was behind both the attack and attempts to block a fair investigation of it, including the trial at tribunal at The Hague

Insincerity, impunity and 'Lebenslügen' prevent human 'Lernfähigkeit': Insincerity and 'Lebenslügen' contradict and prevent human 'Lernfähigkeit' - 'Big lie', as German expression was coined by uprooted and broken people involved in a never seen war with the latest technology, following Germany's loss in self-inflicted World War I, unfathomable for them despising scientific efforts - 'Doublethink'
1919-1945 propaganda, preparing the and in NSDAP-ruled Germany: 1919-1945 propaganda, preparing the and in NSDAP-ruled Germany - On 14 June 1940, the day Paris was occupied by German troops, NS propagandist Leni Riefenstahl wrote to German dictator Hitler in a telegram 'with indescribable joy, deeply moved and filled with burning gratitude, we share with you, my Führer, your and Germany's greatest victory, the entry of German troops into Paris', 'you exceed anything human imagination has the power to conceive, achieving deeds without parallel in the history of mankind', 'how can we ever thank you?', as Riefenstahl was friends with Hitler for 12 years
1960/1961 major Holocaust perpetrator Eichmann kidnapped in Argentina and brought to Israel to stand trial: After in 1960, the major Holocaust perpetrator Adolf Eichmann was kidnapped in Argentina and brought to Israel to stand trial, his trial - opened on 11 April 1961 and ending on 15 August 1961 at Beit Ha'am and presided over by the three judges Moshe Landau, Benjamin Halevy, and Yitzhak Raveh - ended with conviction on all fifteen counts and Eichmann was sentenced to death, and - in Israel's only judicial execution to date - Eichmann was hanged on 31 May 1962 at Ramla Prison
1961 throughout Eichmann's cross-examination no confession was forthcoming but denial: Throughout Eichmann's cross-examination, prosecutor Hausner attempted to get him to admit he was personally guilty, but no such confession was forthcoming, as Eichmann admitted to not liking the Jews and viewing them as adversaries, but stated that he never thought their annihilation was justified, as - when Hausner produced evidence that Eichmann had stated in 1945 that 'I will leap into my grave laughing because the feeling that I have five million human beings on my conscience is for me a source of extraordinary satisfaction' - Eichmann said he meant 'enemies of the Reich' such as the Soviets, and as during later examination by the judges, Eichmann admitted he meant the Jews, and said the remark was an accurate reflection of his opinion at the time
2011 'Crimes in Past and Present - government sponsored atrocities and international legal responses': 2011 'Crimes in Past and Present - government sponsored atrocities and international legal responses', edited by David M. Crowe
29/30 September 2020 Trump once again dodges condemnation of white supremacists: 30 September 2020: At Tuesday evening’s presidential debate with Democrat Joe Biden, Trump refused to condemn white supremacists, instead insisting that the more serious problem of extremism in the USA is coming from the antifa movement (short for anti-fascist movement)
22 December 2020 Putin regime signs bill granting lifetime immunity to former Russian presidents and families: 22 December 2020: Russian fascist Putin regime signs bill granting lifetime immunity to former Russian presidents, as legislation will give former leaders and their families protection from prosecution, and they will also be exempt from questioning by police or investigators, as well as searches or arrests, coming a day after Russian officer admitted putting poison in Navalny's underwear to murder him, ordered and committed by regime's FSB team
23 December 2020 USA's Trump pardoned 4 former contractors convicted in 2007 massacre in Baghdad: 23 December 2020: USA's president Trump pardoned 4 former government contractors convicted in a 2007 massacre in Baghdad that left more than a dozen Iraqi civilians including children dead and caused an international uproar over the use of private security guards in a war zone, also issuing a total of 15 pardons, including Republicans who were strong and early supporters and a 2016 campaign official ensnared in the Russia probe

Whitewashing is a metaphor meaning 'to gloss over or cover up vices, crimes or scandals or to exonerate by means of a perfunctory investigation or through biased presentation of data'
July 2003: 14 July 2003: The Chinese Foreign Ministry criticized senior Japanese politician Takami Eto from PM Koizumi's Liberal Democratic Party for trying to whitewash history by denying the Nanjing Massacre
September 2917: 14 September 2017: AfD's Gauland says Germans 'have the right to be proud of the achievements of the German soldiers in two world wars'
April 1944 - 24 July 2019 former SS soldier Karl Muenter charged: 24 July 2019: German prosecutors said they have filed charges against Karl Muenter for incitement and disparaging the memory of Nazi victims, after the former SS soldier Karl Muenter, who has a previous conviction in France for killing 86 people in the northern French village of Ascq on the night of 1 April 1944 during World War II, but was never imprisoned much more pardoned in 1955 as part of French-German 'reconciliation' and German whitewashing, has blamed French victims for their own death and denied 6 million Jews killed, making his inflammatory remarks in an interview broadcast by German channel ARD in November 2018

Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda, and sleight of hand, as well as distraction, camouflage, or concealment - A lie is a statement used intentionally for the purpose of deception - Deception used by governments
False flag operations
February 1933 German Reichstag fire: 27 February 1933 Reichstag fire, an arson attack on the Reichstag building, home of the German parliament in Berlin, precisely four weeks after Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany
1955 Testimony of SA-member Hans-Martin Lennings: 1955 Testimony of SA-member Hans-Martin Lennings, published in July 2019, more than 80 years after the event
1933/1955/2019: 26/27 July 2019: When witness Hans-Martin Lennings and his colleagues of the Nazis' SA arrived with van der Lubbe at the Reichstag, he noticed 'a strange smell of burning and there were clouds of smoke billowing through the rooms', saying 1955 in an account confirmed by a Hanover court 'we were convinced that van der Lubbe could not possibly have been the arsonist, because according to our observation, the Reichstag had already been burning when we dropped him off there', as Reichstag blaze in Germany was used by Adolf Hitler used to claim a Communist plot and consolidate his influence with a crackdown
Since summer 1939 false flag project by Nazi Germany to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany: 1939 operation Himmler, a false flag project planned by Nazi Germany to create the appearance of Polish aggression against Germany, which was subsequently used by the Nazis to justify the invasion of Poland, including staging false attacks on themselves using innocent people or concentration camp prisoners - Gleiwitz incident, a covert Nazi German attack on the German radio station Sender Gleiwitz on the night of 31 August 1939
Since 2014 Russian Putin regime's 'little green men': Since 2014 'little green men', a term that refers to masked soldiers in unmarked green army uniforms and carrying modern Russian military weapons and equipment who appeared during the Ukrainian crisis of 2014 and during the illegal annexation of Crimea by Russia's Putin regime in 2014
26 January 2020 'we need to teach our children what words, what racism, what lies mean': 26 January 2020: 'We need to teach our children what words, what racism, what lies mean…', Bronia Brandman, born in Poland's town of Jaworzno in 1931, says during an interview at Manhattan’s Museum of Jewish Heritage, showing the blue tattoo inked on her forearm that is a mute testimony to the pain she suffered under the Nazis at Auschwitz, also saying for 50 years she couldn’t speak about it, for 25 years, she couldn’t laugh, but 75 years after the liberation of Auschwitz telling her story is the driving force of her life

Victim blaming occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially responsible for the harm that befell them - Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record
Since antiquity persecution of Jews and lies about a Jewish world conspiracy: 2009: After Jews were persecuted since antiquity and the 'Middle Ages', lies about a Jewish world conspiracy, later used in Nazi propaganda, turned up in Germany in 1919 and was seen by anti-Semites as proof of forces that had caused Germany to lose World War I, a defeat to be cancelled in World War II
August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident: 2 August 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident
2014/2015 Putin’s Crimea speech and lies: 17 April 2014: Putin asserts right to use force in east Ukraine - 9 May 2014: The brutal, bloody history behind Putin’s Crimea speech - 17 December 2015: After two years of resolute denials, Russia's Putin admits that he sent soldiers into eastern Ukraine after all
April 2018 Russian lies about 'novichok': 2 April 2018: Russian regime claims it could have been in interests of Britain to poison Sergei Skripal, as regime's Sergei Lavrov says UK government would benefit from attack as Brexit approaches
July 2018 Russian lies about war crimes in Syria: 25 July 2018: After 'Syrian Civil Defense has lost 251 volunteers since it was established, most of whom were killed in double-tap airstrikes by the Assad regime and Russian aircraft which target the same area twice in order to kill the first responders', smear campaign, murderous threats and persecution led by Russian regime against civil defense is due to its possession of evidence indicting Russian and Assad regime, revealing 'how Russia sees this organization as a real threat to the criminals and their supporters, especially with regard to the legal aspect', Syrian Coalition says
28 January 2021 in Holocaust memorial day speech Lithuanian lawmaker Rakutis says Jews and Communists share blame: 28 January 2021: In Holocaust memorial day speech Lithuanian lawmaker Valdas Rakutis says Jews and Communists share blame, as USA ambassador to Lithuania slams Rakutis for distorting the memory of the Holocaust and 'shamefully' accusing Jews of being the perpetrators

History of law, the study of how law has evolved and why it changed, closely connected to the development of civilisations and set in the wider context of social history - International law - Conflict of laws
History of the legal profession: Legal profession - Legal education in different countries - History of the legal profession, having its origins in ancient Greece and Rome - 1758-1794 French lawyer Maximilien Robespierre and the reign of terror

Abuse of the legal system - Legal abuse - State crime
Judicial misconduct - Malicious prosecution - Abuse of process - Perverting the course of justice - False accusation - False confession - Miscarriage of justice
2017: 27 April 2017: Using procedures to persuade defendants to plead guilty has reached ‘epidemic proportions’ and increases risk of miscarriage of justice, as more and more countries persuade defendants to plead guilty and renounce traditional trial rights, according to 'Fair Trials', also saying that 'abbreviated trials and cooperating witness procedures have increased about 300% since 1990, ... happening in more places than ever before

Capital punishment - Use of capital punishment by country - Organ transplantation in China and Organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners in China
2009 5,000 people were executed in China: Capital punishment in China - 2009 the Dui Hua Foundation estimates that 5,000 people were executed in China, far more than all other nations combined
2014 global executions up 15% in 2013: 27 March 2014: Global executions up 15% in 2013, due in part to more executions in Iran and Iraq, followed by Saudi Arabia
2015/2016 mass execution of civilians in the kingdom Saudi Arabia: 24 September 2015: UN issues urgent call for Saudi Arabia to stay execution of juvenile Ali Mohammed al-Nimr and his crucifixion after taking part in demonstrations three years ago for democracy and equal rights - Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr's, who 'encouraged pro-democracy protests using a BlackBerry smartphone', death sentence death presumed to have been overturned in April 2020, but his uncle was sentenced to death by the Saudi court for anti-government activities and executed in January 2016, as Ali al-Nimr's family believes that the relationship was the reason for his arrest and cruel execution - On 2 January 2016 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia carried out a mass execution of 47 imprisoned civilians in 12 provinces in the country
2016 top five executioners in 2015 were China, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia and the USA: 6 April 2016: Iran and Pakistan fuel surge in executions worldwide to 25-year high, as Iran executed almost 1,000 people last year and as the world’s top five executioners in 2015 were China, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi-Arabia and the USA
April 2017 Chinese regime criticised for continuing to conceal the number of people it sentences to death: 11 April 2017: Rights group has sharply criticised Chinese regime for continuing to conceal the number of people it sentences to death, as the human rights group reported a fall in executions globally last year
December 2017 in Guangdong province people sentenced to death in front of onlookers before execution: 18 December 2017: A court in Lufeng in China's southern Guangdong province, just 160km from Hong Kong, has sentenced 10 people to death, mostly for drug-related crimes, in front of thousands of onlookers before taking them away for execution
1 December 2020 Swedish-Iranian scientist faces 'imminent risk of execution' in Iran: 1 December 2020: Swedish-Iranian scientist Ahmadreza Djalali sentenced to death in Iran on espionage charges may face execution as early as Wednesday, human rights groups and his wife have warned
2 December 2020 '25 thousands disappear each year in China and their organs are harvested’ and reportedly sold: 2 December 2020: China experts and activists claim that the repression of minorities in Xinjiang has escalated in recent years, with thousands of Uighur Muslims in ‘reeducation camps’ being murdered and their organs harvested for wealthy Chinese and foreign patients - 18 June 2019: Chinese Beijing regime forcefully harvests organs from detainees, as China's organ transplant trade is worth $1 billion a year, according to a tribunal
31 December 2020 Iran continues to execute minors: 31 décembre 2020: L’ONU a vivement condamné jeudi l’exécution en Iran d’un homme pour un crime qu’il aurait commis alors qu’il avait 16 ans, la quatrième d’un mineur délinquant cette année dans ce pays, appelant Téhéran à cesser cette pratique




Endangered freedom of the press, freedom of speech and freedom of information
Since 1992 killed journalists in Russia: List of journalists killed in Russia since 1992 - Assassinated Russian journalists
December 1999 IFJ says journalists target in conflicts (as well as reporting since ancient times and much longer): 22 December 1999: Journalists ‘first target’ in conflicts, International Federation of Journalists says ahead of new millennium
2000-2008 killed journalists in Russia under Putin: Journalists killed in Russia since 2000 under Putin
2008-2011 during Medvedev presidency: 2008-2011 Journalists killed in Russia during Medvedev presidency
Since 2012 killed journalists again under Putin: Since 2012 Journalists killed in Russia again under Putin
2012 following 2009 mistakes “Made in the USA” USA's Obama keeping journalist Shaye in Yemeni prison in Yemen: 13 March 2012: After supporters protested his 'sham' trial, journalist Abdulelah Haider Shaye would have been pardoned, but USA's Obama intervened over Shaye’s reports on the 2009 Majala bombing and killed women, children and the elderly, and his criticism of the USA and Yemeni governments
2012 rise in the number of murder and assassinations of journalists: 3. Mai 2012: Morde an Journalisten nehmen in vielen Ländern dramatisch zu - 3 May: UN chief Ban Ki-moon expresses anger over a rise in the number of journalists killed in the line of duty - 22 November 2012: More journalists (119) have been killed this year while on assignment than at any time in the last 15 years - in Syria 36 victims - 26 December 2012: The number of deaths of journalists raise to 132 in 2012 as journalist Nanao Singh was shot dead by police amid anti-rape protests in India
In July 2013 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed): 9 July 2013: 56 journalists killed in Russia since 1992 (motive confirmed), CPJ says
September 2013 Yemeni government fails to prosecute attacks on journalists: 20 September 2013: Yemeni government fails to prosecute attacks on journalists
1 November 2013 CPJ says 1017 journalists Killed since 1992: 1 November 2013: 1017 journalists Killed since 1992, CPJ says - 2013 World Press Freedom Index, dashed hopes
>18 December: 2013 CPJ says year in Syria represented the deadliest for journalists in jail: 18 December: 2013 second worst year for journalists in jail and Syria represented the deadliest country, CPJ says, following impunity for the perpetrators since 2011
2014 134 journalists and media staff killed in 2013 while on reporting assignments: 19 February 2014: 134 journalists and media support staff killed in 2013 while on reporting assignments, an INSI study says - Biggest rises and falls in the 2014 World Press Freedom Index - 16 December 2014: 66 journalists killed in 2014 as attacks grow more 'barbaric' and kidnappings have soared, Reporters Without Borders say - 23 December: CPJ says at least 60 journalists around the world were killed in 2014 while on the job or because of their work, and 44 percent of them were targeted for murder - 31 December: The number of journalists who died in targeted killings, bomb attacks or shootings around the world rose to 118 in 2014 from 105 in 2013, Pakistan, Syria, Afghanistan, Palestinian territories, Iraq and Ukraine most dangerous, IFJ says
2015 Charlie Hebdo and Hypercacher terrorist attack and more attacks worldwide: January 2015 Charlie Hebdo terrorist attack in Paris, January 2015 Hypercacher terrorist attack in Paris and worldwide protests against the terror attacks in Paris, 'Je suis Charlie' solidarity movement with the victims and reactions of governments to the terror attacks - 12 January 2015: Tens of thousands of people rallied worldwide in solidarity with Paris terror victims, with marchers across Europe and the Middle East saying 'Je suis Charlie' and 'Je suis Juif' and holding pens in the air - 11 February 2015: Reporters Without Borders 2015 World Press Freedom Index stated there were 3,719 violations of freedom of information in 180 countries in 2014, 8% more than 2013 - Iran, China, Syria and North Korea among the countries with the very worst levels of press freedom, Russia slipped to the 152nd spot - 22 September 2015: Syrian cartoonist Akram Raslan reported killed under torture in Assad prisons - 28 December 2015: Journalist and film maker Naji Jerf shot dead in Gaziantep, who received death threats after he produced a film which documents 'Islamic State' group’s atrocities in Aleppo province - 29 décembre 2015: 110 journalistes tués dans le monde en 2015, particulièrement en Irak, en Syrie, en France, au Yémen, au Soudan du Sud, en Inde, au Mexique, selon 'Reporters sans frontières'
2016: 5 February 2016: UN panel urges UK and Sweden to end WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange's 'deprivation of liberty', arbitrarily detained by the UK and Sweden since he was arrested in London in 2010 after he enraged the USA by publishing hundreds of thousands of secret diplomatic cables - 19/23 February 2016: Syrian freelance journalist Majid Dirani was killed while photographing the shelling and aerial bombardment of Daraya, a suburb of Damascus, that has been besieged by Assad's army since 2012 - 22 February 2016: Syria the most dangerous country for the press in 2015, with at least 14 journalists killed, and at least 93 journalists killed in Syria since 2011, CPJ says condemning the killing of journalist Majid Dirani - 20 avril 2016: La liberté de la presse régresse partout dans le monde, quel que soit le paramètre considéré, selon 'Reporters sans frontières' - 25 June 2016: Syrian Coalition mourned the death of journalist Khaled Alissa, who was pronounced dead at a Turkish hospital of wounds he sustained in an assassination attempt along with fellow journalist Hadi Alabdullah in Aleppo on 17 June, and who sacrificed his life trying to document the crimes of the Assad regime against the Syrian people and to convey the truth to the world - 27 June 2016: Islamic State terrorists killed five journalists in the city of Deir-Ezzor, according to a video recording published on 26 June - 1 November 2016: Media activist and cameraman Abdel Salam Kanaan was covering events in the town of Zafarana in the northern Homs countryside when he was hit by an air raid that killed a number of civilians and wounded others - 7 November 2016: Zaman al-Wasl reporter Ammar Bakour killed along with eight civilians when Assad regime warplanes targeted the town of Al-Dana in Idlib province with four vacuum missiles, also leaving 20 others wounded - 19 December 2016: 'Reporters sans frontières' (Reporters Without Borders) say that at least 74 journalists have been killed around the world in 2016 while doing their job, as many journalists have fled countries that became too dangerous, especially Syria, Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Afghanistan and Burundi
2017 more attacks to shield attackers: 4 January 2017: At least 86 journalist and media activists were killed and 123 others injured in Syria in 2016, according to SNHR rights group, adding that Assad regime forces were responsible for the overwhelming majority of the deaths, and that 11 journalists were killed and 31 wounded in Russian attacks across Syria in 2016 - 4 February 2017: At least three journalists were killed and one more injured by Assad regime forces and Islamic State terrorists in January, SNHR says adding that nine more journalists and media activists, including two female media activists, were detained in January - 6 March 2017: At least five journalists were killed and nearly 14 more injured in military operations by Assad regime forces in Syria's liberated areas in February, while one was killed by the ISIS extremist group, according to SNHR - 16 March 2017: In Syria, 211 journalists and citizen journalists killed in conflict which began with a wave of protests exactly six years ago, Reporters Without Borders say - 28 avril 2017: Mise à mal par les dirigeants de nombreux pays, la liberté de la presse dans le monde a de nouveau reculé en 2016 et environ 45% de la population mondiale vit dans un pays où la presse n'est pas libre, selon 'Freedom House' - 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 2 November 2017: Marking the International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists, SNHR says in a report that at least 634 journalists and media activists have been killed in Syria in the past seven years - 30 November 2017: 'Local media are simply disappearing', as states are using commercial ruses to squeeze out liberal media, according to openMedia Freedom 2017 report and other reviews - 30 November 2017: Journalists living in fear as states crack down, and as new ARTICLE 19 metric measures global threats to freedom of expression and information in 172 countries, showing journalists threatened by government censorship, organised crime and commercial pressures, saying that media freedom around the world has fallen to the lowest level for at least a decade, and that only few countries show improvements including Tunisia - 19 décembre 2017: 2017 aura été l'année la moins meurtrière pour les journalistes professionnels depuis 14 ans, mais la Syrie demeure le pays le plus meurtrier pour les reporters avec 12 journalistes tués recensés, devant le Mexique (11), l'Afghanistan (9), l'Irak (8) et les Philippines (4), et le bilan reste terrible avec 50 professionnels tués dans le monde, 65 journalistes au total, selon RSF
February 2018: February 2018 murder of Slovak investigative journalist Ján Kuciak and Martina Kušnírová - 28 February 2018: Ján Kuciak was investigating political corruption linked to Italian mafia group at the time of his murder
May 2018: 30 May 2018: National newspaper's journalist Hector Gonzalez Antonio has been killed in Mexico, as CPJ demands a swift and credible investigation into his death, saying 'until Mexico takes concrete steps to solve media murders, the cycle of violence and impunity that has made the country one of the most dangerous places in the world for reporters will continue'
1 September 2018: 1 September 2018: Kiev court sentenced Borys German, who had pleaded guilty and agreed to cooperate with the investigation, to four-and-a-half years in prison after he was found guilty of helping to plot an attempt on the life of reporter Arkady Babchenko, who accused Russian regime of killing critics and unleashing wars in Ukraine, Syria and elsewhere
6 September 2018: 6 September 2018: The Assad regime and its Russian ally killed two media activists in August 2018 with the aim of concealing their crimes, as many as 22 media activists have been killed since the beginning of 2018, mostly by the Assad regime and its Russian ally, and the number of killed media activists and journalists in Syria since March 2011 was brought to 669, according to SNHR
2 October 2018 brutal assassination of Jamal Khashoggi and ... ongoing 'free rein to continue silencing the media': 2 October 2018 Assassination of Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi - 18 October 2018: Washington Post publishes final Khashoggi column, warning Mideast governments 'have been given free rein to continue silencing the media at an increasing rate’
16 October 2018 'free rein' continues: 16 October 2018: Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia reported on government corruption, but no politician has been questioned about her murder, says PEN International's novelist Margaret Atwood, asking where is the justice a year after her murder
19 October 2018: 19 October 2018: USA's Trump praises congressman Gianforte for bodyslamming Guardian journalist Ben Jacobs, who is Jewish, for asking a question about health care policy in May 2017 in Montana, amid international outcry over the disappearance and later admitted assassination of Saudi Arabian journalist Jamal Khashoggi
October/November 2018: 29 October 2018: As Saudi and Turkish prosecutors meet in Istanbul to discuss Khashoggi killing and regimes argue over which country should try the 18 suspects, rights group releases video of journalists around the world reading the Saudi writers’ final column titled 'What the Arab world needs most is free expression' - 30 October 2018: Hatice Cengiz, the Turkish fiancee of slain journalist Jamal Khashoggi, has called on USA's president Trump and other leaders to ensure that his death in Istanbul is not covered up - 17 November 2018: The assassination of journalist and Saudi regime critic Jamal Khashoggi in Istanbul was ordered by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, according to an examination by USA's CIA, complicating efforts to safeguard ties with and support for a suppressing and cruel kingdom - 22 November 2018: USA's CIA is in possession of a recording of Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman giving an order to 'silence Jamal Kashoggi as soon as possible', according to Hurriyet Daily News
November 2018: 24 November 2018: Syrian activists Raed Fares, since 2011 known and persecuted for his criticism of the Assad regime, jihadist groups and Western leaders he believed failed to stop the violence in Syria, and Hamod Jnaid, an advocate for freedom of expression and the rule of law, were 'shot dead by unknown assailants riding in a van in the town of Kafr Nabal' in the northwestern province of Idlib, according to their radio station Fresh FM
December 2018 'free rein to continue silencing the media' continued: 5 December 2018: Over 30 journalists, including Jamal Khashoggi, have been murdered so far this year for speaking the truth, 'The Guardian' pays tribute to some of them here - 18 décembre 2018: Les violences contre les journalistes sont reparties à la hausse en 2018, avec 80 journalistes tués à travers le monde, selon le bilan annuel de Reporters sans frontières RSF
9 January 2019: 9 January 2019: Turkish journalist and ICIJ member Pelin Ünker has been sentenced by a Turkish court in Istanbul court to more than a year in jail for her work on the 'Paradise Papers' investigation into offshore tax havens, because it revealed details of the business activities of the country’s former PM and his sons
16 January 2019 assassination of Ahmed Hussein-Suale: 16 January 2019 assassination of Ghanaian journalist Ahmed Hussein-Suale, who helped expose corruption in African and Ghanaian football, after he told CPJ in September 2018 that people had attempted to attack him and that he feared for his life following the publication of his image on the national television channel Net 2 TV, which Agyapong owns - 17 January 2019: Speaking without showing his face, journalist Anas Aremeyaw Anas says that his team, which had investigated corruption in Ghana's football leagues, face daily death threats
19 January 2019 death of photographer Ben Khalifa: 20 January 2019: Freelance photographer Ben Khalifa, a father of a five-month-old baby daughter, who had contributed to the AP among other news organizations was killed in clashes between rival militias in the Libyan capital Tripoli, according to government official and relatives
February 2019: 1 February 2019: Assad’s forces deliberately targeted Homs media center where foreign correspondent for The Sunday Times Marie Colvin, French photographer Remi Ochlik and others were working, as Colvin and Ochlik were assassinated by sustained artillery barrages on 22 February 2012, USA District Court Judge Amy Berman Jackson has ruled - 3 February 2019: USA's court verdict gives meaning to war reporter Marie Colvin’s death in 2012, who was remembered in December 2012 by BBC's Jeremy Bowen who knew his colleague through their work in numerous conflict zones over the past 30 years - 5 February 2019: Lebanese lawyer and expert in international law Tariq told Smart News Network that the USA court, that found the Assad regime liable for Colvin’s death, has the external jurisdiction to prosecute criminals, pointing out that the Interpol has the authority to enforce law against those who have been indicted in case international courts failed to take action
March 2019: 16 mars 2019: Santiago Barroso a été tué par balle à son domicile dans l'Etat de Sonora, devenant le troisième reporter tué au Mexique depuis le début de l'année
March/April 2019 Russian regime kills Syrian media worker: 3 April 2019: No fewer than 16 violations against journalists and media workers in Syria in March recorded by the Syrian Center for Journalistic Freedoms, saying that media worker Mahmoud Abdel-Al was killed in a Russian airstrike on the town of Jisr al-Shughour west of Idlib and two others were injured, bringing to 447 the number of media workers who where killed in Syria since mid-March 2011
May 2019 695 Syrian and foreign journalists killed across Syria since 2011: 4 May 2019: SNHR said that it registered the names of at least 695 Syrian and foreign journalists who have been killed across Syria since the beginning of the Syrian revolution in March 2011
6 May 2019 Libyan journalists kidnapped: 6 May 2019: Following the abduction of two journalists who work for Libya’s Al-Ahrar TV kidnapped by an armed group said to be loyal to warlord Khalifa Haftar, Libyan journalists protested in the capital Tripoli against the crime
23 May 2019: 23 May 2019: Sky News journalist Alex Crawford and her camera crew have been deliberately targeted by the Syrian Assad regime and repeatedly shot at while reporting on the regime’s assault on the province of Idlib
June 2019: 20 June 2019: Media activist Amjad Bakir from Saraqeb in the Idlib countryside, who was well known as a photographer, was killed while covering the ongoing fighting in the northern Hama countryside
20 July 2019 journalists killed across Syria: 20 July 2019: Two journalists were killed across Syria in June while three others were killed in the months of February, March and April, as Assad regime came at the top of the list of those responsible for the death of journalists in 2019, with the Russian forces coming second, according a report by Syrian journalists
22 July 2019 Photographer Anas Diab killed in Russian airstrikes: 22 July 2019: Photographer Anas Diab who works with the Syrian Civil Defense Corps, was killed in Russian airstrikes on the town of Khan Sheikhoun on Sunday, as violations against journalists and media activists across Syria continue
August 2019: 5 August 2019: Two journalists killed by Assad regime and Russia in July
December 2019 49 journalists killed this year: 17 December 2019: Reporters Without Borders says journalism remains a 'dangerous profession', with 49 journalists killed this year, 389 currently imprisoned, and 57 others being held hostage
23 September 2020 French journalists unite to back Charlie Hebdo after death threats: 23 September 2020: More than 100 French media organisations have signed and published an open letter defending freedom of speech against threats from 'terrorists and states', even supported by European states and politicians, as the tribune was released after a member of staff at the satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo – targeted by Islamist gunmen who killed 12 people in January 2015 – was forced to leave her home after receiving death threats
2 October 2020 Russian Koza Press journalist Irina Slavina has died following persecution: 2 October 2020: Russian journalist Irina Slavina, who worked as editor-in-chief at Koza Press, has died after setting herself on fire in front of the local branch of the interior ministry in the city of Nizhny Novgorod, a day after her apartment was searched by police, as opposition activists said Slavina had been under pressure and 'over the past years security officials have subjected her to endless persecution because of her opposition [activities]'
28 October 2020 CPJ spotlights countries where journalists are slain and their killers go free: 28 October 2020: CPJ’s 2020 Global Impunity Index spotlights countries where journalists are slain and their killers go free, also saying the Philippines was seventh in its global impunity index
10 November 2020 Filipino journalist Maganes assassinated outside his home: 10 November 2020: Filipino journalist Virgilio Maganes, who was a commentator for DWPR radio station and who survived a previous attempt on his life by pretending to be dead, has been assassinated outside his home in the northern province of Pangasinan and died instantly after he was shot six times by motorcycle-riding gunmen, major told AFP
8 December 2020 Ianian regime upheld death penalty of journalist Ruhollah Zam over his online work: 8 December 2020: Iranian regime upheld the death penalty of once-exiled journalist Ruhollah Zam over his online work that helped inspire nationwide economic protests three years ago, according to semiofficial Tasnim news agency quoting judiciary spokesman as saying that the country’s Supreme Court confirmed Zam’s death sentence
10 December 2020 gunmen killed TV journalist and rights activist Malalai Maiwand in Jalalabad: 10 December 2020: Gunmen have shot and killed TV journalist and women’s rights activist Malalai Maiwand in Afghanistan along with her driver Mohammad Tahir in Jalalabad, in an incident that underscored increasing violence against journalists in the country
10 December 2020 at least 42 journalists and media workers killed in 2020 while doing their jobs IFJ says: 10 December 2020: At least 42 journalists and media workers have been killed while doing their jobs this year, and a further 235 are in prison in cases related to their work, as Mexico topped the 2020 list of countries where the most journalists were killed, for the fourth time in five years, with 13 killings, followed by Pakistan with 5, as Afghanistan, India, Iraq and Nigeria recorded three killings each, according to the IFJ's annual tally
11 December 2020 Mexican photojournalist Castaño killed after taking photos of bodies along a road: 11 December 2020: Mexican photojournalist Jaime Castaño Zacarías killed after taking photos of bodies along a road, the ninth journalist killed in Mexico this year after he was pursued by gunmen, according to 'Zacatecas Online'
12 December 2020 journalist Ruhollah Zam murdered by Iranian regime over 2017 economic protests: 12 December 2020: Iranian regime has executed journalist Ruhollah Zam over his role in inspiring nationwide economic protests in 2017, a year after the exile was captured in France by the country’s 'Revolutionary Guards Corps'
22 December 2020 Mexico the deadliest country in the world for the media in 2020 CPJ says: 22 December 2020: Mexico was the deadliest country in the world for the media in 2020, accounting for almost a third of journalists killed this year, according to the CPJ, which investigates attacks against the press globally, as 9 journalists were killed in Mexico in 2020, bringing the death toll to at least 120 since 2000
29 December 2020 50 journalists killed in 2020 according to 'Reporters Without Borders': 29 December 2020: Fifty journalists killed in 2020, 'Reporters Without Borders' says, adding that figures show an increase in the targeting of journalists investigating organised crime, corruption or environmental issues, also noting the 'developing' trend of violence against media workers covering protests, and as group also highlighted murders in Mexico, India and Pakistan, adding that none of the Mexico killings had yet been punished after RSF has compiled annual data on violence against journalists around the globe since 1995
1 January 2021 journalist dies in Afghanistan as targeted killings continue: 1 January 2021: Afghan journalist and human rights activist Bismillah Adil Aimaq has been shot and killed by unidentified gunmen in western Afghanistan near Ghor's provincial capital of Feroz Koh, returning home to the city after visiting his family, the fifth journalist to be killed in the war-ravaged country in the past two months, a provincial spokesman said, as violence increases amid stalled Taliban peace talks
11 April 2021 Yemeni journalists call for release of colleagues facing death penalty, held by Iran-backed Houthis: 11 April 2021: A group of Yemeni journalists who survived years of torture in Iran-backed Houthi prisons are calling on the international community to pressure the rebels to free four of their colleagues facing the death penalty, as Abdel-Khaleq Amran, Akram al-Walidi, Hareth Hamid and Tawfiq al-Mansouri were arrested along with six other journalists in raids in the capital, Sana’a, in the summer of 2015
15 July 2021 reporter Peter de Vries dies over a week after shooting attack in Amsterdam: 6 July 2021 murder of Peter R. de Vries - 15 July 2021: The Dutch crime reporter Peter R de Vries has died just over a week after he was shot in the head in central Amsterdam, local media have reported, citing a statement released by the veteran journalist’s family
20 August 2021 reporter killed in Veracruz, the fifth murder of a journalist in Mexico this year: 20 August 2021: Reporter killed in Veracruz – the fifth murder of a journalist in Mexico this year - as Jacinto Romero Flores had received threats after he reported on allegations of abuses by Veracruz police
1 November 2021 Mexican journalist Cardoso dies two days after being shot: 1 November 2021: Mexican journalist Alfredo Cardoso dies two days after being shot, as Cardoso was shot five times on Friday after being abducted from his home in violent southwestern Guerrero state






Air pollution
Atmosphere of Earth - Greenhouse gas - Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere - Atmospheric methane
List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions - List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions in 2010
2011-2013: 29 May 2011: Record high 2010 global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture - 4. November 2011: Größter je gemessener Anstieg von Treibhausgasen in 2010 (China, USA, Indien etc.) - Heal's report 7 March 2013: 'The unpaid health bill' - emissions from coal-fired power plants in the EU contribute to over 18.000 premature deaths a year and cost an annual 42,8 billion euros - 17 April 2013: Progress towards the use of cleaner fuel technology has stalled, with production of the world's energy as dirty now as it was two decades ago, the International Energy Agency says - 11 May 2013: Carbon dioxide level passes a long-feared milestone - 18 October 2013: Air pollution a leading cause of cancer, the WHO says - 6 November 2013: Greenhouse gases in atmosphere hit new record in 2013, UN's WMO says - 19 novembre 2013: Les émissions de CO2 ont encore augmenté dans le monde en 2012, de 2,2%, atteignant le record de 35 milliards de tonnes, tirées par le charbon
2014/2015: 9 September 2014: Greenhouse gases in atmosphere reach all-time high - 6 May 2015: Concentrations of CO2 greenhouse gas in the atmosphere reached record global average in March 2015 - 9 novembre 2015: La teneur de l'atmosphère en gaz à effet de serre a atteint un nouveau pic en 2014, rapporte l'Organisation météorologique mondiale
June 2016: 13 June 2016: Carbon dioxide levels in atmosphere forecast to pass 400 parts per million in 2016
November 2017: 7 November 2017: Governments have drastically underestimated methane emissions from natural gas and will miss the Paris agreement’s goal of limiting global warming to 2C unless they urgently scale down its use, a major new study has found - 13 November 2017: Global 2% rise in CO2 'giant leap backwards'
November 2018: 22 November 2018: The main greenhouse gas emissions carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide driving climate change have all reached record levels, the UN’s meteorology experts have reported
December 2018: 5 December 2018: Global carbon emissions will jump to a record high in 2018, dashing hopes a plateau of recent years would be maintained, meaning emissions are heading in the opposite direction to the deep cuts urgently needed to fight climate change, say scientists
January 2019: 11 January 2019: Air pollution 'as bad as smoking in increasing risk of miscarriage', according to a new scientific study and research, also finding pollution particles in placentas, saying that toxic air must be cut to protect the health of the next generation
March 2019: 5 March 2019: 22 of world's 30 most polluted cities are in India, Greenpeace says, as analysis of air pollution data finds that 64% of cities globally exceed WHO guidelines
June 2019: 11 June 2019: Carbon emissions from the global energy industry last year rose at the fastest rate in almost a decade after extreme weather and surprise swings in global temperatures stoked extra demand for fossil fuel, also resulting in a second consecutive annual increase for coal use, reversing three years of decline earlier this decade, as China accounted for a third of the world's energy growth in 2018, according to BP’s annual global energy report
July 2019: 12 July 2019: The hearts of city dwellers contain billions of toxic air pollution particles, as even in the study’s youngest subject, who was three, damage could be seen in the cells of the organ’s critical pumping muscles that contained the tiny particles, research has revealed, suggesting these iron-rich particles, produced by vehicles and industry, could be the underlying cause of the long-established statistical link between dirty air and heart disease
October 2019 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions: 9 October 2019: New data shows how fossil fuel companies have driven climate crisis despite industry knowing dangers, as 'The Guardian' reveals that 20 fossil fuel companies whose relentless exploitation of the world’s oil, gas and coal reserves can be directly linked to more than one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions in the modern era
November 2019 air pollution nanoparticles linked to brain cancer: 13 November 2019: Air pollution nanoparticles linked to brain cancer for first time, according to a new study published in the journal Epidemiology, saying tiny particles produced by motor traffic can invade the brain and carry carcinogens
November 2019 'despite all the commitments' Greenhouse gases levels record high: 25 November 2019: Greenhouse gases levels in the atmosphere, the main driver of climate change, hit a record high last year, the UN said Monday, calling for action to safeguard 'the future welfare of mankind', as 'there is no sign of a slowdown, let alone a decline, in greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere despite all the commitments under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change'
December 2019 scientists say cutting air pollution can prevent deaths within weeks: 6 December 2019: Cutting air pollution can prevent deaths within weeks, according to scientists, saying they found the health benefits of clean air were 'almost immediate and substantial' and stretched into the long term, saving billions of dollars
May 2020 responses to covid-19 cause drop in carbon output: 19 May 2020: Worldwide responses to covid-19 crisis cause sharpest drop in carbon output since records began, but fall in emissions during covid-19 pandemic is no cause for celebration, as brief hiatus will make little difference to catastrophic levels of global heating, experts say
July 2020 amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere approaching level not seen in 15m years: 9 July 2020: The amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere is approaching a level not seen in 15m years and perhaps never previously experienced by a hominoid, according to the authors of a study, saying at pre-lockdown rates of increase, within five years atmospheric CO2 will pass 427 parts per million, which was the probable peak of the mid-Pliocene warming period 3.3m years ago, when temperatures were 3C to 4C hotter and sea levels were 20 metres higher than today
23 November 2020 climate-heating gases have reached record levels: 23 November 2020: Climate-heating gases have reached record levels in the atmosphere despite the global lockdowns caused by the covid-19 pandemic, the UN’s World Meteorological Organization has said
February 2021 deaths from fossil fuel emissions higher than previously thought: 9 February 2021: Deaths from fossil fuel emissions higher than previously thought, as fossil fuel air pollution responsible for more than 8 million people worldwide in 2018, according to new research from Harvard University, in collaboration with British universities
7 April 2021 carbon dioxide levels in atmosphere reach record high: 7 April 2021: Concentrations of climate-warming carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have hit record highs, despite a dip in emissions due to the pandemic, scientists said, as the latest measurements from the long-running recording station at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii show global levels of carbon dioxide are 50% above what they were when the Industrial Revolution began in Britain
14 September 2021 almost 90% of the $540bn in global subsidies given to farmers every year are 'harmful': 14 September 2021: Almost 90% of the $540bn in global subsidies given to farmers every year are 'harmful', as this agricultural support damages people’s health, fuels the climate crisis, destroys nature and drives inequality by excluding smallholder farmers, many of whom are women, according to the UN agencies, as the biggest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, such as beef and milk, received the biggest subsidies, often produced by large industrialised groups that are best placed to gain access to subsidies, and as - without reform - the level of subsidies was on track to soar to $1.8tn a year by 2030, further harming human wellbeing and worsening the planetary crisis, the UN said
17 September 2021 world on ‘catastrophic’ path to 2.7C warming, UN chief warns: 17 September 2021: World on ‘catastrophic’ path to 2.7C warming, UN chief warns, as countries’ latest pledges to cut emissions would fail to avert disastrous climate change, UN report says - 17 September 2021: USA and the EU made a joint pledge on Friday to cut global methane emissions by almost a third in the next decade, in what climate experts reportedly hailed as one of the most significant steps yet towards fulfilling the Paris climate agreement
List of countries by air pollution - Countries ranked by air pollution
2015: 16 September 2015: More than 3 million people die prematurely each year from outdoor pollution and without action deaths will double by 2050, according to a study published in the journal Nature
2016: 12 May 2016: Outdoor air pollution has grown 8% globally in the past five years, with billions of people around the world now exposed to dangerous air, according to new data from more than 3,000 cities compiled by the WHO - 9 June 2016: Air pollution now major contributor to stroke and harm caused by air pollution to the lungs, heart and brain has been underestimated, global study finds
2017: 7 November 2017: Governments have drastically underestimated methane emissions from natural gas and will miss the Paris agreement’s goal of limiting global warming to 2C unless they urgently scale down its use, a major new study has found
May 2018: 1 May 2018: Pollution inequality between the world’s rich and poor is widening, according to the latest global data from the WHO which shows that 7 million people – mostly in developing nations – die every year from airborne contaminants
September 2018: 19 September 2018: EU probes German car makers including BMW, Daimler, Volkswagen and Audi for suspected collusion to cheat emission tests
October 2018: 14 octobre 2018: Enclavée entre les géants indien et chinois, le Bhoutan est le seul pays au monde au bilan carbone négatif, mais n'échappe pas aux conséquences du réchauffement climatique mondial - 27 October 2018: Over 90% of the world’s population suffers toxic air and research is increasingly revealing the profound impacts on the health of people, especially children, according to WHO's Dr Ghebreyesus, saying the simple act of breathing is killing 7 million people a year and harming billions more - 29 October 2018: Poisonous air is having a devastating impact on billions of children around the world, according to WHO report
March 2019 30 most polluted cities are in India: 5 March 2019: 22 of world's 30 most polluted cities are in India, Greenpeace says, as analysis of air pollution data finds that 64% of cities globally exceed WHO guidelines
19 December 2019 India under Modi's rule suffers most pollution-linked deaths in world: 19 December 2019: India under Modi's rule suffers most pollution-linked deaths in world, followed by China and Nigeria, as pollution causes more than 2 million deaths a year in India, while Chad, Central African Republic and North Korea saw highest per capita rates, GAHP study finds
23 December 2020 pollution killed nearly 1.7m people in India in 2019 according to Lancet study: 23 December 2020: Pollution accounted for nearly 1.7m premature deaths in India in 2019 or 18% of all deaths, increasing from 1.24m in 2017 to 1.67m in 2019, according to a study that lays bare the human cost of the country’s toxic urban air, as report published by the Lancet says pollution in India has led to an increase in diseases such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes, neonatal disorders and respiratory diseases, resulting in millions more deaths
15 April 2021 China remains he world’s biggest emitter allowing emissions to rise for the next 10 years: 15 April 2021 the coal consumption of China, the world’s biggest emitter, is of global concern, as country has ramped up plans for new coal-fired power stations in an effort to spur economic growth after the recession caused by the covid-19 pandemic originating from Hunan, but the country must shut down nearly 600 of its coal-fired power plants in the next 10 years, replacing them with renewable electricity generation, to meet its goal of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2060, a report says
20 April 2021 Carbon emissions to soar in 2021 by second highest rate: 20 April 2021: Carbon emissions to soar in 2021 by second highest rate in history, as global economies forecast to pour stimulus money into fossil fuels as part of covid-19 recovery
26 May 2021 court in the Hague ordered Royal Dutch Shell to cut its global carbon emissions by 45% by the end of 2030: 26 May 2021: A court in the Hague has ordered Royal Dutch Shell to cut its global carbon emissions by 45% by the end of 2030 compared to 2019 levels, in a landmark case brought by 'Friends of the Earth' and over 17,000 co-plaintiffs, as the oil giant’s sustainability policy was found to be insufficiently 'concrete' by the Dutch court in an unprecedented ruling that will have wide implications for the energy industry and other polluting multinationals
15 August 2021 Germany ‘set for biggest rise in greenhouse gases for 30 years’: 15 August 2021: Germany ‘set for biggest rise in greenhouse gases for 30 years’, as increase means country will slip back from goal of cutting emissions by 40% from 1990 levels

Global warming since 20th century - Earth's energy budget - Climate change - Paleoclimatology - Historical climatology - History of climate change science - Climate change denial
January 2016 temperatures in 2015 were about 1°C above the pre-industrial era: 25 January 2016: For the first time on record, temperatures in 2015 were about 1°C above the pre-industrial era, according to a consolidated WMO analysis - 23 May 2016: World could warm by massive 10C if all fossil fuels are burned, Canadian university study says - 21 July 2016: 2016 set to be world's hottest year on record, says UN, as average temperature in the first half of 2016 was 1.3C warmer than in the late 19th century - 6 August 2016: The Earth is perilously close to breaking through a 1.5C upper limit for global warming, only eight months after the target was set in Paris, leading climate scientists have warned
2017 Earth's oceans are warming faster than thought: 10 March 2017: Earth's oceans are warming 13% faster than thought, and accelerating, according to new study based on advanced research and measurements - 21 March 2017: The record-breaking heat that made 2016 the hottest year ever recorded has continued into 2017, pushing the world into 'truly uncharted territory', according to the World Meteorological Organisation - 2 August 2017: Deadly heat waves projected in the densely populated agricultural regions of South Asia, according to 'Science Advances' - 3 August 2017: Unless world abolishes carbon emissions a lot faster, temperatures are 90% likely to rise by 2 to 5 degrees Celsius by 2100, new study warns - 30 October 2017: The health of hundreds of millions of people around the world is already being damaged by climate change, a major report of 26 institutions around the world says
2018: 11 janvier 2018: Des millions de personnes supplémentaires à travers le monde risquent d'être sous la menace de rivières en crue ces 20 prochaines années à cause du réchauffement climatique, ont averti des scientifiques - 1 août 2018: L'année écoulée a été marquée par des températures anormalement élevées et des gaz contribuant au réchauffement de la planète ont atteint des niveaux record partout dans le monde en 2017, selon NOAA
6/7 August 2018: 7 August 2018: Domino-effect of climate events could move Earth into a 'hothouse' state, according to leading scientists, warning that passing such a point would make efforts to reduce emissions increasingly futile
November 2018: 16 November 2018: China, Russia and Canada’s current climate policies would drive the world above a catastrophic 5C of warming, according to a study published in the journal Nature Communications that ranks the climate goals of different countries, saying the USA and Australia are only slightly behind and also showing even EU on course for more than double safe level of warming
January 2019: 16 January 2019: Growing tension between the world’s major powers is the most urgent global risk and makes it harder to mobilise collective action to tackle climate change, according to a WEF report
February 2019: 6 February 2019: Global temperatures in 2018 were the fourth warmest on record, adding to a stretch of five years that are now collectively the hottest period since modern measurements began, according to NASA/NOAA, as lowest Paris agreement target of 1.5C above pre-industrial levels may temporarily be surpassed for first time between now and 2023, according to Met Office
September 2019: 10 September 2019: The world’s readiness for the inevitable effects of the climate crisis is 'gravely insufficient', report says
November 2019 'Brown to Green' report, criticizing Australia, Canada, China, India, Russia, South Korea, the USA and more countries: 11 November 2019: Australia’s response to climate change is one of the worst in the G20 with a lack of policy, reliance on fossil fuels and rising emissions leaving the country exposed 'economically, politically and environmentally', according to the 2019 'Brown to Green' report, taking stock of the performance of G20 countries on climate change adaptation and mitigation across key sectors
February 2020 biodiversity hotspots under threat from human-driven global heating: 4 February 2020: Biodiversity hotspots that have given species a safe haven from changing climates for millions of years will come under threat from human-driven global heating, a new study has found
March 2020 climate finance not reaching most vulnerable: 5 March 2020: Analysis shows climate finance not reaching most vulnerable
4 August 2020 rising temperatures will cause more deaths than all catastrophic infectious diseases: 4 August 2020: Rising temperatures will cause more deaths than all catastrophic infectious diseases, and poorer, hotter parts of the world will struggle to adapt to unbearable conditions, research finds, published by NBER
9 September 2020 UN report warns world nearing warming limit as globe sizzles: 9 September 2020: UN report warns world nearing warming limit as globe sizzles - 9 September 2020: More than 1bn people face being displaced within 30 years as the climate crisis and rapid population growth drive an increase in migration with 'huge impacts' for both the developing and developed worlds, according to an IEP analysis
27 January 2021 resulting from climate crisis world now at its hottest for 12,000 years: 27 January 2021: Resulting from climate crisis world now at its hottest for 12,000 years, as scientists say temperatures globally at highest level since start of human civilisation
8 March 2021 climate crisis pushing the planet’s tropical regions towards the limits of human livability: 8 March 2021: The climate crisis is pushing the planet’s tropical regions towards the limits of human livability, with rising heat and humidity threatening to plunge much of the world’s population into potentially lethal conditions, new Princeton University research has found published in Nature Geoscience
23 April 2021 USA's promised climate target blows Australia’s out of the water: 23 April 2021: The USA climate target blows Australia’s out of the water, says Frank Jotzo adding that Australia’s 2030 target of a 26%-28% reduction is totally inadequate
31 May 2021 human-induced global heating ‘causes over a third of heat deaths’ 1991-2018: 31 May 2021: Human-induced global heating ‘causes over a third of heat deaths’, as between 1991 and 2018, human activity contributed to 37% of all heat-related deaths in locations studied, the 'Guardian' reports according to 'Nature climate change' study
23 June 2021 climate change will fundamentally reshape life on Earth in the coming decades: 23 June 2021: Climate change will fundamentally reshape life on Earth in the coming decades, even if humans can tame planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions, according to a landmark draft report from the UN’s climate science advisers, as species extinction, more widespread disease, unliveable heat, ecosystem collapse, and other climate impacts are accelerating
8 August 2021 low-income countries are struggling to protect themselves against climate change: 8 August 2021: Low-income countries are struggling to protect themselves against climate change, the BBC reports, as organisations representing 90 countries say that their plans to prevent damage have already been outpaced by climate-induced disasters, which are intensifying and happening more regularly
14 August 2021 July was hottest month on record: 14 August 2021: July was hottest month on record, USA agency says, as National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s warning comes as the UN sounds the alarm over human-induced climate change
17 September 2021 world on ‘catastrophic’ path to 2.7C warming, UN chief warns: 17 September 2021: World on ‘catastrophic’ path to 2.7C warming, UN chief warns, as countries’ latest pledges to cut emissions would fail to avert disastrous climate change, UN report says

Effects of global warming on oceans
September 2018 Atlantic’s warmer waters triggered the unusual number of major hurricanes in 2017: 28 September 2018: The Atlantic’s warmer waters triggered the unusual number of major hurricanes last year, according to a new study that predicts the region could see a couple of extra whopper storms each year by the end of the century
January 2019 oceans broke heat records in 2018: 16 January 2019: Our oceans broke heat records in 2018 and the consequences are catastrophic
September 2019 people cannot survive without water and oceans: 22 septembre 2019: Dévastés par le dérèglement climatique et les pollutions causés par l'Homme, les océans s'apprêtent à déchaîner leur puissance sur l'humanité qui ne peut vivre sans eux, selon un rapport de l'ONU
December 2019 oceans losing oxygen at unprecedented rate: 7 December 2019: Oceans losing oxygen at unprecedented rate, experts warn, as tuna, marlin and other large fish at risk from spread of 'dead zones’

Sea level rise: Sea level rise, as tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level rose by 16–21 cm. More precise data gathered from satellite radar measurements reveal an accelerating rise of 7.5 cm from 1993 to 2017: 1554 for an average rate of 31 mm per decade. This acceleration is due mostly to climate change, which is driving thermal expansion of seawater and the melting of land-based ice sheets and glaciers - Current sea level rise - Future sea level
May 2015 sea level rise accelerated over the past two decades: 11 May 2015: Sea level rise accelerated over the past two decades, research finds
September 2019 serious impacts 'already inevitable': 25 September 2019: Extreme sea level events that used to occur once a century will strike every year on many coasts by 2050, no matter whether climate heating emissions are curbed or not, according to a landmark report by the world’s scientists, concluding that many serious impacts are already inevitable, from more intense storms to melting permafrost and dwindling marine life
November 2019 sea level rise to challenge human civilization for centuries: 6 November 2019: Sea level rise is set to challenge human civilization for centuries to come, even if internationally agreed climate goals are met and planet-warming emissions are then immediately eliminated, researchers have found
27 May 2021 rapid heating of Indian Ocean worsening cyclones: 27 May 2021: Rapid heating of Indian Ocean worsening cyclones, as rising ocean temperatures caused by climate crisis increasing number of cyclones and intensity of storms, say scientists and experts
5 August 2021 scientists spot warning signs of Gulf Stream collapse: 5 August 2021: Scientists spot warning signs of Gulf Stream collapse, as a shutdown would have devastating global impacts and must not be allowed to happen, researchers say
16 October 2021 rising sea levels threaten Marshall Islands’ status as a nation, World Bank report warns: 16 October 2021: Projected sea level rise would mean 40% of the buildings in the Marshall Islands’ capital of Majuro would be permanently flooded and entire islands would disappear, potentially costing the Pacific country its status as a nation, according to a devastating new report from the World Bank

Regional effects of global warming
Regional effects of global warming by continent - Climate change by country
Climate change in Africa: Climate change in Africa - Climate change in the Middle East and North Africa
Climate change and effects of global warming in Asia: Effects of global warming on South Asia - Climate change by country including Asian countries - Climate change in Russia
Climate change in North America: Climate change in North America
Climate change in South America: Climate change in South America
Climate change in Australia: Climate change in Australia
Climate change in Europe: Climate change in Europe
Climate and global warming in Antarctica: Global warming in Antarctica - Climate of Antarctica - Antarctic ice sheet - Antarctic sea ice - 23 December 2012: West Antarctic Ice Sheet warming twice earlier estimate, US researchers say - 20 May 2014: Antarctica is now losing about 160 billion tonnes of ice a year to the ocean - twice as much as when the continent was last surveyed, scientists say using measurements of CryoSat-2 satellite mission - 18 May 2015: NASA finds Antarctic ice shelf a few years from disintegration
January 2019 global warming melting Antarctic ice faster than ever before: 14 January 2019: Global warming melting Antarctic ice faster than ever before, according to a report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Climate of the Arctic: Climate of the Arctic - Climate change in the Arctic - 13 August 2012: Arctic sea ice 'melting faster', UK scientists say - 27 August 2012: Arctic sea ice reaches record low, Nasa says
2016 arctic sea ice extent record low for winter: 28 March 2016: Arctic sea ice extent breaks record low for winter - 16 August 2016: Global surface temperatures and Arctic sea ice extent have broken numerous records through the first half of 2016, according to NASA
Climate of Greenland: Climate of Greenland - Greenland ice sheet
2011/2012 ice cover thawed over larger area than ever detected: 19. August 2011: Grönlands Gletscher schwinden schneller als erwartet - 25 July 2012: NASA finds that ice cover thawed over larger area than ever detected in more than 30 years of satellite observation
September 2016 Greenland's ice cap disappearing far more rapidly than previously estimated: 22 September 2016: Greenland's ice cap is disappearing far more rapidly than previously estimated, is part of a long-term trend, and is already a major contributor to rising sea level, according to research taking better account of the gradual rise of the entire Greenland landmass
January 2019 Greenland's ice melting: 21 January 2019: Greenland's ice melting faster than scientists previously thought, according to new PNAS study
April 2020 dramatic melting of Greenland ice sheet: 15 April 2020: Scientists confirm dramatic melting of Greenland ice sheet
Since 19th century retreat of glaciers of mountain ranges: Retreat of glaciers since 1850, as - studied by glaciologists - the temporal coincidence of glacier retreat with the measured increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases is often cited as an evidentiary underpinning of global warming, and as mountain ranges such as the Himalayas, Rockies, Alps, Cascades, and the southern Andes, as well as isolated tropical summits such as Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa, are showing some of the largest proportionate glacial losses
April 2021 a tenth of the world’s mountain glacier ice will have melted by the middle of this century: 29 April 2021: A tenth of the world’s mountain glacier ice will have melted by the middle of this century even if humanity meets the goals of the Paris climate agreement, according to figures compiled exclusively for the 'Guardian'
3 May 2021 receding glaciers causing rivers to suddenly disappear: 3 May 2021: Receding glaciers causing rivers to suddenly disappear, as global phenomenon known as river piracy demands urgent adaptation from ecosystems and people who rely on their flow
Himalayas: Himalayas mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau - Glaciers of the Himalayas
February 2019 a third of the huge ice fields in Asia’s towering mountain chain are doomed to melt: 4 February 2019: At least a third of the huge ice fields in Asia’s towering mountain chain are doomed to melt due to climate change, according to a landmark new report, with serious consequences for almost 2 billion people, as even radical climate change action won’t save glaciers

Ozone depletion
October 2011: 2 October 2011: Arctic ozone loss at record level
March 2014: 10 March 2014: New ozone-depleting gases found in atmosphere
May 2019: 23 May 2019: Industries in north-eastern China have released large quantities of an ozone-depleting gas into the atmosphere in violation of an international treaty, scientists have said

Weather events and natural disasters, by continent and by country - International responses to natural disasters
Heat wave - Heat waves by country
2010/2012 Russian and North American heat wave: 21 February 2012: Climate change increased likelihood of Russian 2010 heatwave, international study says - Summer 2012 North American heat wave
2015 Indian heat wave: 2015 Indian heat wave - June 2015 Pakistan heat wave - 26 October 2015: Extreme heatwaves could push Gulf climate including Iran’s coast beyond human endurance if the world fails to cut carbon emissions, USA study shows - 28 October 2015: Rising heat stress could threaten labour capacity across south-east Asia, with Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia worst hit, British study says
July 2018 record high temperatures across much of the world: 13 July 2018: Record high temperatures have been set across much of the world this week as an unusually prolonged and broad heatwave intensifies concerns about climate change in hottest La Niña year to date on record
July 2020 heatwaves increased in both length and frequency in most of the world since 1950s: 3 July 2020: Heatwaves have become longer in most of the world since 1950s, as frequency of heatwaves and cumulative intensity has risen through the decades, research finds
Droughts - Droughts by continent
Wildfires - Wildfires by country
19 February 2021 wildfires are spreading to fuel-abundant regions of the world that used to be less prone to burning: 19 February 2021: Wildfires are spreading to fuel-abundant regions of the world that used to be less prone to burning, while the overall area of annual burn in the world has remained relatively static in this period, new research indicates a shifting regional fire pattern that is affecting more forests and fewer grasslands, according to a new analysis of 20 years of data by the 'Guardian'
Storm
Tropical cyclones and climate change - Tropical cyclones - Tropical cyclones by region - Tropical cyclone impact by region
2017/2018 warmer waters triggered unusual number of major hurricanes: 28 September 2018: The Atlantic’s warmer waters triggered the unusual number of major hurricanes last year, according to a new study that predicts the region could see a couple of extra whopper storms each year by the end of the century
10 November 2020 annual record for the number of major Atlantic storms shattered: 10 November 2020: The annual record for the number of major storms forming in the Atlantic has been shattered, with storm Theta becoming the 29th named event in a hyperactive hurricane season, as the development of Theta, currently churning through the heart of the Atlantic, had broken a record that stood since 2005, when there were 28 named storms

Water scarcity - Water security
Drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages its waters supply, whether atmospheric, surface or ground water - List of droughts
2015 climate change in the Middle East and droughts: 16 March 2015: Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the 2007-2010 drought, including the recent Syrian drought, causing widespread crop failure and mass migration - 12 June 2015: A global tour of seven recent water crises in a decade of drought - 29 August 2015: Middle Eastern states constitute 14 of the 33 most water stressed countries in a World Resources Institute study predicting growing competition over and depletion of water resources across the globe in the coming decades
2016 two-thirds of the global population live with severe water scarcity: 12 February 2016: At least two-thirds of the global population, over 4 billion people, live with severe water scarcity for at least one month every year, according to a major new analysis published in the journal Science Advances
2018: 19 March 2018: More than 5 billion people could suffer water shortages by 2050 due to climate change, increased demand and polluted supplies, according to a UN report on the state of the world’s water - 21 March 2018: Water inequality is increasing in the world’s most environmentally stressed nations, warn the authors of a report that shows more than 800 million people need to travel and queue for at least 30 minutes to access safe supplies - 60% of the world's population lives in areas of water stress, where the water supply cannot or will not continue to meet demand, 2018 State of the World's Water report says
August 2019 water crises: 6 August 2019: New data from WRI’s Aqueduct tools reveal that 17 countries, home to one-quarter of the world’s population, face 'extremely high' levels of baseline water stress, where irrigated agriculture, industries and municipalities withdraw more than 80% of their available supply on average every year, as 44 countries, home to one-third of the world, face 'high' levels of stress, where on average more than 40% of available supply is withdrawn every year
31 December 2019 water-related violence rises globally: 31 December 2019: Water-related violence rises globally in past decade, according to 'The World's Water', also saying that 17 countries, home to a quarter of the world’s population facing 'extremely high' water stress, 12 of them in the Middle East including Syria, Yemen, Iraq, Qatar, Lebanon, Iran and Jordan
June 2021 GAR Special Report on Drought: 17 June 2021: UN 'Office for Disaster Risk Reduction' says droughts have deep, widespread and underestimated impacts on societies, ecosystems, and economies, as climate change is increasing temperatures and disrupting rainfall patterns, increasing the frequency, severity, and duration of droughts in many regions across the globe
Desertification - 21. September 2011: UN rufen zu Kampf gegen Wüstenbildung auf - 19 February 2012: Wildfires, peat fires and controlled burns on farming lands kill 339.000 people worldwide each year, says a Tasmanian university study

Effects of global warming on humans, as global warming has brought about possibly irreversible alterations to Earth's geological, biological and ecological systems, and as these changes have led to the emergence of large-scale environmental hazards to human health and human habitats, such as extreme weather, ozone depletion, increased danger of wildland fires, loss of biodiversity, stresses to food-producing systems and the global spread of infectious diseases
Requirements for permanent settlements Sedentism - Human settlement - Origin of behavioral modernity, that distinguishes current 'Homo sapiens' from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates - List of first human settlements - Timeline of agriculture and food technology since the 'Neolithic Revolution' 8,500 BC - 3000 BC and later, an agricultural revolution beginning in different areas - Populated places by type, period and location - Settlement geography
5 May 2020 one billion people will live in insufferable heat within 50 years: 5 May 2020: One billion people will live in insufferable heat within 50 years, as human cost of climate crisis will hit harder and sooner than previously believed, research reveals, saying the human cost of the climate crisis will hit harder, wider and sooner than previously believed, and people will either be displaced or forced to endure insufferable heat for every additional 1C rise in the global temperature
Effects of global warming on human health: Effects of global warming on human health
Climate change and poverty: Climate change and poverty are interrelated events, as global warming, affecting the natural environment, especially agriculture, also affects humans, and as climate change globally increases cycles of poverty, particularly in low-income communities
Climate change and gender: Climate change and gender, as climate change increases gender inequality, reduces their ability to be financially independent, and has an overall negative impact on the social and political rights of women, specially in economies that are heavily based on agriculture - Women in climate change, as contributions of women in climate change have received increasing attention in the early 21st century

Nutrition, the science that interprets the nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism, including ingestion, absorption, assimilation, biosynthesis, catabolism and excretion - Human nutrition deals with the provision of essential nutrients in food that are necessary to support human life and health - Plant nutrition, the study of the chemical elements and compounds necessary for plant growth, plant metabolism and their external supply - Animal nutrition focuses on the dietary nutrients needs of animals, primarily those in agriculture and food production, but also in zoo's, aquariums, and wildlife managemen
Food and food science: Food science, the basic science and applied science of food; its scope starts at overlap with agricultural science and nutrition and leads through the scientific aspects of food safety and food processing, informing the development of food technology - Food chemistry, the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods - Food microbiology, the study of the microorganisms that inhibit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage, as well as pathogens that may cause disease
Food politics: Food politics, a term which encompasses not only food policy and legislation, but all aspects of the production, control, regulation, inspection, distribution and consumption of commercially grown, and even sometimes home grown, food. The commercial aspects of food production are affected by ethical, cultural, and health concerns, as well as environmental concerns about farming and agricultural practices and retailing methods. The term also encompasses biofuels, GMO crops and pesticide use, the international food market, food aid, food security and food sovereignty, obesity, labor practices and immigrant workers, issues of water usage, animal cruelty, climate change, and more - Food security
Food and drink by country: Food and drink by country - List of countries by food energy intake as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets
Water distribution and resources on Earth: Water distribution on Earth, as most water in the Earth's atmosphere and crust comes from the world ocean's saline seawater, while freshwater accounts for nearly 1% of the total - Water, an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of most living organisms - Water resources, natural resources of water that are potentially useful, as uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities, and as all living things require water to grow and reproduce - Hydrology, the scientific study of the movement, distribution and management of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability
Water conservation: Water conservation, including all the policies, strategies and activities to sustainably manage the natural resource of fresh water, to protect the hydrosphere, and to meet the current and future human demand

Food industry, a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world's population, as only subsistence farmers, those who survive on what they grow, and hunter-gatherers can be considered outside the scope of the modern food industry - List of most valuable crops and livestock products - Food processing - Food distribution - Warehousing
Seafood: Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans, prominently including fish and shellfish - History of seafood - Fish processing - Fish as food
Food crops: A crop is a plant or animal product that can be grown and harvested extensively for profit or subsistence, as crop may refer either to the harvested parts or to the harvest in a more refined state, and as most crops are cultivated in agriculture or aquaculture - Important food crops
Agriculture by type and country: Agriculture, the profession, science and art of cultivating plants and livestock - Agriculture by type, by continent, and by country
History of agriculture: History of agriculture records the domestication of plants and animals and the development and dissemination of techniques for raising them productively, as agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa, as at several separate regions were involved as independent centers of origin - People in agriculture - Domestication of animals
November 2020 rising global land inequality since 1980s and impacts: 24 November 2020: 1% of the world’s farms operate 70% of crop fields, ranches and orchards, according to a report that highlights the impact of land inequality on the climate and nature crises, warning that land inequality is rising with farmland increasingly dominated by a few major companies, as since the 1980s researchers found control over the land has become far more concentrated both directly through ownership and indirectly through contract farming, which results in more destructive monocultures and fewer carefully tended smallholdings
Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture, farming in sustainable ways, which means meeting society's present food and textile needs, without compromising the ability for current or future generations to meet their needs, and which can be based on an understanding of ecosystem services
Sustainable food system: Sustainable food system, a type of food system that provides healthy food to people while also providing sustainable impacts on both environmental, economic and social systems that surround food, as sustainable food systems start with the development of sustainable agricultural practices, development of more sustainable food distribution systems, creation of sustainable diets and reduction of food waste throughout the system
April 2020 business as usual ‘no longer an option’ for Europe’s food system: April 2020 review conducted for the EU found that up to 37% of global greenhouse gas emissions could be attributed to the food system, including crop and livestock production, transportation, changing land use (including deforestation) and food loss and waste sustainable food system for the EU, as experts say a shift to a more sustainable food system is inevitable - 9 April 2020: Business as usual ‘no longer an option’ for Europe’s food system, experts warn
Animal husbandry: Animal husbandry, the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products, including day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock - Animal feed, food given to domestic animals in the course of animal husbandry, as there are two basic types 'fodder' and 'forage' - Branches of animal husbandry - Livestock transportation
Environmental impact of livestock: Environmental impact of livestock - Environmental impact of pig farming, refers to the threats posed to the natural environment by large-scale intensive pig farming - Environmental impact of cattle farming and meat production
Environmental impact of meat production: Environmental impact of meat production, also including severe health effects on livestock workers - Meat industry - List of countries by meat consumption - List of countries by meat consumption per capita in 2017
October 2017 vast animal-feed crops to satisfy our meat needs are destroying planet: 5 October 2017: Vast animal-feed crops to satisfy our meat needs are destroying planet, as WWF report finds 60% of global biodiversity loss is down to meat-based diets which put huge strain on Earth’s resources, and as vast scale of growing crops such as soy to rear chickens, pigs and other animals puts an enormous strain on natural resources leading to the wide-scale loss of land and species
22 June 2020 'the whole system is built on using low-paid, badly exploited workers': 22 June 2020: Covid-19 outbreaks that have struck workers in meat plants around the world are due to poor working conditions and living quarters in a sector that is in a 'disastrous race to the bottom' in the quest for cheap meat, according to trade union representatives, saying 'the whole system is built on using low-paid, badly exploited workers'
2 July 2020 European Bank EBRD and World Bank's IFC pump billions of dollars into the global livestock sector: 2 July 2020: Two of the world’s leading development banks have pumped billions of dollars into the global livestock sector, despite warnings that reducing meat and dairy consumption is essential for tackling the climate crisis, as the International Finance Corporation IFC – the commercial lending arm of the World Bank – and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development EBRD have provided $2.6bn for pig, poultry and beef farming, as well as dairy and meat processing, in the past 10 years

Agricultural safety and health - Agricultural Education, the teaching of agriculture, natural resources, and land management
2019 IPCC's 'Special Report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems': August 2019 IPCC's 'Special Report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems', a landmark study by 107 experts from 52 countries - 8 August 2019: As IPCC report finds reduction in global heating requires transformation of food production and land management, also farmers demand change calling for national strategy on climate change and agriculture

2020 UN warnings and 2020/2020s in the environment: 2020 in the environment - 2020s in the environment - 2020 meteorology - 2020 natural disasters
2020 events and news in the environment, politics and environmental law: 2020 events and news in the environment, environmental law
2019-2020 locust infestation in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, South Asia and South America: 2019-2020 locust infestation in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, South Asia and South America is an outbreak of desert locusts which is threatening the food supply across the regions, after plague began in June 2019 and has continued through 2020, and as of April 2020, efforts to control the locusts are being hampered by ongoing restrictions in travel and shipping due to the covid-19 pandemic
February 2020 UN warning about locust infestation: 16 February 2020: UN issued a warning about the locust infestation in Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, South Asia and South America
15 September 2020 world fails to meet a single target to stop destruction of nature, UN report says: 15 September 2020: The world has failed to meet a single target to stem the destruction of wildlife and life-sustaining ecosystems in the last decade, according to a devastating new report from the UN on the state of nature

Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale, as climate change affects agriculture in a number of ways, including through changes in average temperatures, rainfall, and climate extremes (e.g., heat waves), changes in pests and diseases, changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground-level ozone concentrations, changes in the nutritional quality of some foods, and changes in sea level
Ecosystems, biodiversity, agricultural biodiversity and food biodiversity: Ecosystems - Biodiversity, the variety and variability of life on Earth - Agricultural biodiversity - Food biodiversity, defined as 'the diversity of plants, animals and other organisms used for food, covering the genetic resources within species, between species and provided by ecosystems'
August 2018 rising levels of carbon dioxide could make crops less nutritious: 27 August 2018: Rising levels of carbon dioxide could make crops less nutritious and damage the health of hundreds of millions of people, research has revealed, with those living in some of the world’s poorest regions likely to be hardest hit
August 2019 climate crisis threatening civilisation: 8 August 2019: Climate crisis reducing land’s ability to sustain humanity, according to IPCC, saying global heating is increasing droughts, soil erosion and wildfires while diminishing crop yields in the tropics and thawing permafrost near the poles, threatening civilisation
15 April 2021 just 3% of the world’s land remains ecologically intact with healthy populations, study says: 15 April 2021: Just 3% of the world’s land remains ecologically intact with healthy populations of all its original animals and undisturbed habitat, according to a new study called 'Where Might We Find Ecologically Intact Communities?', and published in the journal 'Frontiers in Forests and Global Change'

Climate Conference in Geneva 1979
2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Cancún
2011 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Durban - 17. Juni 2011: Vorbereitungstreffen der UN-Klimakonferenz am 17. Juni 2011 erfolglos beendet - UN official July 2011: Climate change 'threatens peace' - 18 November 2011: IPCC report says that the risk from extreme weather events is likely to increase - 28 novembre: 17e conférence de l'ONU sur le réchauffement climatique - 190 pays réunis à Durban jusqu'au 9 décembre - 1 December 2011: Climate deal pushed by poorest nations - 4 December 2011: Protests at climate change summit in Durban demanding faster action - 5. Dezember 2011: 'Neue Welle der Entwaldung' - das Abholzen der Regenwälder gefährdet Klimaschutz und die Lebensgrundlage z.B. von Millionen von Afrikanern - 5 December 2011: Discovered earth-like planet 'Kepler 22-b' is too far away to go into exile, also for the international tea-party movement - 11 December 2011: UN climate conference in Durban approves deal delaying worldwide obligation to control greenhouse gases to 2020 - 13 December 2011: Canada to withdraw from Kyoto Protocol
2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Doha (Qatar) - 28. März 2012: Der Weltklimarat IPCC warnt vor einer Zunahme von Extremwettern infolge des Klimawandels - extreme Temperaturen und Hitzewellen hätten seit 1950 zugenommen, heisst es im neu veröffentlichten Bericht - 23 June 2012: Rio summit ends with an agreement from world leaders that charities say represents a 'missed chance' - 25 November 2012: As Qatar welcomes world leaders to the 18th UN climate change conference, its own environmental record has come under criticism as a major contributor to greenhouse gases - 6 December: The delegate Naderev Sano from typhoon-hit Philippines demanded that ministers at the Doha conference put aside their differences and take effective steps to combat global warming - 7 December: Standoff between rich and developing countries remains as UN climate talks near end - 8 December: Rich and poor nations disagree on funding as negotiators scramble to reach a global agreement on rising CO2 emissions - 9 December: Delegates in Doha agreed to extend the Kyoto protocol until 2020
2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Warsaw from 11 to 22 November - 19 novembre 2013: Le typhon Haiyan électrise la conférence climat de Varsovie
23 September 2014 Climate Summit at UN Headquarters in New York City - 21 September 2014: Scientists reveal ‘fair system’ for countries to tackle climate change urging rich nations to make biggest commitment and warning world leaders ahead of UN summit in New York - 22 September 2014: Poor nations’ climate change budget puts health and education funds at risk, according to ODI-led research - 22 September 2014: People rallied worldwide over climate change ahead of the climate-change summit hosted by Ban Ki-moon in New York - 2 November 2014: Time running out to reach 2°C warming target, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
December 2014 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Lima (Peru) - 27 November 2014: UN climate change deal must have legally binding targets, EU says - 11 December 2014: Time presses as climate talks head for penultimate day - 13 December: Lima climate summit extended as poor countries demand more from rich - 14 December 2014: UN members adopt a format for national pledges to cut greenhouse gases
6 June 2015: Africa sounds the alarm over crucial climate summit
November/December 2015 UN Climate Change Conference in Paris - 10 October 2015: Pledges by nations to cut carbon emissions will fall far short of those needed to prevent global temperatures rising by more than the crucial 2C by the end of the century, climate experts say - 25/26 November 2015: The year 2015 is shaping up to be the hottest on record according to the UN's weather agency, stressing that based on current voluntary pledges, Earth is on track for 3 C
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference - 30 November 2015: The capitals of the world's two most populous nations China and India, Beijing and Delhi, were blanketed in hazardous, choking smog on Monday as climate change talks began in Paris, where China, the USA, the EU, India, Russia, Japan, Germany and Iran causing large proportion of pollution are participants - 30 November 2015: Participants in the UN climate summit in Paris on Monday observed a minute of silence during its opening for the victims of the 2015 Paris terror attacks, but will they also observe a minute of silence for the casualties of the repression of the Syrian democratic protests since 2011 and the victims of Assad's and Russian regime's daily terror attacks? - 30 November 2015: 'The terrible events that France experienced this tragic November are daily reality for Ukraine for almost 21 months, my country is suffering for the terrorism sponsored and promoted by the Russian Federation', Ukrainian president Poroshenko says in Paris
1 December 2015: Warm countries launch sun-energy alliance - 6 December: Cautious hopes as negotiators from 195 nations at UN conference agree draft climate change deal - 6 December: Small islands that bear the brunt of rising sea levels also face the greatest risk of diseases linked to a warmer planet, health leaders say, as 13 million medical professionals added to the calls for a global climate pact - 12 December: Final draft published as nearly 200 governments prepare to officially adopt climate change deal on how to cut carbon emissions post-2020 - 13 décembre 2015: L'accord mondial sur le climat conclu samedi soir
7 October 2016: Poor countries urge fast action on Paris deal to stop catastrophic warming, as the new treaty will not stop catastrophic warming as it stands, setting the world on track to a temperature rise of about 3C over the next 50 years, enough to render many of the world’s poorest countries uninhabitable
7 au 18 novembre 2016 Conférence de Marrakech sur le réchauffement climatique, la 22e conférence des parties COP22 de la Convention-cadre des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques
June 2017 USA withdrawal from the Paris climate accord
12 October 2017: Billions of dollars of public money was sunk in new fossil fuel projects by the world’s major development banks in the year after the Paris climate change deal was agreed, according to campaigners who are calling for the banks to halt their financing of coal, oil and gas
6-17 November 2017 UN Climate Change Conference in Bonn, presided over by the Government of Fiji - Novembre 2017 Conférence de Bonn sur les changements climatiques - 13 November 2017: Global 2% rise in CO2 'giant leap backwards', according to scientists at UN climate talks - 15 November 2017: At Bonn summint governments have acknowledged for the first time that 'first peoples', indigenous communities and groups can play a leadership role in protecting forests and limiting global warming - 18 novembre 2017: À Bonn un accord pour évaluer les émissions en décembre 2018 à Katowice
2-14 December 2018 Katowice Climate Change Conference - 2 décembre 2018: La 24e Conférence de l'ONU sur le climat à Katowice, en pleine région houillère, avec en tête l'alerte rouge lancée récemment par les scientifiques du Giec, ouvre dimanche dans l'urgence climatique - 4 December 2018: School student Greta Thunberg accuses leading politicans of a world facing global warming and climate change of behaving like irresponsible children - 11/12 December 2018: Scientists urge action at UN climate talks, saying 'window is narrowing', as Vanuatu accuses the USA and other rich and developed countries of obstructing progress at the UN climate summit - 14 décembre 2018: Malgré les désaccords, un accord est toujours possible à Katowice - 15 December 2018: UN climate change talks ended with a deal agreed on how to put the 2015 Paris agreement into action, but with other contentious problems left to be resolved next year, as Jennifer Morgan of Greenpeace says 'people expected action, and that is what governments did not deliver'
15 December 2019: Marathon international climate talks close in Madrid with negotiators postponing until next year a key decision on global carbon markets
12 December 2020 fifth anniversary of the 2015 Paris Agreement, as countries review and update their national commitments every 5 years - 12 December 2020: World is in danger of missing Paris climate target, summit is warned, as minister tells more than 80 world leaders that not enough is being done, as countries including Australia, Brazil, Russia and Saudi Arabia were excluded from speaking at the summit as they failed to come forward with strong new commitments, and as the still trumped up USA preferred self-exclusion
January-December 2021 in the environment and environmental sciences: January-December 2021 in the environment and environmental sciences, listing global environmental disasters in 2021 and 2021 environmental sciences' efforts, statistics, reviews, reocrds, and studies by month, also geosciences, biotechnology, anthropology and geoengineering - Wikipedia article '2021 in climate change', documenting notable events, research findings, effects, and responses related to global warming and climate change during the year - 2020s in environmental history, referring to events and trends related to the natural environment and human interactions with it, as examples of human-induced events include biodiversity loss, climate change and holocene extinction - 2020s in the environment, including years 2020, 2021 and 2022, 2020s meteorology, 2020s natural disasters, protected areas established in the 2020s, renewable resource companies disestablished in the 2020s, 2020s individual tree deaths - 2021 in the environment
20 June 2021 UN blasts world leaders for failing to seal £72bn-a-year deal on climate: 20 June 2021: The head of climate change at the UN has warned that world leaders are still “far away” from securing a deal to limit the disastrous effects of global heating, with less than five months to go before a key summit in Glasgow, saying financial aid ‘critical’ to help developing countries limit fossil fuels, and making Cop26 a success
19 July 2021 ahead of Cop26 UN climate talks in Glasgow in November 'Global Alliance for a Green New Deal': 19 July 2021: The Global Alliance for a Green New Deal is inviting politicians from legislatures in all countries to work together on policies that would deliver a just transition to a green economy ahead of Cop26 UN climate talks in Glasgow in November 2021
27 September 2021 children face life with far more heatwaves, floods, droughts and wildfires than grandparents: 27 September 2021: Children born over the past year will on average face seven times more scorching heatwaves during their lives than their grandparents under original Paris Agreement emission reduction pledges, according to new research released by Save the Children in collaboration with an international team of climate researchers led by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and published in the journal Science, as in Afghanistan alone, children could face up to 18 times as many heatwaves as their elders,as newborns across the globe will on average also live through 2.6 times more droughts, 2.8 times as many river floods, almost three times as many crop failures, and twice the number of wildfires as people born 60 years ago if emissions were to follow the original Paris Agreement pledges
12 October 2021 'overwhelming’ backing for strong climate action, UK study shows: 12 October 2021: ‘Overwhelming’ backing for strong climate action, UK study shows, as biggest ever analysis shows public backs carbon tax on industry, flight levies and grants for heat pumps
13 October 2021 IEA's annual 'World Energy Outlook' this year a 'guidebook' for Glasgow summit: 13 October 2021: In its annual 'World Energy Outlook', this year as a 'guidebook' for world leaders attending the summit in Glasgow, the IEA predicted that carbon emissions would decrease by just 40% by the middle of the century if countries stick to their climate pledges, saying the difference between current plans and the change necessary to reach the net zero requiring up to $4tn in investment over the next decade alone to bridge the divide, as IEA’s Fatih Birol told the Guardian that major economies recovering from covid-19 were already missing the opportunity to spur investment in clean energy, adding 'we are witnessing an unsustainable recovery from the pandemic', pointing to sections of the report that show coal use growing strongly, contributing to the second-largest increase in CO2 emissions in history
23 October 2021 China, India and Brazil must set out their plans to cut emissions: 23 October 2021: China, India and Brazil must set out their plans to cut emissions, as an insider says keeping temperatures within 1.5C above pre-industrial levels rests with big developing countries in G20
24 October 2021 global security, stability at risk if countries fail to tackle climate crisis: 24 October 2021: Global security and stability could break down, with migration crises and food shortages bringing conflict and chaos, if countries fail to tackle greenhouse gas emissions, UN’s top climate official Patricia Espinosa has warned ahead of the Cop26 climate summit, saying 'we’re really talking about preserving the stability of countries, preserving the institutions that we have built over so many years, preserving the best goals that our countries have put together. The catastrophic scenario would indicate that we would have massive flows of displaced people'
26 October 2021 world faces 2.7C temperature rise, UN warns: 26 October 2021: Current commitments to cut greenhouse gas emissions put the planet on track for a 'catastrophic' average 2.7-degree Celsius temperature rise this century, the United Nations said on Tuesday, another stark warning ahead of crunch climate talks
28 October 2021 rising sea levels, floods putting tens of millions of lives at risk in Bangladesh: 28 October 2021: Rising sea levels and deadly floods are already putting tens of millions of lives at risk in Bangladesh, but they bring another problem that threatens the entire nation, as waterlogged land and high salinity in streams and soil are killing crops, and as Bangladesh ranks 7th for countries most affected by extreme weather in the past two decades, according to the Global Climate Risk Index
November 2021 UN Climate Change Conference COP26 in Glasgow: November 2021 UN Climate Change Conference COP26, scheduled to be held in the city of Glasgow from 31 October to 12 November 2021, the 16th meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol and the third meeting of the parties to the Paris Agreement
1 November 2021 'either we stop it (the climate crisis), or it stops us’: 1 November 2021: UN chief opens Cop26 with climate crisis warning 'either we stop it, or it stops us’, 'The Guardian' reports live from Glasgow
2 November 2021 promise to end deforestation, USA and EU announce global pledge to slash methane: 2 November 2021: The USA and the EU have announced a global partnership to cut emissions of the greenhouse gas methane by 2030 - 2 November 2021: World leaders promise to end deforestation by 2030
4 November 2021 biggest users fail to sign up to ending coal the BBC says: 4 November 2021: Global carbon emissions are shooting back to the record level seen before the covid-19 pandemic levels, new analysis has shown. Scientists said the finding is a 'reality check' for the world’s nations gathered at the Cop26 climate summit. The emissions driving the climate crisis reached their highest ever levels in 2019 before global covid-19 crisis' lockdowns saw them fall by 5.4%. However, fossil fuel burning has surged faster than expected in 2021 an international research team said, in stark contrast to the rapid cuts needed to tackle global heating, 'The Guardian' reports from Glasgow
- 4 November 2021: As on day five of the global climate summit, the focus is on energy and how the world can move away from fossil fuels, more than 40 countries commit to shifting away from coal but huge users and producers like China, India, Australia and the USA don't sign up, according to the live reporting 'BBC'. The 'International Energy Agency IEA' has crunched the numbers from promises made at COP26 and calculated that the world will keep to a 1.8C degree rise in global temperatures if all the pledges are carried out.
5 November 2021 youth activists protest against climate inaction at COP26: 5 November 2021: Youth activists protest against climate inaction at COP26 in Glasgow coming in the week one of the UN climate summit amid calls for further commitments
6 November 2021 demonstrators in cities around the world calling for urgent action on climate change: 6 November 2021: Demonstrators march in Glasgow calling for urgent action on climate change, as protests also taking place in cities around the world, the BBC reports live, as organisers claim up to 100,000 people have braved rain and wind to march through Glasgow city, which is hosting COP26
7 November 2021 1.5°C and climate front lines Tokyo, Brussels, New York with world’s economic heartlands: 7 November 2021: The climate front lines are not just Tuvalu or the Maldives, they are Tokyo, Brussels, New York, and the world’s economic heartlands, and as the world comes together for the 2021 UN Climate Change Conference COP26, its largest economies – which emit 80% of all greenhouse gases – continue to have such stilted and sluggish commitments to staving off climate risk. The reality is that all G20 nations face a full-frontal tide of climate impacts that will rip through their economies within 30 years. These are the findings of the new 'G20 Climate Impacts Atlas', a study based on the most recent science. Heatwaves, droughts, fires and floods will increase in severity and frequency, creating risk and instability for today’s G20 growth models.
9 November 2021 world headed for 2.4C warming despite climate summit: 9 November 2021: Despite pledges made at the climate summit COP26, the world is still nowhere near its goals on limiting global temperature rise, a new analysis shows, calculating that the world is heading for 2.4C of warming, far more than the 1.5C limit nations committed to. COP26 'has a massive credibility, action and commitment gap', according to the Climate Action Tracker CAT
10 November 2021 at COP26 in Glasgow Madagascar's environment minister calls for 'climate solidarity': 10 November 2021: Speaking at COP26 in Glasgow, Madagascar's environment minister calls for 'climate solidarity', as the south of country faces famine as the result of a prolonged drought that has affected more than 1.3 million people - 10 November 2021: World’s ‘calamitous’ water crisis being ignored in climate talks, as Cop26 summit focusing on slowing down global heating at expense of current impact on water-stressed regions, WaterAid says, making carried off problems very clear
11 November 2021 unexpected USA/China agreement to work together on cutting emissions to stay within 1.5C: 11 November 2021: An unexpected USA/China agreement to work together on cutting emissions has been broadly welcomed by leaders and climate experts, as the two biggest emitters appeared to put aside some climate crisis differences unveiling a joint declaration that would see close cooperation on emissions cuts that scientists say are needed in the next 10 years to stay within 1.5C, as the agreement calls for 'concrete and pragmatic' regulations in decarbonisation, reducing methane emissions and fighting deforestation, also Chinese climate envoy Xie Zhenhua said in Glasgow
12 November 2021 draft agreement at COP26 climate summit waters down commitments: 12 November 2021: A draft agreement at the COP26 climate summit has watered down commitments to end the use of coal and other fossil fuels, as countries race to reach a deal after two weeks of talks, as negotiators from countries that depend on fossil fuels may still attempt to amend the text before the summit ends, and as 'the key line on phasing out coal and fossil fuel subsidies has been critically weakened, but it's still there and needs to be strengthened again before this summit closes', according to Greenpeace International's Jennifer Morgan
12 November 2021 deadline for agreeing crucial climate deal passes: 12 November 2021: Deadline for agreeing crucial climate deal passes but negotiations set to continue into night, as coal phaseout remains in draft but some language softened, and as hundreds of global civil society representatives walk out in protest, 'The Guardian' reports live
13 November 2021 delegates poised to accept ‘imperfect’ Cop26 text: 13 November 2021: Delegates poised to accept ‘imperfect’ Cop26 text, as many countries say that although they disagree with elements of the text, they are willing to support it, 'The Guardian' reports live
14 November 2021 reactions to the COP26 climate deal, decisions, documents and arguments: 14 November 2021: COP26 agreed the first climate package to include direct references on coal and fossil fuels, but many countries angered by a last-minute change to the text of the final agreement that called to phase 'down' the use of coal, rather than phasing it 'out', as 'Al Jazeera' also takes a look at the major announcements made in November, as some of the largest coal ahd fossil fuel producers/consumers were absent from the agreement, including Australia, China, India, Iran, Qatar, Russia, Saudi-Arabia, the USA, Venezuela and more - 14 November 2021: International reactions to the COP26 climate deal and more or less serious arguments, decisions and documents - 14 November 2021: China and India will have to explain themselves to climate-vulnerable nations, COP26 president Alok Sharma has said as the summit ends, the 'BBC' reports

History of climate change science - Scientific consensus on climate change - Media coverage of global warming - Climate change coverage by country

Since June 2021 planned NASA missions to understand how Venus became an inferno-like world: 2 June 2021: NASA has selected two new missions to Venus, Earth’s nearest planetary neighbor. Part of NASA’s Discovery Program, the missions aim to understand how Venus became an inferno-like world when it has so many other characteristics similar to ours – and may have been the first habitable world in the solar system, complete with an ocean and Earth-like climate
2020s Venus atmosphere investigation, planned mission for an orbiter and atmospheric probe: DAVINCI+ (Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging, Plus), a planned mission for an orbiter and atmospheric probe to the planet Venus. Together with the VERITAS mission, which will also study Venus, it was selected by NASA in June 2021 to be part of their Discovery Program, as DAVINCI+ will send both an orbiter and a descent probe to Venus. The orbiter will image Venus in multiple wavelengths from above, while the descent probe will study the chemical composition of Venus' atmosphere and take photographs during descent. The DAVINCI+ probe will travel through the Venusian atmosphere, sampling the atmosphere, and returning measurements down to the surface. These measurements are important to understanding the origin of the atmosphere, how it has evolved, and how and why it is different from the atmosphere of Earth and Mars. - Future missions to Venus, including USA's 2023 Rocket Lab’s Venus probe, India's 2024 Shukrayaan-1, USA's 2028 Veritats mission, Roscosmos 2029 Venera-D mission, ESA's 2031 EnVision, and more proposed 2020s-2030s NASA missions

Climate change denial, or global warming denial is denial, dismissal, or unwarranted doubt that contradicts the scientific consensus on climate change, including the extent to which it is caused by humans, its impacts on nature and human society
Public opinion on global warming: Public opinion on global warming - Climate change opinion by country

September 2015 Iran walks out on speech of Knesset Speaker at a global conference over environmental cooperation: 1 September 2015: Iran walks out on speech, as Knesset Speaker Yuli Edelstain calls on Israel’s Arab neighbors at a global conference to visit Israel and discuss environmental cooperation 'people to people', urging leaders not to wait for peace agreements but rather to build up confidence from the ground up
Lut Desert and surface's temperatures as high as 70°C: Lut Desert, widely referred to as Dasht-e Lut (Persian 'Emptiness Plain'), a large salt desert located in the provinces of Kerman and Sistan and Baluchestan, as the surface of its sand has been measured at temperatures as high as 70°C (159°F), and as more than half of the desert's surface is covered by volcanic rocks
July 2015 major oil-producing Khuzestan's Ahvaz among the world's hottest cities: 22 July 2015: Iranian and Khuzestan's city of Ahvaz among the world's hottest cities, combined with poor air quality and planning, as Khuzestan is the major oil-producing region of Iran

Water pollution - Marine pollution - Water pollution by country
Ocean disposal of radioactive waste
Ocean acidification, ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere - Dead zones - Fish kill - Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact On European Seas
2012: 12. Januar 2012: Erderwärmung gefährdet das Leben in den Ozeanen durch Ausdehnung sauerstoffloser und sauerstoffarmer Zonen - 25 November 2012: Marine snails in seas around Antarctica are being affected by ocean acidification, internatinal study says
2018: 4 January 2018: Areas starved of oxygen in open ocean and by coasts have soared in recent decades, risking dire consequences for marine life and humanity, scientists warn in a study
Wastewater - Sewage - Sewage treatment - Acid mine drainage - Blackwater is a form of pollution produced in coal preparation - Industrial wastewater treatment - Agricultural wastewater treatment
Groundwater pollution - Pesticide drift
2013: 10 to 12 April 2013 International Conference on Prevention and Management of Marine Litter in European Seas - 7th International Conference on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology, Hong Kong, 17-21 June 2013
2014: 6 August 2014: The amount of mercury threatening marine life near the surface of many of the world’s oceans tripled as the result of polluting activities, study finds
2015: 16 May 2015: Shellfish species shrinking as rising carbon emissions hit marine life - 2 July 2015: New study warns of dangerous climate change risks to the Earth’s oceans, saying immediate efforts are needed to curb carbon pollution to minimize ocean ecosystem changes
Oil spill - Crude oil washing - Oil toxicity is a wildlife disease resulting from the accidental exposure of animals to oil - Oil pollution toxicity to marine fish
List of oil spills - Oil spills by country
Environmental impact of shipping
Plastic particle water pollution - Great Pacific Garbage Patch
December 2014: 10 December 2014: Full scale of plastic in the world's oceans revealed for first time, as data of more than five trillion pieces of plastic, floating in the world’s oceans and causing damage throughout the food chain, found by new research
April 2015: 29 April 2015: Effective policies to reduce the amount of plastic ending up in the ocean are urgently needed, the first global study on the sources of microplastics and their impact on the environment concludes, but even if all releases of plastic to the environment ceased immediately, the microplastic problem would persist due to the continued fragmentation of plastic bags, bottles and other rubbish
June 2016: 2 June 2016: Fish are being killed, and prevented from reaching maturity, by the litter of plastic particles finding their way into the world’s oceans, new research has proved
July 2017: 19 July 2017: Plastic pollution risks 'near permanent contamination of natural environment', according to first global analysis by USA academics of all mass–produced plastics, finding that humans have produced 8.3bn tonnes since the 1950s with the majority ending up in landfill or oceans
May 2018: 31 May 2018: Plastic fragment found stuck in dead harp seal's stomach found washed up on Skye, as scientists say its appearance may be associated with global climate warming affecting sea ice cover - 3 juin 2018: Une baleine est morte après avoir ingurgité plus de 80 sacs en plastique dans le sud de la Thaïlande, un pays causant chaque année la mort de centaines de créatures marines
October 2020 more than 14m tonnes of plastic believed to be at the bottom of the ocean: 5 October 2020: More than 14m tonnes of plastic believed to be at the bottom of the ocean, as thirty times more plastic on ocean floor than surface, analysis suggests, but more trapped on land than sea

Microplastics are very small pieces of plastic that pollute the environment, as microplastics are not a specific kind of plastic, but rather any type of plastic fragment that is less than 5 mm in length according to NOAA and the ECA, entering natural ecosystems from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, cosmetics, clothing, tyres and city dust which account for over 80% of all microplastic pollution in the environment - Bioaccumulation, the gradual accumulation of substances, such as pesticides or other chemicals, in an organism, occuring when an organism absorbs a substance at a rate faster than that at which the substance is lost or eliminated by catabolism and excretion, and thus, the longer the biological half-life of a toxic substance, the greater the risk of chronic poisoning - Persistent organic pollutants, sometimes known as 'forever chemicals' are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes - Biodegradable plastic
Since 1998 International Pollutants Elimination Network: Since 1998 International Pollutants Elimination Network, a global network of NGOs dedicated to the common aim of eliminating pollutants, such as lead in paint, mercury and lead in the environment, persistent organic pollutants POPs, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and other toxics - Homepage of IPEN, founded in 1998 and registered in Sweden as a non-profit, public interest organization, as the global network forging a healthier world where people and the environment are no longer harmed by the production, use, and disposal of toxic chemicals
2004 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants: Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs
January 2019 SAPEA's scientific perspective on microplastics: January 2019 scientific perspective on microplastics in nature and society, published by 'Science Advice for Policy by European Academies'
Since August 2019 WHO calls for further assessment of microplastics in the environment and their impacts on human health: 22 August 2019: WHO today calls for a further assessment of microplastics in the environment and their potential impacts on human health, following the release of an analysis of current research related to microplastics in drinking-water, also calling for a reduction in plastic pollution to benefit the environment and reduce human exposure - Microplastics in drinking-water, a 2019 WHO study - Nanoconsult's report on 'Health Effects of Microplastics'
22 December 2020 microplastic particles have been revealed in the placentas of unborn babies: 22 December 2020: Microplastic particles have been revealed in the placentas of unborn babies for the first time, which the researchers said is 'a matter of great concern', as health impact of microplastics in the body is as yet unknown and scientists said they could carry chemicals that could cause long-term damage or upset the foetus’s developing immune system, as the particles are likely to have been consumed or breathed in by the mothers

Fresh water as a resource - Water pollution by country - Freshwater ecology - Water security, 'the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods and production'
2017: 19 October 2017: World's deepest lake Baikal in Siberia, which holds one fifth of the world’s unfrozen fresh water, crippled by putrid algae, poaching and pollution
May 2019: 8 May 2019: Only a third of the world’s great rivers remain free flowing, due to the impact of dams that are drastically reducing the benefits healthy rivers provide people and nature, according to a global analysis
Wastewater - Sewage - Acid mine drainage - Blackwater is a form of pollution produced in coal preparation - Industrial wastewater treatment - Agricultural wastewater treatment - Sewage treatment - Thermal pollution - Water cooling
Groundwater pollution - Pesticide drift
Water scarcity - the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet water needs within a region - List of countries by freshwater withdrawal
2015: 12 June 2015: A global tour of seven recent water crises in a decade of drought - 29 August 2015: Middle Eastern states constitute 14 of the 33 most water stressed countries in a World Resources Institute study predicting growing competition over and depletion of water resources across the globe in the coming decades
2016: 12 February 2016: At least two-thirds of the global population, over 4 billion people, live with severe water scarcity for at least one month every year, according to a major new analysis published in the journal Science Advances
December 2019 1.9 billion people at risk from mountain water shortages: 9 December 2019: A quarter of the world’s population are at risk of water supply problems as mountain glaciers, snow-packs and alpine lakes are run down by global heating and rising demand, according to an international study

Resource depletion - List of environmental issues - UNO-Weltwasserbericht 2012: 'Wir leben über unsere Verhältnisse' - 'Managing water under uncertainty and risk' - Weltwasserforum in Marseille ab 12. März 2012 - 12 August 2015: The Earth’s 'overshoot day' - based on a comparison of demands in terms of carbon emissions, cropland, fish stocks, and the use of forests for timber with the planet’s ability to regenerate such resources and absorb the carbon emitted - will occur for 2015 on Thursday six days earlier than 2014, Global Footprint Network says - 4 juin 2016: Le braconnage des espèces animales, l'exploitation minière et forestière illégale et les autres trafics de ressources naturelles ont rapporté en 2015 jusqu'à 258 milliards de dollars aux groupes criminels qui s'y livrent, selon l'ONU

Deforestation - Deforestation by region - Illegal logging
Emissions from deforestation and forest degradation: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation
2016 increase in the use of palm oil for biodiesel and deforestation: 1 June 2016: Leaked trade industry figures show a five-fold increase in the use of palm oil for biodiesel in Europe between 2010 and 2014, providing new evidence of links between deforestation in southeast Asia and the EU’s renewable energy mandate
2017 world’s tropical forests largely degraded: 28 September 2017: The world’s tropical forests are so degraded they have become a source rather than a sink of carbon emissions, according to a new study that highlights the urgent need to protect and restore the Amazon and similar regions
April 2019 millions of hectares of pristine tropical rainforest were destroyed in 2018: 25 April 2019: Millions of hectares of pristine tropical rainforest were destroyed in 2018, according to satellite analysis, with beef, chocolate and palm oil among the main causes, as clearcutting of primary forest by loggers and cattle ranchers in Brazil dominated the destruction
21 January 2021 innovative green economy required scientist Thomas Lovejoy says: 21 January 2021: The Amazon will be transformed into a 'highly degraded nightmare' unless a sustainable biodiversity-based economy develops which properly values ecosystem services and products produced by the rainforest, scientist Thomas Lovejoy has warned, saying if agro-industrial economic developments such as cattle farming, palm oil production and mining continue, the rainforest’s hydrological cycle will be 'in tatters', with global weather systems severely disrupted, adding that turning this around will require an innovative green economy which monetises the food, medicines, aquaculture and climate regulation the forest provides

Overfishing - EU revamps fishing policy to save depleted stocks

Environmental disaster - List of environmental disasters
Environmental impact by man-made sources
October 2020 one-fifth of the world’s countries are at risk of their ecosystems collapsing: 12 October 2020: One-fifth of the world’s countries are at risk of their ecosystems collapsing because of the destruction of wildlife and their habitats, according to an analysis by the insurance firm Swiss Re, as natural 'services' such as food, clean water and air, and flood protection have already been damaged by human activity
Environmental impact of war
Environmental impact of nuclear power
List of industrial disasters
Industrial gases
Environmental impact of mining
Environmental impact of the coal industry - Environmental impact of the petroleum industry - Fossil fuels (oil, gas, coal) lobby - Environmental impact of the energy industry
March 2017 pollution responsible for one in four deaths among all children under five: 7 March 2017: Pollution is responsible for one in four deaths among all children under five, according to new WHO reports, with toxic air, unsafe water, and and lack of sanitation the leading causes
June 2017 world’s top banks continuing to lend tens of billions for extracting the most carbon-intensive fossil fuels: 21 June 2017: Some of the world’s top banks are continuing to lend tens of billions for extracting the most carbon-intensive fossil fuels, as finance provided for tar sands, other unconventional oil and gas, as well as coal and liquefied natural gas amounted to $87bn for the top 37 banks in 2016, according to a report of top lenders
October 2017 deadly pollution, including toxic air, water, soils and workplaces: 19 October 2017: Pollution, including toxic air, water, soils and workplaces, kills at least nine million people and costs trillions of dollars every year, according to the most comprehensive global analysis to date, which warns the crisis 'threatens the continuing survival of human societies', published by the Lancet Commission on pollution and health
October 2018: 12 octobre 2018: Le réchauffement de la planète a multiplié par quatre le nombre des catastrophes liées au climat depuis les années 70, selon une étude du FICR
November 2018 G20 nations still led by fossil fuel industry: 14 November 2018: G20 nations still led by fossil fuel industry, climate report finds, showing that politicians are paying more heed to the fossil fuel industry than to advice from scientists
November 2019 world’s nations to produce more than twice as much coal, oil and gas as can be burned in 2030: 20 November 2019: The world’s nations are on track to produce more than twice as much coal, oil and gas as can be burned in 2030, according to an analysis based on the published national plans of the eight key producers Australia, Canada, Russia, USA, China, India, Indonesia and Norway, which account for 60% of global fossil fuel production, as plans of other big producers, including Saudi Arabia and Iran, are not publicly available
14 January 2020 Australia fires harbinger of planet’s future: 14 January 2020: Australia fires are harbinger of planet’s future, say scientists
19 February 2020 Madagascar ranged first amongst countries with economies most affected by environmental destruction: 19 February 2020: Madagascar has been placed first amongst countries with economies most affected by environmental destruction, according to WWF, as the country's environmental issues include soil erosion as a result of deforestation and overgrazing, desertification, contamination of surface water with raw sewage and organic waste, endangered species of flora and fauna, regular cyclones causing flooding in low-lying coastal regions
27 February 2020 World Bank criticised for providing $55m to aid fossil fuel extraction in Guyana: 27 February 2020: World Bank has been criticised for providing $55m to aid fossil fuel extraction in Guyana, at the same time that it has pledged to stop direct funding of oil and gas production
March 2020 global banks 'failing miserably' on climate crisis by funneling trillions into fossil fuels: 18 March 2020: The world’s largest investment banks have funnelled more than £2.2tn into fossil fuels since the 2015 Paris agreement, as analysis of the 35 leading global investment banks by an alliance of USA-based environmental groups said that financing for the companies most aggressively expanding in new fossil fuel extraction since the Paris agreement has surged by nearly 40% in the last year, and as USA's JP Morgan Chase bank, whose economists warned that the climate crisis threatens the survival of humanity last month, has been the largest financier of fossil fuels in the four years since the agreement
18 March 2021 oil firms knew decades ago fossil fuels posed grave health risks files reveal: 18 March 2021: The oil industry knew at least 50 years ago that air pollution from burning fossil fuels posed serious risks to human health, only to spend decades aggressively lobbying against clean air regulations, a trove of internal documents seen by the Guardian reveal, as the documents which include internal memos and reports show the industry was long aware that it created large amounts of air pollution, that pollutants could lodge deep in the lungs and be 'real villains in health effects', and even that its own workers may be experiencing birth defects among their children
24 March 2021 world’s biggest banks provided $3.8tn of financing for fossil fuel companies since 2015: 24 March 2021: The world’s biggest 60 banks have provided $3.8tn of financing for fossil fuel companies since the Paris climate deal in 2015, according to a report by a coalition of NGOs, and despite the covid-19 pandemic cutting energy use, overall funding remains on an upward trend and the finance provided in 2020 was higher than in 2016 or 2017, a fact the report’s authors and others described as 'shocking'
21 May 2021 developing foetuses ‘exquisitely sensitive’ to harm from tiny particles study finds: 21 May 2021: Asthma in toddlers linked to in-utero exposure to air pollution, study finds, as developing foetuses ‘exquisitely sensitive’ to harm from tiny particles, scientists say
2 June 2021 G7 nations committing billions more to fossil fuel than green energy: 2 June 2021: G7 nations committing billions more to fossil fuel than green energy, as - in spite of green rhetoric - money has piled into aviation and car industries since start of pandemic, report finds - 2 June 2021: Climate crisis is suffocating the world’s lakes, as falling oxygen levels harming already struggling wildlife and drinking water supplies, say scientists
11 June 2021 UN secretary general says ‘we are coming to a point of no return’: 11 June 2021: Before meeting the leaders of the world’s major economic powers at the G7 summit in the UK, UN secretary general says he’s concerned that the richest nations have pumped billions more into fossil fuels than clean energy since covid-19 pandemic 2020/2021, as wealthy countries risk an 'unforgivable lost opportunity' by not emerging from the pandemic with newly green economies to address the climate crisis, despite their promises of a green recovery
8 September 2021 vast majority of fossil fuels ‘must stay in ground’ to stem climate crisis: 8 September 2021: The vast majority of fossil fuel reserves owned today by countries and companies must remain in the ground if the climate crisis is to be ended, an analysis has found, as the research found 90% of coal and 60% of oil and gas reserves could not be extracted if there was to be even a 50% chance of keeping global heating below 1.5C, the temperature beyond which the worst climate impacts hit

Fossil fuel exporters, as petroleum, natural gas, and coal are exported from various source countries to countries reliant on these fossil fuels, including the top ranking states of Saudi-Arabia, Russia, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Nigeria, Angola, Canada, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, and Kuwait
List of countries by oil exports, including Saudi-Arabia, Russia, Iraq, USA, Canada, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Nigeria, Qatar, Angola, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Mexico etc.
26 March 2021 diversify or risk unrest, oil producers warned in report: 26 March 2021: Oil-dependent countries that are not preparing to adapt to the global shift away from fossil fuels risk their own stability, warns a new Verisk Maplecroft report, as Algeria, Iraq and Nigeria are the most vulnerable to 'a slow-motion wave of political instability', as Chad and Kazakhstan were also identified as countries with a high risk of political upheaval as energy transition engulfs their economies , and as west African states of Angola, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, with 'fragile autocratic or semi-autocratic political systems' were also named as high risk by the analysts
15 April 2021 oil firm bosses’ pay ‘incentivises them to undermine climate action’: 15 April 2021: Oil firm bosses’ pay 'incentivises them to undermine climate action’, as lucrative pay and share options linked to continued extraction of fossil fuels by ExxonMobil, Chevron, Shell and BP, and as compensation packages for CEOs, often in excess of $10m, are linked to continued extraction of fossil fuels, exploration of new fields and the promotion of strong market demand through advertising, lobbying and government subsidies, the report says
27 May 2021: 'Cataclysmic day' for 3 major oil companies: 27 May 2021: 'Cataclysmic day' for 3 major oil companies in which investors rebelled over climate fears and a court ordered fossil fuel emissions to be slashed sparked hope among campaigners, investors, lawyers and academics who said the historic decisions marked a turning point in efforts to tackle the climate crisis, as a Dutch court ordered Shell to cut carbon emissions from its oil and gas by 45% by 2030, as a tiny activist investor group simultaneously won two places on ExxonMobil’s board and Chevron’s management was defeated when investors voted in favour of forcing the group to cut its carbon emissions
29 May 2021 campaigners sense turning point as alliance act to force Chevron, ExxonMobil and Shell to cut pollution: 29 May 2021: Campaigners sense turning point as shareholders, boards and The Hague act to force Chevron, ExxonMobil and Shell to cut pollution, in an unprecedented day of reckoning for their role in the climate crisis
Exports of coal by country, including Australia, Indonesia, Russia, Colombia, USA etc. - List of countries by coal production, including China, India, USA, European Union, Australia, Indonesia, Russia, South Africa, Germany, Poland, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Colombia, Canada etc. - Imports of coal by country, including China, India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Turkey etc.
21 May 2021 G7 agrees to end support for coal production overseas reaffirming commitment to limit global heating to 1.5C: 21 May 2021: The world’s richest nations have agreed to end their financial support for coal development overseas, in a major step towards phasing out the dirtiest fossil fuel, as after nearly two days of wrangling at a meeting of the G7 environment and energy ministers all reaffirmed their commitment to limiting global heating to 1.5C, and committed to phasing out coal and fully decarbonising their energy sectors in the 2030s
List of countries by natural gas exports, including Russia, Qatar, Norway, Canada, Netherlands, USA, Algerian etc.
27 May 2021 advocacy groups called on French 'Total' and USA's 'Chevron' to further cut ties with Myanmar’s military: 27 May 2021: Advocacy groups have called on French fossil fuel giant Total and USA company Chevron to further cut ties with Myanmar’s military, after announcing they would suspend dividend payments to the junta from a large gas project in the wake of February’s coup, as advocacy groups said 90% of the money the junta makes from the Yadana gasfield joint venture with Total and Chevron – as well as the gas itself – continues to flow

Toxic waste is any material in liquid, solid, or gas form that can cause serious harm to humans as well as animals and the environment - Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment
2015 toxic threats: 20 October 2015: The world’s top six toxic threats - lead, radionuclides, mercury, hexavalent chromium, pesticides and cadmium - affect the health of 95 million people, exposure to these pollutants result in debilitating and life-threatening diseases, especially in children
2016 top ten worst polluting industries: 'The World's Worst Pollution Problems 2016: The Toxics Beneath Our Feet' updates the top ten worst polluting industries

Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents - Nuclear and radiation accidents - Effects of acute radiation exposure and ecological impacts of nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents
List of nuclear power accidents by country - List of nuclear and radiation fatalities by country - List of civilian nuclear accidents - List of military nuclear accidents - Nuclear fallout - Radioactive contamination
1957 Kyshtym disaster: Kyshtym disaster on 29 September 1957 at Mayak, a plutonium production site for nuclear weapons and nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the Soviet Union, causing radioactive fallout over the Soviet, many neighboring states and ongoing contamination with radioactivity
Since 1957 nuclear power accidents in the UK: Since 1957 nuclear power accidents in the United Kindomg - 10 October 1957 Windscale fire, nuclear accident in Cumberland (now Sellafield) reactors, built as part of the British post-war atomic bomb project, as radioactive fallout spread across the UK and the rest of Europe
1966 Palomares B-52 crash: 1966 Palomares B-52 crash, when a B-52G bomber of the USA Air Force's Strategic Air Command, carrying four Mk28-type hydrogen bombs, collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air refuelling - 19 October 2015: Nearly 50 years after a USA air force B-52 bomber carrying nuclear weapons crashed in Palomares in south-east Spain, USA's government has finally agreed to clean up the radioactive contamination that resulted from the 1966 crash
Since 1969 nuclear power accidents in France: Since 1969 nuclear power accidents in France
1979 USA's 'Three Mile Island' accident: 'Three Mile Island' accident, partial nuclear meltdown that occurred on 28 March 1979 in reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station in USA's Dauphin County in Pennsylvania - Since March 1979 'Three Mile Island' accident health effects - Since 1979 'Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station', closed nuclear power plant on Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township on the Susquehanna River just south of Harrisburg, official decommission date unit 1 on 20 September 2019, construction cost $1.557 billion ($2.00 billion in 2019) - 8 May 2019: 40 years after the worst commercial nuclear power plant accident in USA history unfolded on Three Mile Island, the only nuclear power reactor still operating there is preparing to shut down, as the facility has been losing money, and in a statement Exelon Generation company said it would be closed by September 30, after the company and its employees had been hoping for a subsidy from the state, and when that fell through, a shutdown was the only option
Since 1986 'Chernobyl disaster' and partially abandoned city: 1986 Chernobyl - today a partially abandoned city in the 'Chernobyl Exclusion Zone' after a mentioned history since 10–12th centuries - disaster near the city of Pripyat in the north of the Ukrainian SSR, catastrophic nuclear accident released large quantities of radioactive particles into the atmosphere, which spread over much of the western USSR and Europe - 20 avril 2016: Des sols du continent européen sont toujours contaminés au Cesium 137, 30 ans après la catastrophe nucléaire de Tchernobyl, selon une étude de l'ACRO - 11 July 2019: Ukraine and its European partners formally inaugurated a new metal dome encasing the destroyed reactor at the infamous Chernobyl plant, wrapping up a two-decade effort
Since 1992 nuclear power accidents in Russia: Since 1992 nuclear power accidents in the Russian Federation
Since 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster: 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster with three nuclear meltdowns and releases of radioactive materials beginning on 12 March 2011
February 2020 'experts' say Fukushima radioactive water should be released into ocean: 1 February 2020: 'Experts' advising Japan’s government on a 'disposal method' for radioactive water from the destroyed Fukushima nuclear plant has recommended releasing it into the ocean, a move likely to alarm neighbouring countries
13 April 2021 Japan will dump contaminated water from the wrecked Fukushima nuclear power plant into the sea, without borders: 13 April 2021: Japan announces it will dump contaminated water from the wrecked Fukushima nuclear power plant into the sea, as environmental groups, neighbours, neighbouring countries and local fishers condemn plan to release contaminated water projected in two years’ time - 16 September 2019: Fukushima fishermen concerned for future over release of radioactive water

Radioactive waste - Radioactive contamination - High-level radioactive waste management - Plutonium in the environment
Nuclear power stations by country: Nuclear power stations by country
Nuclear power stations in Argentina: Nuclear power stations in Argentina
Nuclear power stations in Armenia: Nuclear power stations in Armenia
Nuclear power stations in repressive ruled Belarus: Nuclear power stations in Belarus, described for decades as one of 'Europe's last dictatorships'
Nuclear power stations in Beijing regime's Chinese territory: Nuclear power stations in Beijing regime's Chinese territory
Nuclear power stations in France: Nuclear power stations in France
Nuclear power stations in India: Nuclear power stations in India
Nuclear power stations in - since 1979 ruled by a Mullah regime - Iran: Nuclear power stations in - since 1979 ruled by a Mullah regime - Iran
Nuclear power stations in Japan: Nuclear power stations in Japan
Nuclear power stations in North Korea, ruled by the Kim dynasty: Nuclear power stations in North Korea, ruled by the Kim dynasty
Nuclear power stations in Pakistan: Nuclear power stations in Pakistan
Nuclear power stations in Russia ruled by the Putin regime: Nuclear power stations in Russia ruled for decades by the Putin regime
Nuclear power stations in Spain: Nuclear power stations in Spain, as in 2018 the government signed an agreement procrastinating the dismission of all Spanish nuclear power plants from 2028 to 2035
Nuclear power stations in Sweden: Nuclear power stations in Sweden, as on 5 February 2009 the Government of Sweden announced an agreement allowing for the replacement of existing reactors, effectively ending the phase-out policy
Nuclear power stations in Turkey: Nuclear power stations in Turkey
Nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom: Nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom
Nuclear power stations in the USA: Nuclear power stations in the USA

List of nuclear weapons tests - List of nuclear weapon test locations
Since 1949 nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union: Since 1949 list of nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union
2014 N-test legacy in stratosphere: 7 January 2014: N