Antarctica - Natural history of Antarctica
Geology of Antarctica: Geology of Antarctica
Geography of Antarctica: Geography of Antarctica
Antarctic Peninsula

Environment of Antarctica: Environment of Antarctica - Natural history of Antarctica
Climate of Antarctica and ice sheet: Climate of Antarctica - Ice cap climate - Global warming in Antarctica
Antarctic ice sheet - Sea ice and land ice of Antarctica - East Antarctic Ice Sheet, one of two large ice sheets in Antarctica, and the largest on the entire planet - Western Antarctic Ice Sheet, the segment of the continental ice sheet that covers West Antarctica, the portion of Antarctica on the side of the Transantarctic Mountains which lies in the Western Hemisphere - Antarctic sea ice - Ice sheet dynamics describe the motion within large bodies of ice, such those currently on Greenland and Antarctica - Marine ice sheet instability
Bodies of ice of Antarctica: Bodies of ice of Antarctica - Bodies of ice of Antarctica by region - Glaciers of Antarctica by region - List of glaciers in the Antarctic - List of Antarctic ice shelves
2012-2015: 23 December 2012: West Antarctic Ice Sheet warming twice earlier estimate, USA researchers say - 15 April 2013: Antarctic ice melting at record rate, new research shows - 12 May 2014: The collapse of the Western Antarctica ice sheet is already under way and is unstoppable, two studies say - 20 May 2014: Antarctica is now losing about 160 billion tonnes of ice a year to the ocean - twice as much as when the continent was last surveyed, scientists say using measurements of CryoSat-2 satellite mission - 26 March 2015: Antarctic ice shelves are melting dramatically, USA study finds
2016: 6 December 2016: Both the Arctic and Antarctic experienced record lows in sea ice extent in November, with scientists astonished to see Arctic ice actually retreating, an event attributed to warm temperatures and winds, with some areas more than 20C warmer than usual
2017: 14 February 2017: Sea ice around Antarctica has shrunk to the smallest annual extent on record after years of resisting a trend of manmade global warming, according to USA satellite data
January 2019: 14 January 2019: Global warming melting Antarctic ice faster than ever before, according to a report in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - 16 January 2019: Earth's tilt may exacerbate a melting Antarctic, according to a Nature Geoscience report
July 2019: 2 July 2019: The vast expanse of sea ice around Antarctica has suffered a 'precipitous' fall since 2014, satellite data shows, and fell at a faster rate than seen in the Arctic
February 2020 Antarctic temperature rises above 20C: 13 February 2020: Antarctic temperature rises above 20C for first time on record, as scientists describe 20.75C logged at Seymour Island as 'incredible and abnormal’
13 December 2021 scientists warning of dramatic changes at Thwaites Glacier in Antarctica: 13 December 2021: Scientists are warning of dramatic changes at one of the biggest glaciers in Antarctica, potentially within the next five to 10 years, saying a floating section at the front of Thwaites Glacier that until now has been relatively stable could 'shatter', as USA and UK researchers are currently engaged in an intense study programme at Thwaites because of its melt rate

Landforms and ecoregions of the Antarctic: Landforms of Antarctica by region - Ecoregions of the Antarctic - Antarctic ecozone - Antarctical realm, one of eight terrestrial biogeographic realms
Bodies of ice and water of Antarctica: Bodies of ice of Antarctica - Bodies of water of Antarctica - Bodies of water of Antarctica by region - List of rivers of Antarctica
Biota of Antarctica: Biota of Antarctica - Wildlife of Antarctica

History of exploration of Antarctica: History of Antarctica exploration - Transport in Antarctica
Research stations in Antarctica: Research stations in Antarctica
Antarctic expeditions: Antarctic expeditions
1911/1912 South Pole reached by Norwegian team, British team: List of Antarctic expeditions, a chronological list of expeditions involving Antarctica published by 'Wikipedia' and last edited on 12 January 2022, as - although the existence of a southern continent had been hypothesized as early as the writings of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD - the South Pole was not reached until 1911 - 1910-1912 Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen's expedition to reach the geographic Southern Pole, as he and four others arrived at the pole on 14 December 1911, then returning safely to their base
18 January 1912 captain Scott's expedition team arrived at a tent about 1km from the Pole: On 18 January 1912 captain Scott's team on his last expedition arrived at a tent about 1km from the Pole finding a record of five Norwegians including Roald Amundsen, Olav Bjaaland, Hilmer Hanssen, Sverre Hassel, Oscar Wisting, and a note from Amundsen asking Scott to forward a letter to king Haakon, as Scott’s 1911/12 expedition route is shown in an Antarctican map, published by the National Library of Scotland 1923, after German empire's and central powers' Word War I 1914-1918
1911-1914 multilateral Australian led Antarctic expedition: 1911-1914 Australasian Antarctic Expedition headed by Australian geologist Douglas Mawson that explored the largely uncharted Antarctic coast due south of Australia. Scientific activities included meteorological measurements, magnetic observations, an expansive oceanographic program, and the collection of many biological and geological samples, including the discovery of the first meteorite found in Antarctica. The expedition was the first to establish and maintain wireless contact between Antarctica and Australia. - Das Team der australasiatischen Antarktisexpedition 1911-1914 kam hauptsächlich von australischen und neuseeländischen Universitäten, und von den Männern, die Basen auf dem antarktischen Kontinent bemannen sollten, waren 22 Australier, vier waren Neuseeländer, drei Briten und einer ein Schweizer

Demographics of Antarctica: Demographics of Antarctica - Economy of Antarctica Antarctica - Presence in Antarctica by country
Science and technology in Antarctica: Science and technology in Antarctica - Antarctic research
Since 1958 international coordination of Antarctic scientific activities: Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research - international coordination of Antarctic scientific activities since 1958 - International Council for Science
Research stations in Antarctica: Research stations in Antarctica

Communications in Antarctica: Communications in Antarctica
Transport in Antarctica: Transport in Antarctica - Ports and harbors of Antarctica - Aviation in Antarctica

Economy of Antarctica: Economy of Antarctica - Category economy of Antarctica Tourism in Antarctica: Tourism in Antarctica
Whaling in Antarctica: Whaling in Antarctica - Whaling controversy and whale conservation - History of whaling from prehistoric times up to the commencement of the 'International Whaling Commission' moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986
Military activity in the Antarctic: As the Antarctic Treaty specifically prohibits military activity on land or ice shelves below 60°S, not applying to naval activity within these bounds in the Southern Ocean, military forces from many countries have provided support to scientific expeditions and bases in Antarctica

Territorial claims in Antarctica: Territorial claims in Antarctica
Argentina: Argentine Antarctica - Instituto Antártico Argentino
Australia: Australian Antarctic Territory
Brazil: Brazilian Antarctica, the name of the Antarctic territory south of 60°S, and from 28°W to 53°W, proposed as 'Zone of Interest'
Chile: Chilean Antarctic Territory - Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region
France: 'Antarctica Adélie Land' claimed by France
New Zealand: Ross Dependency New Zealand
Norway: Norway's dependent territories in Antarctica - Peter I Island - Queen Maud Land
United Kingdom: British Antarctic Territory
Overlapping territorial claims in Antarctica: Overlapping territorial claims in Antarctica
Argentine Antarctica - Antarctic Peninsula - 22 December 2012: The UK ambassador to Argentina has been summoned to explain why part of Antarctica has been renamed in honour of the Queen
Chilean Antarctic Territory - Antarctic Peninsula
British Antarctic Territory - 22 December 2012: The UK ambassador to Argentina has been summoned to explain why part of Antarctica has been renamed in honour of the Queen

Since 1961 Antarctic Treaty System: Antarctic Treaty System since 1961 - Article 4: The treaty does not recognize, dispute, nor establish territorial sovereignty claims; no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in force
Antarctic Treaty Secretariat since 2003, headquarters in Buenos Aires - Antarctic Treaty Secretariat website - 36th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting 20 May 2013 - 29 May 2013
Antarctica agreements: Antarctica agreements - Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty - Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities - Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources CCAMLR - CCAMLR website
2013/2014: 22 October 2013: Antarctic nations face off again over sanctuary plans - 1 novembre 2013: Nouvel échec des négociations sur les sanctuaires marins en Antarctique, Chine et Russie faisant obstacle à la protection - 20 October 2014: Annual CCAMLR Antarctic conference in Hobart will consider proposals on the future of Antarctic research and marine protection
2016 marine protected area: 28 October 2016: World's largest marine protected area established in the Ross Sea, off the coast of Antarctica
November 2019 protection of marine life failed for the eighth consecutive time: 2 November 2019: Conservationists have expressed frustration that an international commission for protecting marine life in Antarctica has failed for the eighth consecutive time to create a marine park across 1 million sq km on the continent’s east, after Russia and China have previously been blamed for blocking


Arctic - North Pole - Geology of the Arctic - Arctic Ocean - Geology of the Arctic Ocean - Geography of the Arctic Ocean - Oceanography of the Arctic Ocean - Arctic exploration
Structure of the Earth and North Magnetic Pole: North Magnetic Pole - Structure of the Earth - The outer core of the Earth, a fluid layer about 2,400 km thick and composed of mostly iron and nickel that lies above Earth's solid inner core and below its mantle
February 2019 Earth’s north magnetic pole: 5 February 2019: Earth’s north magnetic pole has been drifting so fast in recent decades that scientists say that past estimates are no longer accurate enough for precise navigation, releasing an update of where magnetic north really was
Arctic Ocean and Polar ice packs: Arctic Ocean - Polar ice packs - Polar ecology - Arctic sea ice ecology and history
Climate of the Arctic and climate change: Climate of the Arctic - Climate change in the Arctic
Arctic ice pack and decline: Arctic ice pack - Arctic sea ice decline
2016 Arctic sea ice extent breaks record low for winter: 28 March 2016: Arctic sea ice extent breaks record low for winter - 6 December 2016: Both the Arctic and Antarctic experienced record lows in sea ice extent in November, with scientists astonished to see Arctic ice actually retreating, an event attributed to warm temperatures and winds, with some areas more than 20C warmer than usual - 19 December 2016: The dramatic melting of Arctic ice is already driving extreme weather that affects hundreds of millions of people across North America, Europe and Asia, leading climate scientists say
March 2017 Arctic ice falls to record winter low: 22 March 2017: Arctic ice falls to record winter low after polar 'heatwaves', according to researchers at the USA National Snow and Ice Data Centre and Nasa
2018 sea ice has hit record lows: 6 March 2018: Sea ice has hit record lows for time of year as Arctic has warmest winter on record and as experts say global warming probably fueled big storms in Europe and north-eastern USA - 21 August 2018: Arctic’s strongest sea ice breaks up for first time on record
July 2020 Siberian heat drives Arctic ice extent to record low for early July: 10 July 2020: Siberian heat drives Arctic ice extent to record low for early July, following reported new record temperatures up to 38°C north of Arctic Circle
30 November 2021 rain to replace snow in the Arctic as climate heats: 30 November 2021: Rain to replace snow in the Arctic as climate heats, study finds, and as climate models show switch will happen decades faster than previously thought, with ‘profound’ implications
Arctic lands: Arctic lands
April 2019: 23 April 2019: The release of methane and carbon dioxide from thawing permafrost will accelerate global warming and add up to $70tn to the world’s climate bill, according to the most advanced study yet of the economic consequences of a melting Arctic
June 2019: 18 June 2019: Permafrost at outposts in the Canadian Arctic is thawing 70 years earlier than predicted, an expedition has discovered, in the latest sign that the global climate crisis is accelerating even faster than scientists had feared
14 December 2021 Arctic Circle's record high temperature sounds 'alarm bells' over Earth's changing climate: 14 December 2021: Arctic Circle's record high temperature sounds 'alarm bells' over Earth's changing climate, as highest temperature ever recorded in the Arctic - 38C (100F) - has been officially confirmed, by the World Meteorological Organization WMO reported in the Siberian town of Verkhoyansk on 20 June last year, where the temperature was 18C higher than the area's average daily maximum for June
Circumpolar peoples: Circumpolar peoples - Poverty in the Arctic - as the Arctic is a vast polar region comprising the northern most parts of Canada, Norway, Greenland (Denmark), Sweden, Finland, the USA (Alaska), Iceland and Russia, the Arctic has been in recent years at the forefront of political and social issues, surrounding the issues of poverty and global warming and their effects on indigenous people in this region, indigenous people in the Arctic statistically fall below their nation's poverty line
Food insecurity in the Arctic: Food insecurity in the Arctic
Since 1980 Inuit Circumpolar Council: Inuit Circumpolar Council since 1980
Natural resources of the Arctic: Natural resources of the Arctic - Industry in the Arctic
Mining in the Arctic: Mining in the Arctic - the Arctic holds large quantities of minerals, including phosphate, bauxite, iron ore, copper, and nickel
Energy in Alaska: Energy in Alaska
Petroleum exploration in the Arctic: Petroleum exploration in the Arctic - Arctic Refuge drilling controversy since 1966
Fisheries in the Arctic: Fisheries in the Arctic
Arctic policy and territorial claims in the Arctic: Territorial claims in the Arctic - Borders of the Arctic Ocean - United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Arctic policy of Canada - Canadian Arctic Archipelago
December 2013: 5 December 2013: Canada's PM has ordered the inclusion of the North Pole in the country's Arctic claim - 10 December: Canada's government signalled intentions to claim the North Pole and surrounding Arctic waters
Arctic policy of Denmark
Arctic policy of European Union
Arctic policy of Finland
Arctic policy of Iceland
Arctic policy of Norway
Arctic policy of Russia
2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian regime: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom
Arctic policy of Sweden
Arctic policy of the USA
Territorial claims in the Arctic: Territorial claims in the Arctic
August 2007 Russian regime's claims: 2 August 2007: Russia claims North Pole by planting flag on seabed
December 2013 Russia steps up military presence: 11 December 2013: Putin orders Russia's military to step up its presence in the Arctic after Canada signalled its intention to claim the North Pole
Military in the Arctic: Military in the Arctic - Military history of the Arctic
January 2019 military buildup in Arctic: 24 January 2019: Military buildup in Arctic as melting ice reopens northern borders and regional powers attempt to secure northern borders that were until recently reinforced by a continental-sized division of ice
Arctic cooperation and politics: Arctic cooperation and politics
Since 1996 Arctic Council: Arctic Council since 1996 - Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment
Since 2008 Arctic Ocean Conference: Arctic Ocean Conference since 2008 - May 2008 Ilulissat Arctic Ocean Conference controversy after the conference marginalised indigenous peoples
Since 1980 Inuit Circumpolar Council: Inuit Circumpolar Council since 1980
Since 1990 International Arctic Science Committee: International Arctic Science Committee since 1990

Arctic environment, science, social movements and protests: Environment of the Arctic - Climate change in the Arctic - Pollution in the Arctic Ocean is primarily the result of economic activities carried out on land, such as industrial development in the Arctic region, northern rivers, and the effects of military activities, particularly nuclear activity, as well as the influx of pollutants from other regions of the world - Marine pollution - Oil spill
Arctic research and 'Study of Environmental Arctic Change': Arctic research - List of Arctic research programs - List of research stations in the Arctic - Study of Environmental Arctic Change, a collaborative program of Arctic researchers, funding agencies, and others that facilitates synthesis of Arctic science, communicates our current understanding to help society respond to a rapidly changing Arctic, and currently focuses on how shrinking land ice, diminishing sea ice, and degrading permafrost impact Arctic and global systems
Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment: Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment
2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests: September 2013 'Arctic Sunrise' Greenpeace protests against Russian Gazprom - Gazprom's Prirazlomnaya oil platform and environmental issues - 2013 Greenpeace Arctic Sunrise ship case - 20 September 2013: Russia to tow Greenpeace ship to the port of Murmansk after armed raid - 25 September: The Netherlands asks Russia for the immediate release of 30 Greenpeace activists arrested for a high seas protest against Arctic oil exploration - 27 September: Russian court orders Greenpeace activists to be held without charge - 27 September: The 30 activists from the Greenpeace ship Arctic Sunrise being held by Russia hail from 18 different countries - 29 septembre: Un tribunal russe a ordonné dimanche le placement en détention pour deux mois de six autres membres de l'équipage du navire de Greenpeace, l'Arctic Sunrise - 4 octobre 2013: Trente militants de Greenpeace inculpés de 'piraterie' par la justice russe - 5 October: Greenpeace solidarity protests worldwide to free journalists and activists held in Russian prison - 9 octobre: La Russie accentue la pression sur les militants Greenpeace de l'Arctique - 17 octobre: 11 Prix Nobel de la Paix écrivent à Poutine prenant la défense des 30 membres d'équipage d'un navire de Greenpeace arrêtés en septembre - 21 October: The Netherlands on Monday asked the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to order Russia to free the crew of the Greenpeace activist ship Arctic Sunrise - 23 octobre: La Russie réduit les charges de l'équipage Greenpeace à 'hooliganisme', punissable de sept ans - 27 octobre: Des militants de Greenpeace dénoncent leurs conditions de détention - 16 November 2013: Greenpeace organised protests in 263 cities around the world on Saturday to mark two months since 30 of its environmental activists were jailed in Russia - 21 novembre: Huit militants de Greenpeace libérés sous caution en Russie - 22 November: UN-mandated International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea orders Russia to free Greenpeace activists - 25 December 2013: Russia drops charges against 19 Greenpeace activists - 27 December: Dutch Greenpeace activist Faiza Oulahsen who spent more than two months in Russian prison says the ordeal has made her 'even more dedicated' to saving the Arctic environment
5 April 2022 global 'plastic flood' has reached the Arctic: 5 April 2022: Even the High North can’t escape the global threat of plastic pollution, in beginning northern springtime shown by an international review study by the Alfred Wegener Institute documenting that the flood of plastic has reached all spheres of the Arctic. Large quantities of plastic - transported by rivers, the air and shipping - can now be found in the Arctic Ocean. High concentrations of microplastic can be found in the water, on the seafloor, remote beaches, in rivers, and even in ice and snow. The plastic is not only a burden for ecosystems, it could also worsen climate change.
Natural disasters in the Arctic and by country: Natural disasters by country
August 2012 Great Arctic Cyclone: August 2012 Great Arctic Cyclone, a powerful extratropical cyclone that was centered on the Arctic Ocean in early August 2012, as such storms are rare in the Arctic summer, although common in the winter
July/August 2019 Arctic wildfires: 26 July 2019: The Arctic is suffering its worst wildfire season on record, with huge blazes in Greenland, Siberia and Alaska producing plumes of smoke that can be seen from space - 12 August 2019: Arctic wildfires spew soot, smoke and carbon dioxide, a cloud bigger than EU, raging into an unprecedented third month, worsening the manmade climate disruption that created the tinderbox conditions

Internationale Organisationen, Institutionen etc. zur Intervention, Krisenverhinderung und Krisenbewältigung (aktualisierte Version hier aufzurufen)

Weiter zum Artikel: Eine sich verändernde Welt: Demokratie in Tunesien - eine Chance auch für ein sich veränderndes Europa

Weiter zum Artikel: Der Gazakrieg 2008/2009 ist eine Krise Europas und Deutschlands

Weiter zum Artikel: Europäische Union - Mitgliedstaaten, Beitrittskandidaten, Wahlen

zurück zur Einstiegsseite