Western Asia (so-called 'Near East' or 'Middle East' by colonial powers)

Democracy in the Middle East
Since 1948 democratic Israel: Since 1948 Israel, a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea, having land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, and Egypt to the southwest, containing geographically diverse features within its relatively small area, as Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of today's democratically elected government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, one of the oldest cities in the world as the part of Jerusalem called the 'City of David' shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE in the Proto-Canaanite period
May 1948 declaration of the establishment of the democratic State of Israel: 14 May 1948 declaration of the establishment of the State of Israel by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization, Chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, and soon the first PM of Israel, and official translation of the 14 May 1948 declaration, proclaiming the right of the Jewish people to national rebirth in its own country by survivors of the Nazi Holocaust in Europe, as well as Jews from other parts of the world - Basic Laws of Israel, the constitutional laws of the State of Israel, as some of them can only be changed by a supermajority vote in the Knesset (with varying requirements for different Basic Laws and sections), and as many of these laws are based on the individual liberties that were outlined in the 1948 'Israeli Declaration of Independence' - 'Jewish and democratic state' is the Israeli legal definition of the nature and character of the State of Israel
1948 Arab–Israeli War (1948–1949), known as Israeli 'War of Independence': 1948 Arab–Israeli War (1948–1949), known as the 'War of Independence', began after the UN Partition Plan and the subsequent 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine in November 1947, proposing the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in Palestine, rejected by Arab sates - absolute monarchies, constitutional monarchies, dictatorships, presidential 'republics' without full multi-party systems - while the Jews had accepted the plan
May 1949 Israel admitted as a member of the UN by majority vote: 11 May 1949: Israel was admitted as a member of the UN by majority vote, but, as of 2013, 32 UN member states do not recognize Israel and question or deny its legitimacy or right to exist, icluding 18 UN members in the Arab League, by name Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, and Yemen, including 11 members of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, by name Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brunei, Chad, Guinea, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Mali, Niger, Pakistan, and further Bhutan, Cuba, and North Korea
Since 1948/1949 notable wars and violent events in the Arab–Israeli conflict: Since 1948/1949 notable wars and violent events in the Arab–Israeli conflict - Antisemitism in the Arab world increased greatly in the 20th century, related to the breakdown of the Ottoman Empire and traditional Islamic society, European influence, brought about by Western imperialism and Arab Christians, Nazi politics and propaganda, and the rise of Arab nationalism
2010/2011 Tunisian Revolution: December 2010 - January 2011 Tunisian Revolution, including a series of street demonstrations which led to the ousting of Ben Ali in January 2011, caused by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, the lack of political freedoms (such as freedom of speech), poor living conditions, leading to a thorough democratisation of the country and later to free and democratic elections
Since 2010/2011 'Arab Spring': 'Arab Spring' - Middle East and North Africa protests and revolutions since 2010 - Women in the Arab Spring
Arab Winter, a term for the resurgence of authoritarianism and Islamic extremism evolving in the aftermath of the Arab Spring protests in Arab countries and the events across Arab League countries in the Mid-East and North Africa, including the Syrian Civil War, the Iraqi insurgency and the following civil war, the Egyptian Crisis, the Libyan Crisis, the Crisis in Yemen and the Crisis in Saudi-Arabia - Refugees of the Arab Winter - 13 February 2014: Fearful of 'Arab Spring'-inspired unrest, dictatorship countries and Gulf monarchies have stepped up repression and efforts to monitor and control the media, Reporters Without Borders says
Consequences of the 2011-present Assad's war against the Syrian people, Iraqi Civil War, Hezbollah's, Iranian, Russian and Turkish interventions: Consequences of the 2011-present Assad's, Russian and Iranian regime's war against the Syrian people - Consequences of the Iraqi Civil War 2014–present - Since 2011 spillover of the Syrian Civil War is the impact of the Syrian Civil War in the Arab world. Since the first protests during the Arab Spring, the increasingly violent Assad's war against the Syrian people has been both a proxy war for the major Middle Eastern powers, Turkey, Iran, later Putin's Russia, and a potential launching point for a wider regional war - Distant worldwide spillover locations
Since 2014 European refugee and migrant crisis: European refugee and migrant crisis, beginning in 2014/2015 characterised by high numbers of people arriving in the European Union from across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe following Turkey's migrant crisis
Since 2014 Second Libyan Civil War: Since 2014 Second Libyan Civil War
Since 2015 Iranian regime backed Houthis' war in Yemen: Since 2015, when Iranian regime backed Houthis established their regime in Sana'a, war in Yemen until today
Since 2018 Turkish military intervention in Syria: Since 2018 Turkish military intervention in Afrin and Turkish occupation of northern Syria since 2019
2018–2020 Middle East and North Africa pro-democracy and economic protests: 2018–2020 Arab protests, massive anti-government protests in several Arab countries, including Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia and Egypt, as economic protests also took place in the Gaza Strip, and sustained civil disobedience and protests in Sudan resulted in the overthrow of dictator Omar al-Bashir
January-Februay 2018 Tunisian economic protests: January-Februay 2018 Tunisian protests, after beginning in January protests erupted in multiple towns and cities across Tunisia over issues related to the cost of living and taxes, claiming at least one life in January, and reviving worries about the fragile political situation in Tunisia
May-June 2018 Jordanian economic protests: May-June 2018 Jordanian protests started with a general strike organized by more than 30 trade unions, as the government of Hani Mulki submitted a new tax law to Parliament, following IMF-backed austerity measures adopted by the government since 2016 that aimed to tackle Jordan's growing public debt, after its economy had taken a hit from the surrounding turmoil, from an influx of a large number of Syrian refugees into the country, and as Jordan also hosts a large contingent of Iraqi and Palestinian refugees, further straining its finances
Since December 2018 Sudanese Revolution and late-2019 Sudanese protests: Since December 2018 Sudanese Revolution, a major shift of political power in Sudan that started with street protests throughout Sudan in December 2018, and continued, with sustained civil disobedience against regime's vilolence and massacres, for about eight months, during which the 11 April 2019 Sudanese coup d'état deposed dictator al-Bashir after thirty years in power, until in July and August 2019 the TMC and the Forces of Freedom and Change alliance signed a Political Agreement and a Draft Constitutional Declaration legally defining a planned 39-month phase of transitional state institutions and procedures to return Sudan to a civilian democracy - Late-2019 Sudanese protests consist of street protests in Sudan starting from mid-September 2019 during the 2019 Sudanese transition to democracy, on issues that included the nomination of a new Chief Justice of Sudan and Attorney-General, killings of civilians by the Rapid Support Forces, the toxic effects of cyanide and mercury from gold mining in Northern state and South Kordofan, protests against a state governor in el-Gadarif and against show trials of Sudanese Professionals Association coordinators, and for officials of the previous government to be dismissed in Red Sea, White Nile, and South Darfur
6 January 2021 Sudan signs ‘Abraham Accords’ paving way for Israel normalization: 6 January 2021: Sudan signs ‘Abraham Accords’ in the Sudanese capital Khartoum, paving way for Israel normalization
Since Februay 2019 Algerian protests against undemocratic rule: Since Februay 2019 Algerian protests, six days after Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced his candidacy for a fifth presidential term, as protests, without precedent since the Algerian Civil War, have been peaceful and led the military to insist on Bouteflika's resignation in April 2019, and as ongoing protests call more and more for democracy, liberties and the rule of law, goals which many protests argue are unrealized and which continue to attract millions of Algerians into the street
March 2019 Gaza economic protests: March 2019 Gaza economic protests
September 2019 Egyptian protests against undemocratic rule: September 2019 Egyptian protests
Since October 2019 Iraqi protests against corruption, unemployment, inefficient public services, and Iranian intervention in Iraq: Since October 2019 Iraqi protests, an ongoing series of protests that consisted of demonstrations, marches, sit-ins and civil disobedience, first set by civil activists on social media, spreading over the central and southern provinces of Iraq, to protest 16 years of corruption, unemployment and inefficient public services, before they escalated into calls to overthrow the administration and to stop Iranian intervention in Iraq.
Since October 2019 Lebanese protests against economic and political crisis: Since October 2019 Lebanese protests, a series of country-wide, non-sectarian protests, motivated by the Lebanese government's failure to find solutions to an economic crisis that has been looming because of corruption, wasting public money and stealing governmental entities, as in the long term, they constitute a reaction against sectarian rule, stagnant economy, unemployment, endemic corruption in the public sector, legislation (such as banking secrecy) to shield the ruling class from accountability and failures from the government to provide basic services such as electricity, water and sanitation
Since November 2019 Iranian protests against increase in fuel prices and dictatorship: Since November 2019 Iranian protests, a series of civil protests occurring in multiple cities across Iran, initially from a 50%–200% increase in fuel prices, but soon including the outcry against the dictatorship in Iran and 'Supreme Leader' Ali Khamenei
December 2019 'the politicians corruption has stolen and ruined the future of our youth': 22 December 2019: 'The politicians corruption has stolen and ruined the future of our youth', reads a huge banner in Baghdad’s Tahrir Square, summing up the feeling across the Middle East and North Africa, as the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings were directed at long-ruling autocrats, the current economically driven uprisings are directed at an entire class of politicians and a system they say is broken and has failed to provide a decent life
December 2020 because of the failure of advanced capitalist powers 'Middle East' people say life has got worse since Arab spring: 17 December 2020: Life has got worse since Arab spring, say people across Middle East, as poll suggests a majority in 9 countries across the Arab world feel they are living in significantly more unequal societies today than before the Arab spring era of uprisings, civil wars and unsteady progress towards self-determination that commenced a decade ago in December 2010, and as pluralities in almost every country agreed their living conditions had deteriorated since 2010, when the self-immolation of Tunisian fruit seller Mohamed Bouazizi is credited with kicking off mass demonstrations and revolutions that spread across the region, and as new attempts and democratic opposition against medieval traditions paired with worst capitalist imports from Europe and elsewhere continued into 2019 with the overthrow of Sudan’s former dictator Omar al-Bashir and large protest movements in Lebanon, Algeria and Iraq and other regions
27 December 2020 Tunisian who sang duet with Israeli faces backlash, death threats: 27 December 2020: After Tunisian president Kais Saied, well-known for his hardline views on normalization, called establishing open ties with Israel 'treachery', Tunisian musician Nouman al-Shaari, who collaborated with Israeli singer Ziv Yehezkel on a song promoting religious tolerance between Muslims and Jews has faced serious backlash, including reportedly being fired from his job at a state broadcaster and death threats on social media, as song was penned by a Yemenite artist who wishes to remain anonymous for his own safety, as he lives in territory controlled by the pro-Iranian Houthi militias, as collaboration was arranged by the Arab Council for Regional Integration, which attempts to advance Arab-Israeli dialogue in the region, and as some fellow Tunisian artists, however, have come to the producer’s and musician's defense
28 June 2021 Palestinians protest for fifth day in West Bank after death of activist: 28 June 2021: Several hundred Palestinians took to the streets of Ramallah, Hebron and Bethlehem for the fifth consecutive day to protest against the treatment of Nizar Banat, a social and political activist, who died during an arrest by Palestinian authority’s forces in Hebron on 24 June, as crowds - waving Palestinian flags, pictures of Banat and calling for an end to Abbas’s 16-year rule - have been met with brutal force from both Palestinian security forces and men in plain clothes loyal to Abbas’s Fatah party, and as clubs, metal rods, teargas and the sexual assault of female protesters have been used to break up the demonstrations and stop reporters from documenting the events, according to the Palestinian journalists’ union
28 octobre 2023 l'ONU craint 'des milliers de morts civils en plus' en cas d'opération terrestre d'Israël: 28 octobre 2023: Des combats au sol se déroulent dans la bande de Gaza pilonnée sans relâche par l'armée israélienne trois semaines après le début de la guerre entre l'État hébreu et le Hamas. L'armée israélienne a annoncé avoir frappé le réseau souterrain du mouvement palestinien détruisant '150 cibles' au cours de la nuit, et l'ONU craint 'des milliers de morts civils en plus' en cas d'opération terrestre d'Israël, selon France24 en direct - 28 October 2023: Israel re-issues warning for civilians to evacuate northern Gaza after heaviest bombing of war so far, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
29 October 2023 Israeli military increases troop numbers inside Gaza amid air strikes: 29 octobre 2023: The Israeli army said on Sunday that it will be increasing troop numbers inside the Gaza Strip and reiterated calls for civilians in Gaza to move to the south of the besieged enclave, where it said humanitarian efforts will be increasing. The news came as internet and mobile services are gradually being reestablished after being cut off on Friday during intense Israeli bombardment, according to France24 with the latest updates - 29 October 2023: The Palestinian Red Crescent said on Sunday it has received warnings from Israeli authorities to immediately evacuate al-Quds hospital in the Gaza Strip, as it is 'going to be bombarded', 13.10 CET WHO 'deeply concerned' by report of evacuation warning to Gaza's al-Quds hospital, 18.06 CET International Criminal Court prosecutor Karim Khan has visited the Rafah border crossing this weekend and said that the ICC has 'active investigations ongoing in relation to the crimes, allegedly committed in Israel on the 7th of October and also in relation to Gaza and the West Bank', 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
30 October 2023 Netanyahu says Israel will not agree to ceasefire in Gaza, as families of hostages in Hamas video say ‘we see you’: 30 October 2023: Netanyahu says Israel will not agree to ceasefire in Gaza, as families of hostages in Hamas video say ‘we see you’, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
31 October 2023 IDF says Israeli military killed main leader of combat’ for Hamas Ibrahim Biari: 31 October 2023: IDF spokesman Daniel Hagari says Israeli military killed Ibrahim Biari, who he said was ‘main leader of combat’ for Hamas, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
1 November 2023 rights violations against children ‘mounting by the minute’, says UN, as hundreds of foreign nationals leave Gaza: 1 November 2023: 17.52 CET fifteen Israeli soldiers were killed amid fierce fighting in Gaza in a series of incidents that have underlined the mounting challenges facing the Israel Defence Forces in their attempts to push further into built-up areas of Gaza, 18.42 CET the UN child rights committee has warned that 'grave' human rights violations against children are 'mounting by the minute' in the Gaza Strip, calling for an immediate ceasefire and adding 'there are no winners in a war where thousands of children are killed', 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
2 November 2023 in the Israel-Hamas war, Israeli troops ‘at the height of battle’ after pushing through Gaza City outskirts: 2 November 2023: In the Israel-Hamas, Israeli troops ‘at the height of battle’ after pushing through Gaza City outskirts, 17.39 CET a total of 400 foreign passport holders as well as 60 severely wounded Palestinians were due to cross the Rafah crossing, as a list of those approved to travel showed hundreds of USA citizens and 50 Belgians along with smaller numbers from various European, Arab, Asian and African countries, and as Egypt said it eventually plans to help evacuate 7,000 foreigners through the Rafah crossing, marking a fraction of the 2.4 million people trapped in Gaza under weeks of bombardment, 18.18 CET hospitals in northern Gaza are acting as places of shelter for about 117,000 Palestinian people displaced from their homes since the war began, ActionAid said, 18.52 GMT Hamas’s armed wing, the al-Qassam brigades, said its fighters in southern Lebanon were behind the shelling of the northern Israeli town of Kiryat Shmona, where four rockets landed in an industrial area, injuring two people and damaging buildings, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
3 November 2023 UN refugees agency says it ‘cannot provide safety’ to 600,000 people in Gaza ‘sheltering under a UN flag’: 3 November 2023: UN refugees agency says it ‘cannot provide safety’ to 600,000 people in Gaza ‘sheltering under a UN flag’, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
4 November 2023 USA says Arab states agree Hamas-controlled status quo in Gaza cannot continue: 4 November 2023: 08.37 CE an Israeli drone has fired a missile at the Gaza house of Hamas chief Ismail Haniyeh, Reuters has said in a quick snap, citing the Hamas-affiliated Aqsa Radio, 16.24 CET the USA secretary of state, Antony Blinken said on Saturday both - USA and Arab states - believe the status quo of a Hamas-controlled Gaza cannot continue, and that he has discussed with his Arab counterparts how to chart a better path forward towards a two-state solution, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
5 November 2023 Netanyahu again rules out ceasefire until Hamas returns hostages: 5 November 2023: 15.44 CET Netanyahu again rules out ceasefire until Hamas returns hostages, as death toll in Gaza rises to 9,770, 17.41 CET UN’s 'World Food Programme' says aid 'nowhere near enough' to meet Gaza's humanitarian needs, issuing an appeal for urgent expanded access to Gaza as food supplies run 'dangerously low', 18.40 CET Palestinian telecoms firm Paltel said that Israel has once again cut internet and phone lines across Gaza on Sunday night, AFP reports, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
6 November 2023 protection of civilians 'must be paramount' in Hamas' war, UN says: 6 November 2023: 17.18 CET the deaths of scores of aid workers in airstrikes on Gaza over the past month has made the conflict the deadliest ever for UN workers. At least 88 people who worked for the UN’s agency for Palestinian refugees, UNRWA, have been killed since 7 October. Forty-seven of its buildings have been damaged. Separately, at least 150 health workers have been killed in Gaza – 16 while on duty – and 18 emergency-service workers for Gaza’s civil defence, according to the UN, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates - 6 November: UN's secretary general Guterres has said the protection of civilians 'must be paramount' in the conflict between Israel and Palestinian militants Hamas, warning that the Gaza Strip was becoming 'a graveyard for children'
7 November 2023 IDF says forces ‘fighting in the heart of Gaza City’ as Netanyahu says ‘Israel won’t stop’: 7 November 2023: IDF says forces ‘fighting in the heart of Gaza City’ as Netanyahu urges people in Gaza to move south 'because Israel will not stop', saying that he is in 'continuous contact' with Joe Biden and that Israel appreciates the support from him and the USA. He also says he is bringing leaders from around the world to show them 'the horror of horrors committed by Hamas', vowing to 'completely destroy' the abilities of Hamas to control the Gaza Strip, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
8 November 2023 IDF says Hamas has lost control of northern Gaza: 8 November 2023: 19.03 CET the Rafah border crossing between Gaza and Egypt has been closed due to an unspecified 'security circumstance', a USA state department spokesperson said, without providing additional details, 20.05 CET IDF spokesperson Daniel Hagari has said 'we saw 50,000 Gazans move from the northern Gaza Strip to the south. They are moving because they understand that Hamas has lost control in the north', 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
9 November 2023 talks underway for a pause in military operations for hostage release: 9 November 2023: 06.14 CET 'We’re here as mothers, not as politicians', three Israeli women, fighting for their children’s lives and now also meeting diplomats, say - after their children were kidnapped from their Nir Oz kibbutz in the south of Israel and taken hostage in Gaza -, and now fighting for the lives of all children, caught up in the Hamas war against Israel, 05.50 CET the Gaza Strip faces an increased risk of disease spreading due to Israeli air bombardments that have disrupted the health system, access to clean water and caused people to crowd in shelters, the WHO warned on Wednesday, 07.12 CET negotiations are under way to reach a three-day humanitarian ceasefire in Gaza in exchange for the release of about a dozen hostages held by Hamas, according to officials/diplomats speaking on condition of anonymity to discuss sensitive diplomatic efforts, 12.23 GMT the president of Argentina Alberto Fernández has called for 'the immediate and unconditional' release of the estimated 240 hostages taken by Hamas, which include 21 Argentine citizens (the youngest of which is reportedly just nine-months-old), as at least 9 Argentine citizens - Argentina is home to Latin America’s largest Jewish community with about 180,000 Jews - were reportedly killed during the Hamas assault, and as citizens of Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru and Paraguay were also killed, 'The Guardian' reported with live updates
10 November 2023 destruction affecting Gaza hospitals ‘becoming unbearable’, as evacuations to Egypt suspended: 10 November 2023: 18.04 CET the International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC has warned that the healthcare system in Gaza has 'reached a point of no return' amid escalating violence that have 'severely' affected hospitals and ambulances working in the besieged Palestinian territory, 21.21 CET Israel has revised downwards the death toll from last month’s Hamas attacks in the south of the country from 1,400 to about 1,200, a foreign ministry spokesman said on Friday, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
11 November 2023 destruction affecting Gaza hospitals ‘becoming unbearable’, as evacuations to Egypt suspended: 11 November 2023: 12.05 CET ICRC 'shocked and appalled' by reports of situation at al-Shifa hospital, as ICRC's director general Robert Mardini said the 'unbearably desperate situation' must stop now and that patients and staff must be protected, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
12 November 2023 Hamas suspends hostage negotiations after Israeli military encircles al-Shifa hospital: 12 November 2023: 15.58 CET Hamas on Sunday said it was suspending hostage negotiations because of Israel’s handling of the al-Shifa hospital in Gaza, 18.18 CET 'Inside a darkened operating theatre in Gaza’s largest hospital complex, staff swaddled dozens of tiny premature babies eight to a bed, in a desperate effort to keep the infants warm – and alive. With no oxygen supplies or power for incubators, nurses attempted to provide what little care they could for 39 babies who were transferred from the neonatal unit in another part of the sprawling complex following a strike on Dar al-Shifa’s intensive care unit', according to Ruth Michaelson, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
13 November 2023 Joe Biden says Gaza’s al-Shifa hospital ‘must be protected’ amid heavy fighting outside: 13 November 2023: 18.28 CET the Hamas-run health ministry in Gaza has said 11,240 Palestinians have been killed within the Gaza Strip by Israeli military actions since 7 October, and that number includes 4,630 children and 3,130 women, 19.48 CET all of the hospitals in northern Gaza are no longer functioning amid fuel shortages and intense combat, according to Hamas-run health ministry, 21.02 CET Joe Biden has said that Gaza’s largest hospital 'must be protected' and called for 'less intrusive action' by Israeli forces. Hundreds of patients, including dozens of babies, remain trapped inside al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City, in the north of Gaza, as Israeli troops and Hamas militants take part in heavy fighting outside it. At least 32 patients, including three premature babies, had died over the past three days, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
14 November 2023 Biden administration says it has intelligence that Hamas was using Gaza hospital to run military operations: 14 November 2023: USA spokesperson John Kirby says intelligence showed Hamas used hospital to run military operations and probably to store weapons, saying this constituted a war crime, but underscored that the USA does not support strikes against hospitals, and that Hamas’ actions in the hospitals 'do not lessen Israel’s responsibilities to protect civilians', 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
15 November 2023 Biden administration says it has intelligence that Hamas was using Gaza hospital to run military operations: 15 November 2023: 17.59 CET Israel’s former deputy PM Gideon Sa’ar has reportedly told the UK publication Jewish News that his country will agree to a temporary ceasefire in Gaza to facilitate the release of hostages held by Hamas, 19.43 CET the Jerusalem Post is reporting that the Israel Defense Forces found 'weapons and technological equipment' belonging to Hamas during Wednesday’s raid on the al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City, 20.14 CET USA security spokesman says USA didn't sign off on Israel’s raid on al-Shifa hospital on Wednesday, 15.22 EST members of the UN security council have just begun their meeting in New York to discuss and vote on a draft resolution from Malta calling for humanitarian pauses to the fighting in Gaza, and a stepping up of efforts to allow aid into the war-torn territory, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
16 November 2023 UN chiefs reject unilateral proposals to create ‘safe zones’ in Gaza: 16 November 2023: 18.22 CET the Indonesian hospital in northern Gaza has been completely shut down and about 45 patients who urgently need surgery have been left in the reception area, the hospital chief Atef al-Kahlout said, 19.40 CET the Israel Defense Forces have said they have recovered the body of the mother of five Yehudit Weiss, one of about 240 hostages after she was abducted by Hamas from kibbutz Be’eri on 7 October, and her husband Shmulik Weiss was found murdered in the safe room of their home, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
17 November 2023 IDF says it has retrieved body of soldier taken hostage by Hamas: 17 November 2023: 20.34 CET Israel promised on Friday there would be 'no limitation' on aid requested for Gaza by the USA, an apparent concession to international pressure and warnings that its iron grip on the war-torn Palestinian territory will lead to starvation and disease, 21.38 CET five countries have submitted a referral to the international criminal court for an investigation of 'the situation in the state of Palestine', ICC chief prosecutor Karim Khan said, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
18 November 2023 more than 80 Palestinians reportedly killed by Israeli strikes on Jabalia refugee camp: 18 November 2023: 09.32 CET Israeli troops ordered the evacuation of al-Shifa hospital 'in the next hour' over loudspeakers as troops combed the facility for Hamas hideouts, 15.20 CET at least 15 people were killed on Saturday following an airstrike that hit a house west of Khan Younis, health officials from Gaza’s Nasser hospital said, 17.52 CET more than 80 people were killed on Saturday by double Israeli strikes on the Jabalia refugee camp, Gaza’s health ministry said, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
19 November 2023 32 babies in critical condition at Gaza's main hospital: 19 November 2023: 06.55 CET 32 babies in critical condition at Gaza's main hospital, says WHO, calling it a 'death zone', 10.32 CET the UK chancellor Jeremy Hunt said 'we recognise, and I’m afraid this morning’s news confirms, that there is an absolutely tragic loss of life on both the Palestinian and the Israeli side. But I think it is important to remember this started with horrific murders on October 7, and if Hamas are hiding in these hospitals then Israel has to do something about it', 19.05 CET at least 13,000 Palestinians have been killed and 30,000 have been injured by Israeli strikes across Gaza since 7 October, Gaza’s health ministry announced on Sunday, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
20 November 2023 USA government says hostage deal ‘closer than we’ve ever been’: 20 November 2023: USA government says hostage deal ‘closer than we’ve ever been’, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
21 November 2023 Netanyahu tells full cabinet Israel will continue war even if hostage deal is agreed: 21 November 2023: Netanyahu tells full cabinet Israel will continue war even if hostage deal is agreed, as UN warns of 'tragic, avoidable surge' in child deaths in Gaza, where on average a child is killed every 10 minutes, as hostages who are expected to be released if a deal is reached will include 30 children, eight mothers and 12 women, according to Isreali newpapter 'Haaretz' and a separate 'CNN' report, and as a meeting of the Israeli coalition follows a meeting of the war cabinet and the security cabinet, and no vote was held in the earlier meetings, according to 'Channel 12', 'The Guardian' reports with live updates about 'Hamas' war against the Jewish state, founded following World War II and the Holocaust
22 November 2023 the first ceasefire in seven weeks of war in Gaza is due to come into effect on Thursday morning: 22 November 2023: The first ceasefire in seven weeks of war in Gaza is due to come into effect on Thursday morning, officials from both Hamas and Israel have said, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
23 November 2023 Israel’s military claims that it has intercepted a cruise missile near Eilat: 23 November 2023: Israel to continue 'intense' fighting for at least two months after 'short' truce, says defence minister, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
24 November 2023 biggest aid convoy since start of war enters Gaza: 24 November 2023: Biggest aid convoy since start of war enters Gaza, as Joe Biden says today’s hostage release is the 'start of a process', adding that he 'will not stop' until all the remaining hostages in Gaza are brought home, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
25 November 2023 39 Palestinians exchanged for 13 Israelis and seven foreigners: 25 November 2023: 21.10 GMT according to information provided by the Red Cross, the hostages are on their way to the Rafah border crossing, Israeli Defense Forces spokesperson Daniel Hagari tweeted, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
26 November 2023 Israel releases Palestinians from prison after Hamas frees 17 hostages: 26 November 2023: Israel releases Palestinians from prison after Hamas frees 17 hostages, as USA's Joe Biden said of four-year old dual USA-Israeli citizen Abigail Edan 'she’s free and she’s in Israel now', after she was released by Hamas on Sunday alongside 16 other hostages, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates - 26 novembre 2023: Après deux premières séries de libérations, l'armée israélienne a confirmé que 14 otages israéliens et trois étrangers avaient été remis dimanche au CICR. De son côté, le Hamas a confirmé la mort d'un important chef militaire et de trois autres cadres au cours de l'offensive israélienne sur la bande de Gaza, selon France24 en direct.
27 November 2023 talks over hostages to be released today ‘continuing’, Israel says: 27 November 2023: Talks over hostages to be released today ‘continuing’ according to Israel, 21.58 CET three-year-old twins are among several children released by Hamas on Monday, the BBC is reporting, citing an Israeli government spokesperson, as Mark Regev told the BBC News Channel they were transferred to the International Red Cross on Monday evening, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
28 November 2023 Israel releases Palestinians from prison after Hamas frees 17 hostages: 28 November 2023: 20.00 CET the ICRC said it has successfully facilitated the release and transfer of 12 hostages held in Gaza, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates - 28 November 2023: Israel has approved the inclusion of 50 female Palestinians in the list of prisoners slated for release if the Israeli hostages are freed, according to the PM's office, as Israeli military confirmed on Tuesday evening that 12 more hostages had been released by Hamas, France24 reports with live updates
29 November 2023 Israel releases Palestinians from prison after Hamas frees 17 hostages: 29 November 2023: Ten Israelis and four Thais have been handed over by Hamas and are on their way to Israel, the Israeli military announced, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates

Since 1991 timeline of the peace process in the so-called 'Middle East': Since 1991 timeline of the peace process in the so-called 'Middle East' and the Arab–Israeli conflict since the destruction of Jerusalem, the first genocide of the Jewish people in the 1st and 2nd centuries and the Jewish diaspora since then
27 March 2022 USA Secretary of State Antony Blinken to attend Israeli-Arab summit: 27 March 2022: USA Secretary of State Antony Blinken to attend Israeli-Arab Summit in the Negev region bringing together Israel's FM with his counterparts from the UAE, Bahrain, Egypt, Morocco for the first time, eyes Iran and Ukraine in Mideast Tour in March 2022
27 March 2022 Lapid and Blinken vow to halt nuclear Iran in joint press conference: 27 March 2022: Ahead of Mideast summit Israeli Foreign Minister Yair Lapid and USA Secretary of State Antony Blinken vowed to work together to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons in a joint press conference on Sunday at 11:13 AM standard time (and not crazy German and even EU so-called 'Sommerzeit', erstmals am 30. April 1916 im 'Deutschen Kaiserreich' sowie der 'Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie' eingeführt um die verbrecherischen, energieintensiven 'Materialschlachten' - erstmals tödliches Giftgas und in großen Mengen gegen britische, belgische, französche Soldaten seit April 1915 - des Ersten Weltkriegs der sog. Mittelmächte einschließlich 'Osmanisches Reich' Devlet-i Ebed-müddet 1914-1918 zu unterstützen)

History of the Middle East - Maps of the Middle East from 1910 to 2010 - History of the Mediterranean region - History of the ancient Levant
Timeline of 'Middle Eastern' history: Timeline of 'Middle Eastern' history since Paleolithic period, as from 1789 to 1925 'Qajar' Iran emerged, as since 1798 - following the French Revolution since 1789 - the emerging emperor Napoleon Bonaparte led a campaign in Egypt and Syria, as from 1828 to 1914 the decline and delayed 'modernization' of the Ottoman Empire developed
Since 1914 Middle Eastern theatre of World War I until autumn 1918: Middle Eastern theatre of World War I until autumn 1918. The combatants were, on one side the Ottoman Empire (including Kurds and the majority of the Arabs), with assistance other Central Powers, and on the other side the British (with the help of Jews, Greeks, Assyrians and some Arab tribes and states, along with Indians under its empire), the Russians (with the help of Armenians and Assyrians) and the French from among the Allied Powers. There were five main campaigns, including the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, the Mesopotamian Campaign, the Caucasus Campaign, the Persian Campaign, and the Gallipoli Campaign. There were also several minor campaigns including Arab Campaign, and South Arabia Campaign.
1918-1922 Partition of the Ottoman Empire: 1918-1922 Partition of the Ottoman Empire
2nd millennium AD timeline of 'Middle Eastern' history until WWII: 2nd millenium timeline of 'Middle Eastern' history, as during the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, Syria and Egypt made moves towards independence - List of modern conflicts in the 'Middle East' ensuing a geographic and political region traditionally defined as the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia), Levant, and Egypt and neighboring areas of Arabia, Anatolia and Iran. It currently encompasses the area from Egypt, Turkey and Cyprus in the west to Iran and the Persian Gulf in the east, and from Turkey and Iran in the north, to Yemen and Oman in the south. The term 'modern' refers to World War I and later period, in other words, since 1914.
Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre during the Second World War: Mediterranean and Middle East Theatre during the Second World War until summer 1945, as Southern Europe, the 'Middle East' including Iran, East Africa, North Africa (in a region not congruent with Western Asia - also including Iran), but without the South Caucasus, not including Africa's Egypt and more northern African territories) - Other definitions of the Middle East, 'Greater Middle East', 'MENA', and 'Near East', alle linked to the history of the 'Fertile Crescent' and 'Levant'
Since Second World War timeline of 'Middle Eastern' history: Since Second World War timeline of 'Middle Eastern' history, as the British, the French, and the Soviet Union departed from many parts of the 'Middle East' during and after Axis Powers' World War II 1939–1945. The Arab–Israeli conflict in Palestine culminated in the 1947 United Nations plan of the partition of 'Mandatory Palestine' at the end of the British Mandate since World War I since 1914. Later in the midst of 'Cold War' tensions, the Arabic-speaking countries of Western Asia and Northern Africa saw the rise of pan-Arabism. The departure of the European powers from direct control of the region, the re-establishment of Israel, and the increasing importance of the petroleum industry, marked the creation of the modern Middle East. In most Middle Eastern countries, the growth of market economies was inhibited by political restrictions, corruption and cronyism, overspending on arms and prestige projects, and over-dependence on oil revenues. The wealthiest economies in the Persian Gulf, Red Sea region per capita and GDP are the small oil-rich countries of including the Emirate of Qatar, Kuwait, the kingdoms of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates
1953 Iranian coup d'état against democratically elected PM Mohammad Mosaddegh: The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, the overthrow of the democratically elected PM Mohammad Mosaddegh in favor of strengthening the monarchical rule of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in August 1953 was orchestrated by the USA's 'Operation Ajax' and the United Kingdom's 'Operation Boot'. The clergy also played a considerable role. Mosaddegh had sought to audit the documents of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company AIOC, a British corporation today part of BP, in order to verify that AIOC was paying the contracted royalties to Iran, and to limit the company's control over Iranian oil reserves. Upon the AIOC's refusal to co-operate with the Iranian government, the Iranian parliament 'Majlis' voted to nationalize Iran's oil industry and to expel foreign corporate representatives from the country. After this vote, Britain instigated a worldwide boycott of Iranian oil to pressure Iran economically. Initially, Britain mobilized its military to seize control of the British-built Abadan oil refinery, then the world's largest, but PM Clement Attlee - in power until 1951 - opted instead to tighten the economic boycott while using Iranian agents to undermine Mosaddegh's government. Judging Mosaddegh to be unreliable and fearing a Communist takeover in Iran, UK prime minister Winston Churchill and the Eisenhower administration decided in early 1953 to overthrow Iran's government, though the preceding Truman administration had opposed a coup, fearing the precedent that CIA involvement would set
3rd millennium timeline of 'Middle Eastern' history: 3rd millennium timeline of 'Middle Eastern' history with following events, including in 2000 Israeli troops leave Lebanon, in 2001 members of al-Qaeda attacked sites in the USA, in 2003 USA/UK led invasion of Iraq, since 2004 to present Shia insurgency in Yemen, in 2005 Syrian troops leave Lebanon as a result of the Cedar Revolution, in 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, Saddam Hussein executed for crimes against humanity, in 2010 beginning of the ongoing Arab Spring revolution in Tunisia, in Syria answered by Assad's war against the Syrian people for more than a decade in a 'Middle Eastern' key region linking 3 continents - with involvement of many interested powers including Iranian Mullah regime, Lebanon's Hezbollah, Russia's Putin regime, Turkey, contradictory USA, to either support the Syrian opposition or the ruling Ba'ath party -, in Egypt answered by military linked counter-revolution backed by European powers, since 2011 in Libya followed by Libyan civil wars and since 2011 global military interventions linked with Libyan oil production, holding the largest proven oil reserves in Africa, 2012 the first MERS outbreak (caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus MERS-CoV), 2014 ISIS rises in Iraq and Syria, as now a rival terrorist group try to overthrow Syrian ruler, 2017 ISIS is defeated in Raqqa and Mosul, all control of territories in Syria and Iraq cease by 2019, since 2019/2020 unpredictable global covid-19 pandemic also in the 'Middle East' sparking health, economic and social crises, additionally to wars, since 2022 again in Europe with global impacts
2018–2022 Arab protests known Second Arab Spring: 2018–2022 Arab protests known Second Arab Spring, a series of anti-government protests in several Arab countries, including Tunisia, Morocco, Jordan, Sudan, Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Oman, and Syria. Economic protests also took place in the Gaza Strip. Civil unrest in Iraq resulted in its Prime Minister being replaced. Sustained civil disobedience in Sudan resulted in the overthrow of president Omar al-Bashir in a military coup d'état, the Khartoum massacre, and the transfer of power from a military junta to a combined military–civilian Sovereignty Council that is legally committed to a 39-month transition to democracy.

Economy of the Middle East
Antisemitic boycotts, history, Arab League boycott of Israel: Arab League boycott of Israel - Economic effects and foreign reactions to the boycott of Israel - Boycotts of Israel - British and French judgements on public calls for a boycott of Israeli products, incitement and discrimination - Antisemitic boycotts and history
16 August 2020 phone service begins between Israel and UAE: 16 August 2020: Phone service begins between Israel and UAE, allowing access to Israeli websites, as normalization deal kicks in, and as Kuwait, competing with Iranian Mullah regime, says it will be ‘last’ country to normalize ties with Israel
6 January 2021 Sudan signs ‘Abraham Accords’ paving way for Israel normalization: 6 January 2021: Sudan signs ‘Abraham Accords’, paving way for Israel normalization

Economy of the menber states of the Arab League - Economy of the Arab League - List of Arab League countries by GDP (nominal)
2015 youth unemployment on the rise: 20 May 2015: Waged employment on the rise in the Middle East and North Africa but youth and women see further job losses, ILO says in its annual outlook - 23 May 2015: Mideast youth unemployment rises amid post-Arab Spring chaos, influx of refugees, prolonged conflict and low economic growth
June 2018 northern Sinai project: 18 June 2018: USA reportedly seeking to raise over $500 million from Gulf states to fund projects, including a power station and factories, aimed at improving the humanitarian situation in the Gaza Strip, as funds would be used to develop an industrial area in the northern Sinai region, which abuts Gaza
15/19 April 2020 Middle East 2020 covid-19 recession, migrant workers: 15 April 2020: The Middle East, already wracked by high numbers of unemployed youth, unrest, conflict and large numbers of refugees, will sink into a recession this year sparked by the double shock of the covid-19 outbreak and low oil prices, IMF said - 19 April 2020: Crammed into work camps, stood down from their jobs, facing high rates of infection and with no way home, hundreds of thousands of migrant workers are bearing the brunt of the covid-19 pandemic in the Middle East, migrant advocates and diplomats say
27 April 2020 Mideast economies take massive hit with oil price crash: 27 April 2020: Mideast crude-dependent countries scramble to compensate for losses from a key source of state revenue, with several already plagued by social unrest
19 August 2022 Middle East states in line for $1.3tn windfall from extra oil revenues: 19 August 2022: Middle East states in line for $1.3tn windfall from extra oil revenues, as IMF says it expects region’s oil and gas exporters to benefit from high prices over next four years, after oil and gas sector is in flux following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which has upended markets and sent prices soaring when Putin’s tactic of limiting gas supplies into Europe has left countries seeking new supply sources

Agriculture in the 'Middle East' and Muslim countries: Agriculture in Afghanistan - Agriculture in Algeria - Agriculture in Bangladesh - Agriculture in Egypt - Agriculture in Indonesia - Agriculture in Iraq - Agriculture in Jordan - Agriculture in Lebanon - Agriculture in Libya - Agriculture in Morocco - Agriculture in Pakistan - Agriculture in Qatar - Agriculture in Saudi Arabia - Agriculture in Syria - Agriculture in Tunisia - Agriculture in Turkey - Agriculture in the United Arab Emirates
2000 'The Concept of Land Ownership in Islam and Poverty': 'The Concept of Land Ownership in Islam and Poverty', Nuzhat Iqbal, 2000, published by jstora
2006 'Land, Law and Islam - Property and Human Rights in the Muslim World': 'Land, Law and Islam - Property and Human Rights in the Muslim World', by Siraj Sait and Hilary Lim, London/New York 2006
2011 'Islamic principles and land', published by UN-Habitat: 'Islamic principles and land', published by United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), 2011

Middle East economic integration
Since 1950 (1953 first meeting) Economic and Social Council of the Arab League - Since 1972 Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, a Kuwait-based pan-Arab development finance institution established by agreement of the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League, as all member-states of the Arab League are members of the AFESD
Since 1964 Council of Arab Economic Unity, founded by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, Syria, United Arab Emirates and Yemen, following an agreement by the Economic Council of the Arab League
Since 1981 Cooperation Council for the Arab States, originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council GCC, a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq
September 2013: 7 September 2013: The Gulf Cooperation Council urges the international community to intervene immediately to rescue the Syrian people from their government's oppression

Water politics in the Middle East - Integrated water resources management, defined by the Global Water Partnership as 'a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources'
20 June 2022 Turkey continues to seize Syria’s share of Euphrates water: 20 June 2022: As Turkish government continues to block the flow of Syria’s water share in Euphrates river for a second consecutive year - giving Syria only 200 cubic metres or less of water in some days and months instead of releasing 500 cubic metres as agreed between Syria and Turkey, and in light of the decline in water level - Al-Raqqah Agriculture Authority has called on farmers to resort to a new agricultural plan, which is to cultivate 25% of the land area of yellow maize. The decline in water also caused the degradation of livestock and agriculture on the banks of the Euphrates River, as SOHR renews warning of an environmental catastrophe threatening food security in the Syrian Jazeera region and humanitarian crises which pose a threat to nearly two million and a half people in different areas in Al-Raqqah, Al-Hasakah, Deir Ezzor and Kobani

Since 1960/1961 Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC, an intergovernmental organization of 15 nations founded in Baghdad by the first five members Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela, and headquartered since 1965 in Austria, accounting in September 2018 for an estimated 44% of global oil production and 81.5% of the world's 'proven' oil reserves, giving OPEC a major influence on global oil prices
December 2018: 3 December 2018: Qatar is to pull out of Opec after nearly 60 years of membership of the oil cartel, but will attend a meeting this week that will discuss cutting output
5 October 2022 fears grow over oil price as Opec+ agrees to bigger than expected output cuts: 5 October 2022: Fears grow over oil price as Opec+ agrees to bigger than expected output cuts, curbing production by 2m barrels a day despite strong USA pressure, further squeezing supplies
7 October 2022 Saudi-Russian collusion a clear message to the USA, EU and the Middle East: 7 October 2022: Saudi-Russian collusion in broad daylight sends a clear message to Biden. The Saudis are cynical, intent on raising the price of oil and increasing their revenue. The Russians are all about creating discord between the USA and European Union. Together, they present a new kind of challenge for Washington.
4 June 2023 Opec+ to extend cuts in oil output into 2024 as prices flag: 4 June 2023: Opec+ group of oil-producing countries has reached an agreement to extend output cuts into 2024 in the face of flagging prices and a looming supply glut, as the oil cartel - at a meeting in Vienna of member countries which include the big producers Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Russia - reportedly agreed to reduce its output by 1.4m barrels a day

Corruption in the Middle East
January 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 presents grim reality: 29 January 2019: Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 presents a grim reality in the Middle East and Northern Africa where, despite some incremental progress by a select few, most countries are failing in the fight against corruption, as at the very bottom of the region, Syria scores 13, followed by Yemen (14) and Libya (17), and as both Syria and Yemen are also in the bottom five of the entire index

Human rights in West Asia, the 'Middle East' - Human rights in Israel - Human rights in Islamic countries - Middle Eastern society by country - Israeli society
2016 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by Assad's alliance since 2011: 13 February 2016: While Western leaders are not criminally responsible for the deaths of 470,000 Syrians so far murdered by the Assad regime since 2011, his helpers from Iran and Hezbollah and the Russian fighter jets bombing from high, it has happened on their watch and to a large degree through their inaction, Israeli newspaper 'Haaretz' says - 23 February 2016: The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights considers that the silence of the International community for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Syria encourages the criminals to kill more and more Syrian people, because they have not found anyone that deter them from continuing their crimes
2018 Assad regime recorded its own atrocities, the world can’t ignore them: 27 August 2018: Assad’s Syria recorded its own atrocities, the world can’t ignore them, Channel 4 documentary's Sara Afshar says
2019-2022 first criminal trial worldwide on torture (universal jurisdiction) in Syria before a German court: As the Federal Public Prosecutor’s Office charged Anwar Raslan and Eyad A with crimes against humanity in October 2019. ECCHR supported 29 Syrian torture survivors in the so-called al-Khatib proceedings, 14 of whom were joint plaintiff, ECCHR is listing former cases concerning international crimes including 'Criminal Complaint against USA's CIA Director Gina Haspel', 2004 and 2007 three complaints against USA government members (Donald Rumsfeld' and military forces members in connection with war crimes, torture and other criminal acts in the military prisons of Guantánamo and Abu Ghraib, since 2019 criminal complaint against Assad’s intelligence officials following legal steps already taken in Germany and Austria (since May 2018 in Vienna in May 2018), since February 2019 criminal complaint against Assad’s intelligence officials in Sweden
13 January 2022 court jails former Syrian Assad regime's intelligence officer A. Raslan for life: 13 January 2022 after his arrest in 2014, former Syrian Assad regime's colonel Anwar Raslan - who led a unit of regimes's General Intelligence Directorate -, is sentenced by a German court to life in prison, after prosecutors had accused Anwar Raslan of 58 murders in a Damascus prison where they say at least 4,000 opposition activists were tortured in 2011 and 2012 - Das Oberlandesgericht in Koblenz hat am Donnerstag den früheren syrischen Geheimdienstoffizier Anwar Raslan der Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit schuldig befunden, und verurteilte ihn zu lebenslanger Haft. Der Prozess wurde unter dem Weltrechtsprinzip geführt, das es ermöglicht, in Deutschland auch schwere Straftaten in Drittstaaten zur Anklage zu bringen. - 13 January 2022 Anwar Raslan sentenced to imprisonment for life and given a week to appeal the verdict, according to 'Wikipedia'
11 March 2022 10,000 Asian migrant workers die in the Gulf every year, claims report: 11 March 2022: As many as 10,000 migrant workers from south and south-east Asia die every year in the Gulf countries, according to human rights organisations, with more than half of the deaths unexplained, as Gulf states are failing properly to investigate why so many migrant workers are dying

History of human rights in Asia - Capital punishment in the Middle East, as places with the death penalty in 2021 include Libya, Egypt, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Syria, Gaza, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, and the Sultanate of Oman
History of human rights in West Asia, Israel and Europe: History of human rights in Israel
Since 740 BCE Swords to ploughshares: In der Zeit von 740 und 701 v. Chr. reagiert der Schriftprophet der hebräischen Bibel Isaias (Jesaja) in Jerusalem, Juda und Israel auf die damalige Verarmung großer Bevölkerungsteile mit einer scharfen Sozialkritik und verheißt den Israeliten und umgebenden mehr oder weniger aggressiven Reichen der Region universalen Frieden und Gerechtigkeit - 740-701 BCE Isaiah (Tanakh 2:4) says that peoples 'shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks', and 'nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more' - Beat your plowshares into swords, and your pruning hooks into spears, let the weakling say 'I am a warrior', according to Joel 3:10 or 4:10, as Micah says 4:3 'they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more'
Roman empire's conquests in West Asia, 1st century Pilate's Court, trial and execution of Jesus of Nazareth: Roman empire's conquests in West Asia, 1st century Pilate's Court, rial and execution of Jesus of Nazareth
About 110 BCE - 10 CE religious leader, sage and scholar Hillel: Views of c. 110 BCE - 10 CE religious leader, sage and scholar Hillel and the founder of the House of Hillel school of tannaim
Since 6 CE Jewish resistance to the census imposed for Roman tax purposes: Judas of Galilee, or Judas of Gamala, was a Jewish leader who led resistance to the census imposed for Roman tax purposes by Quirinius in Judea Province around 6 CE - Seit Beginn des 1. Jahrhunderts jüdischer Widerstand gegen die römische Fremdherrschaft, während der auch Judas der Galiläer und seine zwei Söhne, Simon und Jakobus, die wie ihr Vater ihr Leben in den Dienst der Rebellion gegen die römische Fremdherrschaft stellten, von dem römischen Prokurator Tiberius Alexander (46–48 n. Chr.) gekreuzigt wurden - 66 CE Battle of Beth Horon was a battle fought in 66 CE between the Roman army and Jewish rebels - April–December 67 CE Galilee campaign, when Roman general Vespasian invaded Galilee under the orders of Emperor Nero in order to crush the Great Revolt of Judea
1st century views of Jesus of Nazareth: 1. Jahrhundert Ansichten und Wirken von Jesus aus Nazareth in Judäa, bzw. Galiläa bis 26 – 36 AD

Women's rights in the Middle East by country and subject
Women and women's rights in Israel: Women in Israel - Women's rights in Israel
Women and women's rights in Islam: Women in Arab societies - Women in Islam - Women's rights in Islam
1299-1922 Ottoman imperial consorts and worldwide traditions: From its inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922 Ottoman imperial consorts, a list of wives, concubines of the monarchs of the Ottoman Empire ruling over this transcontinental empire for many centuries establishing traditions in many parts of the world, and influencing ongoing traditions also in the 21st century i.e. in kingdoms - i.e. Saudi-Arabia, and also the origin of Islam and later one of the main actors in the petroleum age -, emirates, caliphates, restauration, recovery attempts and rebuilding in several regions, countries for example Sahel region and northern Africa, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria
June 2018 Bahraini, Saudi women filmed crossing borders between Bahrain, Kuwait and Saudi-Arabia: 24 June 2018: Bahraini, Saudi women filmed crossing borders between Bahrain, Kuwait and Saudi-Arabia after Saudi driving ban lifted
Polygyny in Islam: Polygyny in Islam - Islamic marital jurisprudence - Gender roles in Islam - Marriage in Islam - Divorce in Islam - Islam and domestic violence
Freedom of religion, repression of religions, worldviews in Asia and Africa by country: Freedom of religion, repression of religions and worldviews in Asia and Africa by country - Islam and secularism

Childhood in Asia by country - Youth in Asia by country - Childhood in Africa by country - Youth in Africa by country - Childhood in Israel - Youth in Israel

Education in the Middle East and North Africa - Education in the Middle East by country - Education in Israel

Health by country and in the Middle East
February 2020 Chinese coronavirus fears grip Middle East: 25 February 2020: Chinese coronavirus fears grip Middle East as Iran denies cover-up, as shrine city of Qom believed to be virus hub, and as concern grows for region’s refugee population
March 2020 Persian Gulf countries scrambling to contain coronavirus: 13 March 2020: Persian Gulf countries have been scrambling to contain coronavirus as top Iran aide tests positive and outbreak has infected thousands of people in the country - 21 March 2020: Jordan goes on coronavirus lockdown, as several countries in the Middle East have closed schools, universities and nonessential businesses, and as Iran's death toll mounts, home to the region's worst outbreak and facing widespread criticism for its lagging response to the outbreak

Media in the' Middle East' (Western Asia)
Newspapers published in the Middle East: Newspapers published in the Middle East - Middle Eastern news websites
Censorship in the Middle East: Censorship in the Middle East, as censorship policy is used by governments to retain control over their people by preventing the public from viewing information considered by more or less autocratic governments as holding the potential to incite a rebellion. The majority of states in the Middle East censor the media, including Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and Turkmenistan. Turkmenistan runs the third most stringent censorship program in the world.
Media coverage of the Arab–Israeli conflict: Media coverage of the Arab–Israeli conflict by journalists in international news media often said to be biased. These perceptions of bias have generated more complaints of partisan reporting than any other news topic and have led to a proliferation of media watchdog groups
Censorship in the West Bank, media in Israel: Censorship in the West Bank is the practice of controlling the content of what media within the West Bank were permitted to state, and what was, in various periods, denied free expression - Mass media in Israel
Middle East TV stations: Middle East TV stations including free online TV channels from Middle East countries, including Israel and Qatar
Killed journalists in the Middle East while covering the 'Arab Spring' since 2010/2011: Killed journalists in the Middle East while covering the Arab Spring since 2010/2011
Since 2003 12 Al Jazeera journalists killed on the front lines in the Middle East: Since 2003 12 Al Jazeera journalists killed on the front lines in the Middle East including Tariq Ayoub, killed on 8 April 2003 as a result of severe injuries he sustained when a USA aeroplane bombarded Al Jazeera’s building in Iraq's city of Baghdad, Rasheed Hamid Wali shot dead on 20 May 2004 when his team was covering clashes between USA troops and Jaish al-Mahdi militias in Iraq's city of Karbala, Ali Hassan al-Jaber, shot dead on 12 March 2011 while filming Libyan revolution events in Libya's city of Benghazi, Mohamed al-Massalma killed on 18 January 2013 by a sniper while he was covering the events in Syria's city of Deraa, Hussein Abbas killed on 1 May 2014 while on his way back from covering events in the outskirts of Syria' city of Idlib, Mohamed al-Qasim killed on 10 September 2014 in an ambush staged by unidentified assailants while on his way back from covering events in the outskirts of Syria's city of Idlib, Mahran al-Deery killed on 10 December 2014 while on his way to cover clashes between opposition fighters and Assad regime forces in Sheikh Miskeen town in the Deraa outskirts in Syria, Mohamed al-Asfar killed on 26 June 2015 while filming clashes between opposition fighters and Assad regime forces in the Manshiya neighbourhood in Deraa city in Syria, Zakariya Ibrahim killed on 7 December 2015 by shrapnel while covering an Assad regime army bombardment in Syria's province of Homs, Ibrahim al-Omar killed on 11 July 2016 by a Russian air raid on Termaneen town in Idlib outskirts in northern Syria, Mubarak al-Ebadi killed on 5 August 2016 while covering clashes in Jawf governorate in north Yemen, Shireen Abu Akleh killed on 11 May 2022 reportedly by Israeli forces in the occupied West Bank covering an Israeli army raid in the Jenin refugee camp when she was shot in the head

Xenophobia and racism in the Middle East by country - Racism in the Arab world
Antisemitism in the Arab world: Antisemitism in the Arab world
17 August 2022 Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas has accused Israel of committing '50 Holocausts': 17 August 2022: Palestinian president, Mahmoud Abbas has accused Israel of committing '50 Holocausts' at a joint press conference with Germany’s chancellor in Berlin. Abbas was asked by a German journalist whether he planned to apologise for the deadly attack by Palestinian militants on Israeli citizens at the 1972 Munich Olympics, the 50th anniversary of which is on 5 September, when the militant group Black September, which killed 11 Israeli athletes and one German police officer during the hostage-taking, was linked to Abbas’s Fatah party at the time. 'If we want to dig further into the past, yes, please, I have 50 massacres that were committed by Israel' Abbas said. 'Fifty massacres, 50 Holocausts, and to this day, every day, we have dead people killed by the [Israeli Defence Forces], by the Israeli army'.

Terrorism in the Middle East by country - Terrorism in the Arab world by country - Islamic terrorism - Islamic terrorism by continent - Islamic terrorism by country
28 December 2020 Iran-backed Hezbollah says its precision missiles doubled in a year can hit all of Israel: 28 December 2020: Lebanon’s Hezbollah terror group has doubled the number of its precision missiles over the past year, the organization’s leader Hassan Nasrallah said in an interview, also claiming his Iran-backed Shiite group has the ability to accurately hit any part of Israel
Muslim attitudes toward terrorism - Islamism - Islamist groups - Shia Islamist groups - Sunni Islamist groups - Islamism by country
Slavery in 21st-century Islamism - History of slavery in the Muslim world

Religion in the Middle East
Judaism - Jewish history - Jewish–Roman wars, a series of large-scale revolts by the Jews of the Eastern Mediterranean against the Roman Empire between 66 and 135 CE ending with the destruction of Jerusalem, mass execution of Judean population and diaspora of survivors - Roman destruction of Judea and Jewish diaspora - Judaism by country - Judaism and science - Jewish views on evolution
Freedom of religion in Asia and Africa by country - Islam and secularism - Liberalism and progressivism in the Muslim world
Islam - Timelines of Muslim history - Muhammad (570-632) - List of expeditions and battles of Muhammad comprising information about casualties, objectives, and nature of the military expeditions ordered by Muhammad - Invasion and massacre of Banu Qrayza 627 - Violence in the Quran
Islam in the Arab world
Islam in Africa - Islam in Asia
2012 Syria banned: 16 août 2012: La Syrie mise au ban de la communauté musulmane par l'OCI
June 2019 survey of 25,000 people in Middle East and North Africa: 24 June 2019: The Arab world is turning its back on religion and on USA relations, according to a public opinion survey of more than 25,000 people across 10 countries including Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, Yemen and the Palestinian territories, finding a rise in the proportion of people describing themselves as 'not religious' from 11% in 2012-2014 to 18% this year, that trust in religious leaders has plummeted, also expressing concern over rising disquiet in their home countries and that governments are not meeting the expectations of their citizen
Shi'a-Sunni relations - Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict - Iran and state-sponsored terrorism
August 2013: 9 August 2013: Muslims celebrate Eid across the world amid bomb blasts and threats of violence

Arab League timeline since 1942/1944, as official representatives from Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, North Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Transjordan met in Egypt during World War II and agreed to form the League of Arab States - Member states of the Arab League

History of the Arab League and Arab League summits since 1964 - Politics of the Arab League
2012 Arab League summit, water shortages and regional economy: 28 March 2012: Arab League begins key Baghdad summit - water shortages and regional economy top the agenda at 21-nation bloc's first meeting since the Arab Spring uprisings - 23 juillet 2012: Au terme d'une réunion à Doha, la Ligue arabe presse Assad de partir en échange d'une sortie 'sûre'
2013 summit in Doha where opposition against Assad regime will represent Syria for the first time: 26 March 2013: The Arab League is preparing for a two-day summit in Doha where opposition against Assad regime will represent Syria for the first time - 1 mai 2013: La Ligue arabe tente de relancer le processus de paix israélo-palestinien acceptant pour la première fois le principe d'un 'échange mineur de terre comparable et mutuellement accepté' - 27 August 2013: Arab League accuses Assad regime of chemical attack - 1 September 2013: Arab League urged the UN and the international community to take 'deterrent' action against the Syrian Assad regime over chemical attack - 8 September 2013: Arab ministers agree Syria chemical weapons attack crossed 'global red line'
2014 Arab League rejects Israel as Jewish state: 9 March 2014: Arab League backs Abbas' refusal to recognize Israel as Jewish state - 26 March: Arab League rejects Israel as Jewish state
2015 summit in Egypt amid growing security threats: 29 March 2015: Arab leaders gathered at a summit in Egypt will announce the formation of a unified regional force to counter growing security threats, as conflicts rage in countries such as Yemen and Libya - 7 April: Arab League calls the international community to intervene immediately to protect Palestinian refugees from ongoing infighting in Syria emphasizing that about 500,000 Palestinians are subject to inhuman attacks - 3 October 2015: Syrian Coalition calls for Arab League emergency meeting to respond to Russia’s aggression against Syrian people
2016 Arab League condemns Iranian meddling in Arab affairs: 11 January 2016: Arab League condemns Iranian meddling in Arab affairs, promising to support any measure against Iran to halt the regime’s terrorist acts - 11 March 2016: The Arab League declared Lebanon-based Shiite group Hezbollah a terrorist organization, decision supported by nearly all members, expect for Lebanon and Iraq, which expressed 'reservations'
September 2016 Arab League and OIC condemn the killing of civilians in Aleppo: 26 September 2016: The Arab League and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation on Sunday condemns the killing of civilians in Aleppo and called for the international community to intervene directly to stop what was occurring in the city
December 2016 Arab League condemns Assad regime's and allies' atrocities in Aleppo: 20 December 2016: Arab League condemns Assad regime's and allies' atrocities in Aleppo
July 2017 Arab League scolds Israel as Islamic Jihad praised deadly shooting attack: 15 July 2017: Arab League scolds Israel for Temple Mount closure, failing to mention attack, after Hamas and Islamic Jihad praised the deadly shooting attack at Jerusalem’s Temple Mount on Friday, while Palestinian social media was rife with accolades for the killers
November 2017 Arab League delivers harsh criticism of Iran and its Lebanese proxy Hezbollah: 20 November 2017: Arab League delivers harsh criticism of Iran and its Lebanese proxy Hezbollah, saying they will 'brief' the UN Security Council on Tehran's destabilizing policies in the region, announcing only one concrete measure that would ban Iranian-financed television stations
May 2019 Arab League condemned the military operations by Assad regime's and Russian forces: 10 May 2019: The Arab League condemned the military operations by Assad regime's and Russian forces targeting and killing civilians in in the provinces of Idlib and Hama, destroying several civilian buildings, including schools and hospitals, and forcing about 300,000 out of their homes
12 October 2019 Arab League condemns Turkey's military invasion into northern Syria: 12 October 2019: Arab League foreign ministers condemned Turkey's military invasion into northern Syria, calling on the UN Security Council to take action against Turkey
13 April 2020 SOC calls on Arab League to support action to punish Assad for chemical attacks: 13 April 2020: SOC sent a letter to the Arab League regarding the latest report issued by the OPCW confirming the responsibility of the Assad regime for three chemical attacks on Latamina in Hama countryside in 2017
21 June 2020 Arab League to hold urgent meeting on Libya on Monday: 21 June 2020: Arab League said it will hold an emergency meeting on Monday upon Egypt’s request to address the recently heightened tensions in the Libyan crisis, satellite Extra News reported
17 May 2021 Arab states split for first time on refusal to condemn Israel over Gaza: 17 May 2021: Arab states split for first time on refusal to condemn Israel over Gaza, as silence over bombing of occupied territory puts UAE, Bahrain, Morocco and Sudan at odds with their populations
30 October 2021 Arab League ‘concerned’ by ‘deteriorating’ Lebanon-Gulf ties: 30 October 2021: Arab League ‘concerned’ by ‘deteriorating’ Lebanon-Gulf ties, as league's statement comes hours after Saudi Arabia, Bahrain recalled their ambassadors to Lebanon in diplomatic feud
7 mai 2023 SOHR reports the Arab League voted to readmit Syria's Assad regime more than a decade after its suspension: 7 mai 2023: SOHR reports that the Arab League has voted to readmit Syria's Assad regime more than a decade after it was suspended following a bloody crackdown on street protests and the Syrian revolution. The decision was taken at a closed meeting of Arab League representatives at the league’s headquarters in the Egyptian capital Cairo.
18 May 2023 the readmission of Syria’s al-Assad regime to the Arab League sends a chilling message to regime’s victims: 18 May 2023: The misguided re-engagement with Syria’s Bashar al-Assad, as the readmission to the Arab League sends a chilling message to regime’s victims, 'The Financial Times' reports

Environment of the Middle East - Environment of the Mediterranean - 'Environment and Climate in the Middle East' website - news, conferences, policy discussions and academic publications on environmental issues and climate change in the Eastern Mediterranean - Arava Institute for Environmental Studies
Mediterranean climate: Mediterranean climate - Hot Desert climates - Arabian Desert climate - Hadley cell expansion and climate change

Environmental peacebuilding in the Middle East
2017 Israel, Jordan, PA to hold first-of-its-kind joint firefighting and rescue exercise: 11 August 2017: Israel, Jordan, PA to hold first-of-its-kind joint firefighting and rescue exercise in October, taking place in Israel and Jordan and including four European nations Croatia, France, Italy and Spain, to test cooperation in cases of major fires and disasters - 25 October 2017: Emergency response teams from Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority, as well as Spain, Italy and France, gathered in Israel to learn how to work together and to overcome the common enemy 'natural disasters' as part of an exercise sponsored by the European Union

Natural disasters in the 'Middle East'
Weather events in Asia and Middle East winter and winter storms: Weather events in Asia
17 February 2021 heavy snowfall and gales sweep Middle East as winter storm hits: 17 February 2021: Snow blanketed parts of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel, blocking roads, disrupting traffic and postponing vaccination campaigns against covid-19 and even exams at some universities
Middle East heatwaves: Weather events in Asia - Middle East heatwaves
2015 extreme heatwaves could push Gulf climate including Iran’s coast beyond human endurance: 26 October 2015: Extreme heatwaves could push Gulf climate including Iran’s coast beyond human endurance if the world fails to cut carbon emissions, USA study shows
2016 Levant region drought began in 1998: 3 March 2016: The recent drought that began in 1998 in the eastern Mediterranean Levant region is probably the worst in 900 years, according to a new NASA report
Spring 2016 Levant region drought began in 1998: 10 August 2016: Record-shattering temperatures this summer have scorched countries from Morocco to Saudi Arabia and beyond, as climate experts warn that the severe weather could be a harbinger of worse to come
Summer 2017 Middle East heatwave: 10 August 2017: While Europe does battle with a heatwave named Lucifer, the Middle East including Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi-Arabia, Syria etc., is enduring a summer so brutal that even those accustomed to Baghdad’s searing August are labelling it 'ungodly', reaching 48C or higher since weeks
4 September 2020 hottest day in Israeli history, unprecedented 48.9°C: 4 September 2020: Hottest day in Israeli history as Eilat and Jerusalem record unprecedented highs, as Red Sea resort temperature hits unprecedented 48.9°C, as capital bakes at 109°F, and as heatwave set to last through middle of next week and medics treat 186 people countrywide
8 November 2021 at the current level of greenhouse gas emissions Middle East will suffer impossible living conditions: 8 November 2021: The Middle East and North Africa is already the hottest and driest region on the planet but climate change could make some areas uninhabitable in the coming decades with temperatures potentially reaching 60 degrees Celsius or higher. The repercussions throughout the Middle East and North Africa region would be devastating including chronic water shortages, the inability to grow food because of extreme weather and resulting drought, and a surge in heat-related deaths and health problems, study in the journal Nature noted
3 June 2022 'apocalyptic skies’ as the dust storms devastating Gulf states and Syria: 3 June 2022: ‘Apocalyptic skies’ as the dust storms devastating Gulf states and Syria, and as rising frequency of storms due to climate crisis is causing more loss of life and more destruction, say experts
June-July 2022 wildfires in North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, amid heat waves: June-July 2022 wildfires affecting North Africa, the Middle East and parts of Europe, resulting from unprecedented heat waves, affecting in the Mediterranean countries Lebanon (9 July 2022 large forest wildfire near Nabatieh), Morocco (northern provinces), Tunisia (Jebel Boukornine wildfire near the capital Tunis), Turkey (in June on the Aegean Sea coast near Marmaris and in July on the Datça Peninsula)
Earthquakes in the Middle East: Earthquakes in the Middle East
November 2017 Iran–Iraq earthquake: 12 November 2017 Iran–Iraq earthquake - 15 November 2017: Israel's government offered humanitarian assistance via the Red Cross to the victims of the devastating earthquake that has killed hundreds in Iran and Iraq, but was immediately rebuffed by the Iranian regime
6 February 2023 two powerful earthquakes struck Turkey and Syria: On 6 February 2023, two powerful earthquakes struck southern and central Turkey. The first occurred south of the city of Kahramanmaras causing widespread damage in Turkey and Syria. With a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX and a magnitude of Mww 7.8, the first earthquake is tied with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake as the strongest to hit Turkey in recorded history. The earthquake was followed by numerous aftershocks, the strongest of which had a magnitude of 6.7 Mw. The Syrian Civil Defense called the situation in the northwest part of the Syria 'disastrous'. Many buildings collapsed and people were trapped. Collapses occurred in the cities of Aleppo, Latakia, and Hama. In Damascus, many people fled from their homes onto the streets. Many buildings in Syria had already been damaged by an almost 12-year-long civil war. The second earthquake occured 9 hours later in the same city, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XII and a magnitude of Mww 7.5. At least 1,472 people were killed and more than 6,300 were injured. In Lebanon including Beirut buildings shook for up to 40 seconds, and damage in Lebanon was limited, with some buildings affected in the cities of El Minniyeh, El Minya, and Bourj Hammoud. - 6 February 2023: In Turkey and Syria second large earthquake strikes as death toll rises to over 1,500, 'The Guardian' reports with latest updates
8 February 2023 WHO sending expert teams and special flights with medical supplies to Turkey and Syria: 8 February 2023: The death toll from the huge earthquakes that struck Turkey and Syria has risen to nearly 11,500, as rescuers continued to pull survivors from the freezing rubble, as more than 298,000 people in Syria have been forced to leave their homes due to this week’s deadly earthquake, and as the WHO is sending expert teams and special flights with medical supplies to Turkey and Syria, 'The Guardian' reports with latest updates
11 February 2023 Turkey-Syria earthquake's death toll passes 24,000: 11 February 2023: Turkey-Syria earthquake's death toll passes 24,000, as calls for aid intensify. as rescue efforts continue and as UN warns hundreds of thousands of people urgently need food in wake of disaster, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
11 February 2023 Syria’s earthquake killed 5,189 people so far and made more than 5 million Syrians homeless: 11 February 2023: SOHR reported a new spike in the death toll of Syria’s earthquake, as 5,189 people have been killed so far, as well as the injury of thousands others, and as the fatalities include 2,049 people in Assad regime-controlled areas and 3,140 people in areas controlled by the 'Salvation Government' and the 'Syrian Interim Government'. The total death toll does not include victims whose relatives buried them shortly after the earthquake, even before the arrival of rescue teams, and 975 Syrians who were killed in Turkish territory due to the earthquake and whose bodies were transported to Syria. - 11 February 2023: More than 5 million Syrians may be homeless after Monday’s devastating earthquakes that struck the country and its neighbour Turkey, according to Syria representative of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees UNHCR Sivanka Dhanapala, reportting 'as many as 5.3 million people in Syria may have been left homeless by the earthquake, ... 'that is a huge number and comes to a population already suffering mass displacement'
12 February 2023 UN aid chief Martin Griffiths said 'we have failed the people in north-west Syria': 12 February 2023: 10.26 GMT the UN’s emergency relief coordinator Martin Griffiths has said 'we have failed the people in north-west Syria' and they 'rightly feel abandoned', 11.10 GMT young girl rescued alive from rubble after 150 hours in Hatay, as another rescue was of Syrian Abdullah Elali living in Antakya, who was reportedly rescued after 151 hours also pulled from the rubble in Hatay, 'The Guardian' reports with latest updates - 12 February 2023: Turkey-Syria earthquake live news, as the Turkish government declared a three-month state of emergency in 10 provinces along its southern border with Syria, acknowledging 'shortcomings' in the state’s response to the quakes, 'Al Jazeera' reports with latest updates - 8 February 2023: SOHR activists reported that the number of Syrians killed due to the violent earthquake has increased to 3,508 people, as well as the injury of 3,000 others - 12 February 2023: As in other parts of Aleppo province Syrian citizens, and in neighbouring Turkish provinces Turkish citizens, are struggling with the effects of devastating earthquakes since 6 February, in western Ain Al-Arab (Kobani) a Turkish drone has attacked a military vehicle that was carrying members of 'SDF', which left deaths and injured members, the first drone attack by Turkey after the earthquake. Accordingly, the number of attacks carried out by Turkish drones on areas controlled by the Autonomous Administration in north and north-east Syria since early 2023 has increased to 9. These attacks left 8 fatalities, including 3 civilians, 4 military personnel and a driver, as well as the injury of over 3 others, and as in Al-Hasakah province 7 the Erdogan regime killed 4 military personnel, a driver, and 2 civilians one of them a child.
14 February 2023 eight days after quake Syria receives aid 14 février 2023: 8h15 un avion saoudien se pose à Alep, une première en plus de dix ans, chargé d'aide humanitaire, 8h07 un jeune homme de 17 ans nommé Muhammet et un homme non identifié ont été extraits vivants des décombres d'un immeuble d'habitation dans la province turque de Kahramanmaras, près de 198 heures après le premier séisme dévastateur de lundi dernier, selon CNN Turk, - 14 February 2023: SOHR activists have reported that the number of Syrians killed due to the violent earthquake in Syria has increased to 5,417, as well as the injury of thousands others, as the total death toll does not include victims whose relatives buried them shortly after the earthquake, even before the arrival of rescue teams
16 February 2023 the death toll from Turkey-Syria earthquakes is nearing 42,000: 16 February 2023: 10:12 GMT rescue workers have pulled alive a 17-year-old girl from the rubble of a collapsed building in the province of Kahramanmaras, 248 hours after the earthquake hit the area, according to TRT Haber, as 09:43 GMT 13-year-old Mustafa was rescued after spending 228 hours under the rubble of a collapsed building in Antakya, as 11:13 GMT in the second week following the earthquakes children in NW Syria ‘literally need everything’ according to UNICEF spokesman James Elder, outlining the grave risks faced by children in quake-hit areas of northwestern Syria - 16 February 2023: As more bodies of Syrians who died in Turkish territory due to violent earthquake have been transported to Syria, SOHR activists have reported the arrival of 1,702 fatalities
17 February 2023 Iranian-backed militias continue exploiting Syrians and the disastrous situation: 17 February 2023: Iranian-backed militias continue exploiting Syrians and the disastrous situation after the devastating earthquake for their narrow interests, as SOHR activists have confirmed that Iranian-backed militias brought in shipments of weapons and ammunitions in the past few days from Iraq to their positions in Deir Ezzor province - 17 February 2023: Residents of cracked houses fear new earthquakes in Homs province, after a residential building near Al-Makateb Square in Al-Bayada neighbourhood in Homs city collapsed today without any casualties, amid fear among residents of new earthquakes and their effect of the cracked buildings
18 February 2023 more bodies recovered from rubble, the number of Syrian people killed due to the earthquake has reached 8,168: 18 February 2023: As more bodies have been recovered from rubble, SOHR activists have reported that the number of Syrian people killed due to the earthquake has reached 8,168, as well as the injury of thousands others
19 February 2023 Turkey ends earthquake rescue efforts in all but two provinces: 19 February 2023: After on Saturday rescuers found a man and a woman alive in the 296th hour in Antakya city but their three children dead, Turkey has ended rescue efforts in all provinces except the two hardest hit by last week's massive quake, as Turkish disaster agency said Sunday 'they continue in Kahramanmaras and Hatay provinces', and as the total death toll including Syria is now 44,377
20 February 2023 two more powerful earthquakes hit southern of Turkey and areas in NW-Syrian two weeks after disaster: On 20 February, a Mww 6.3 aftershock struck near Antakya, causing additional buildings to collapse in Samandag and further damage in Antakya. At least three people died and 213 were injured in Hatay Province. In NW-Syria, damaged and abandoned buildings collapsed, as shaking was felt in Lebanon, Egypt and Jordan. - 20 February 2023: A violent earthquake hit southern of Turkey and areas in the Syrian north, causing the collapse of a cracked house in Jinderes in Afrin countryside and the damage of parts of buildings in Al-Atareb, leaving more than 42 civilians injured after they jumped from over the buildings and from windows. Moreover, stones fell in Salqin, Harim, Bosnya, Idlib, Khirbat Al-Jouz, Aleppo and Jabala. - 20 February 2023: Turkey hit by two more powerful earthquakes two weeks after disaster, as 3 people were killed and 213 injured, after quakes of 6.4 and 5.8 magnitude shake southern province of Hatay
21 February 2023 the toll from two earthquakes that hit Turkey and Syria on Monday has risen to 8, with up to 300 recovering from injuries: 21 February 2023: The toll from two earthquakes that hit Turkey and Syria on Monday – two weeks after powerful quakes killed more than 47,000 people – has risen to eight, with up to 300 recovering from injuries and up to a dozen buildings toppling on both sides of the border, as widespread anxiety and panic sparked by the latest tremors rattled a region that is still coming to terms with the devastation caused earlier this month
21 February 2023 despite earthquakes Assad regime forces shell villages: 21 February 2023: Despite disastrous conditions due to earthquakes Assad regime forces shell villages including Al-Mansourah and Kherbat Al-Naqous villages in Hama countryside and Al-Ruwayhah and Benin villages in Idleb countryside
23 February 2023 'Why was international aid slow to reach Syria?': 21 February 2023: As deadly tremors continue to shake Turkey and Syria, international aid has been slow to reach Syria, where decades of civil war have hindered efforts to reach survivors', as 'the head of the UN emergency relief operations Martin Griffiths said the international community has failed the people of northwest Syria', an admission shared by 'Al Jazeera' today reporting with updates in February 2023
Until 6 March 2023 insufficient aid to affected areas in Syria in the aftermath of Turkey/Syria earthquakes: Until 6 March 2023 insufficient aid to affected areas in Syria in the aftermath of Turkey/Syria earthquakes - 6 March 2023: One month after the devastating earthquakes that killed more than 50,000 people and injured more than 100,000 across Syria and Türkiye, thousands of families are still living in temporary shelters and struggling to access food and other essential goods. Amani* and her family of four lost their home in the Aleppo regional governorate in Syria. Amani used her body to shield her 12-year-old son Ahmad*. She was trapped with her husband and two children under rubble for four hours until they were rescued. Amani* and her husband are still recovering from their injuries and the family now lives in tents. 'My daughter doesn’t sleep anymore. She screams and yells, thinking she’s still under the rubble. She still believes that we are there,' Amani also reported. - 6 March 2023: A civilian died today after a wall fell from a building, cracked due to the devastating earthquake, near Hanano school in Idlib city north-western of Syria - 6 March 2023: A wind storm hit Syrian regions and strongly affected the camp area in north-western Syria and blew away tents of 2023 earthquake survivors

Bahrain - Geography of Bahrain - History of Bahrain - Demographics of Bahrain
Economy of Bahrain: Economy of Bahrain - main industries include petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism - List of companies of Bahrain
Energy in Bahrain: Energy in Bahrain
Bahrain Petroleum Company and Banagas: Bahrain Petroleum Company wholly owned by the government of Bahrain, a fully integrated oil company - Banagas - Gulf Petrochemical Industries Company
2017: 12 November 2017: Bahrain blames main oil pipeline explosion on Iran-backed 'terrorism', as residents close to the incident near Buri village near Manama were being evacuated to a safe shelter
Agriculture in Bahrain: Agriculture in Bahrain, before the development of the oil industry, date palm cultivation dominated Bahrain's agriculture, since 1980s a significant number of palm groves had been replaced by new kinds of agricultural activities, including vegetable gardens, nurseries for trees and flowers, poultry production, and dairy farms, of approximately 2,400 farmers 70% do not own the land they cultivate, approximately 800 owners and absentee landlords control about 60% of all cultivable land, the ruling Al Khalifa own the greatest number of plots, including the largest and most productive ones
Banking and banks in Bahrain: List of banks in Bahrain - Central Bank of Bahrain
Financial services companies of Bahrain: Financial services companies of Bahrain
Labour relations in Bahrain: Since September 2002 'Workers Trade Union Law', passed by Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain - Labour relations and migrant workers in Bahrain
Trade unions in Bahrain: Trade unions in Bahrain
2013: 12 January 2013: Firefighters locate remains of 13 people in three-storey building that caught fire at labour camp in Manama - 12 January 2013: Eleven Bangladeshi workers were among the 13 killed in a fire that gutted a labour camp in Manama
Military of Bahrain: Military of Bahrain
Politics of Bahrain: Politics of Bahrain - Since 2002 'King of Bahrain', after on 14 February 2002 the then-Emir of Bahrain Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa declared Bahrain a kingdom and proclaimed himself the first king - Constitution of 1973 following Bahrain's independence from Britain in 1971 - Constitution of 2002
Cabinet of Bahrain: Cabinet of Bahrain (the Council of Ministers) is appointed directly by the King
Political parties in Bahrain: Political parties in Bahrain
Trade unions and human rights organisations in Bahrain: Trade unions in Bahrain - Human rights organisations based in Bahrain
Bahraini opposition: Bahraini opposition - Bahrain Freedom Movement - February 14 Youth Coalition since 2011 - National Democratic Action Society - Progressive Democratic Tribune
National Assembly of Bahrain and elections: National Assembly of Bahrain - 40 royally-appointed members of the Consultative Council, the upper house
2010: Bahraini general election December 2010
2014: 22 November 2014 Bahraini general election
November 2018 Bahraini general election: 24 November 2018 Bahraini general election for the 40 seats in the lower house, following a crackdown on dissent that included prohibiting members of dissolved opposition groups from running
10 November 2020 for first time ever Bahraini Jews mark anniversary of 1938 'Kristallnacht': 10 November 2020: For first time ever, Bahraini Jews mark anniversary of 'Kristallnacht', as Kingdom’s only synagogue lit up to remember 1938 assault by Nazis on Jews and their property in Germany, part of global ‘Let There Be Light’ campaign against anti-Semitism, racism
Protests, social and political movements and repression in Bahrain: Protests in Bahrain
March/April 1965 uprising and independence of Bahrain in 1971: March/April 1965 Intifada, uprising calling for the end of the British presence in Bahrain, sparked by the laying-off of hundreds of Bahraini workers at the Bahrain Petroleum Company on 5 March 1965, resulting in the independence of Bahrain in 1971
1990s uprising in Bahrain: 1990s uprising in Bahrainan between 1994 and 1999 in which leftists, liberals and Islamists joined forces to demand democratic reforms and the reinstatement of parliament
2011-present Bahraini protests and uprising: Since 2011 Bahraini protests and uprising - Timeline of the 2011/2012 Bahraini uprising
April 2011: 3 April 2011: Bahrein bans main opposition newspaper - 28 April: Bahrein sentences protesters to death
June 2011: 2 June 2011: Security forces attack Bahraini protesters
July 2011: 1 July: Saudi troops quietly pull out of Bahrain after crackdown on anti-government protests - 3 July: 200 German tanks 'Leopard' to Saudi-Arabia - 4 July: Saudi sources confirm German tanks deal - 44 tanks already bought - Bahrain opposition to join dialogue process 2 July - 17 July: Opposition 'quits Bahrain-talks' - Human Rights Watch report: Violence to stop protesters from receiving treatment - doctors and nurses targeted - Protesters reject Bahrain dialogue results July 29
August 2011: 13 August: Bahrains's main opposition Al-Wefaq to boycott September 24 by-polls demanding a representative, elected parliament and civil rights - 31 August: 'Security forces' kill teenage boy dispersing protests
September 2011: 1 September: Thousands march at Bahraini boy's funeral - 2 September: Bahrain medics go on hunger strike over trials - 3 September: More detainees join Bahrain hunger strike - 8 September: Several Bahrain medics freed on bail - 17 September: Bahrain forces fire tear gas at funeral - 23 September: Again Bahrain forces fire tear gas on protesters - 29 September: Medics who treated protesters jailed for 5,10 and 15 years
October 2011: 2. Oktober 2011: Internationale Kritik an Sondergericht in Bahrain - verurteilte Ärzte fordern UN-Untersuchung - 3 October: 36 Bahrainis given prison sentences of between 15 and 25 years for taking part in rallies - 5 October: Bahrain retrial for 20 medics jailed over protests as 19 more activists are jailed over protests - 7 October: Police clash with funeral marchers - procession of thousands for 16-year-old Shia boy
November 2011: 4. November 2011: Panzerfahrzeuge und Tränengas gegen Trauerzug für einen nach Oppositionsangaben durch Polizeigewalt getöteten Mann - 22 November: Clashes on Tuesday between police and protesters mourning the death of 16-year-old Ali al-Badah, who was run over by police vehicles - 23 November: Commission says in a report accepted by government that Bahrain forces used 'excessive force' and tortured detainees in 2011 - 24 November: Police fire tear gas and rubber bullets as around 2000 Bahrainis protest against monarchy in the wake of the report into government human-rights abuses
December 2011: 7 December: Injuries as Bahrain police attack protest - 16. Dezember 2011: Polizei in Bahrein setzt Tränengas gegen schiitische Demonstranten ein und nimmt wahllos Regimekritiker fest - 31 December: One reportedly killed in anti-regime demonstration in Bahrain after last month's probe revealed abuses by security forces
2012: January-April 2012 Bahrain Grand Prix protests
January 2012: 2 January 2012: Shooting tear gas and stun grenades security forces clash with opposition protesters and mourners of a 15-year-old boy outside of Manama - 7 January 2012: Bahraini activist beaten by 'riot police' - 7. Januar 2012: Tausende trotzen dem Demonstationsverbot in Manama am Samstag - 10 January: Thousands Bahrainis protest outside the UN's office in Manama calling for intervention to protect civilians - 26 January: Bahrain confirms teen Mohammed Yaaqub died in police custody - opposition says cause of death war torture
February 2012: 4 February: Bahrain protests grow ahead of anniversary - 14 February: Bahrain police repel protesters in Manama
March 2012: 9 March: Tens of thousands of Bahrainis have demonstrated outside the capital Manama demanding reform and more democracy - 13 March: Bahrain added to web censorship blacklist - 23 March: Activists and opposition supporters demonstrate in locations across nation to demand equal rights for Shias
April 2012: 6 April: Thousands protest in support of hunger striker Abdulhadi al-Khawaja moved to army hospital after nearly two months - 18 April: Thousands of pro-democracy protesters marched through a village outside the Bahraini capital on Wednesday - 20 April: Thousands of Bahrain Formula One race protesters dispersed - 21 April: Protester Salah Abbas Habib killed during Bahrain clashes - 22 April: Bahrain Grand Prix held despite protests - 23 April: Funeral for killed Salah Abbas Habib and thousands of protesters as Bahrain court delays ruling in activists case - 30 April: Jailed opposition activist Abdulhadi Al-Khawaja is to have his case retried, an appeal court has ruled
May 2012: 4. Mai 2012: Tausende fordern in Bahrain Reformen und Wahl einer Regierung - 11. Mai 2012: Erneut Gewalt gegen Demonstranten, die die Freilassung inhaftierter Oppositioneller fordern - 19 May: Tens of thousands Bahrain protesters decry unity plans with Saudis - 28 May: Bahrain activist Al-Khawaja to end hunger strike following the release on bail of detained activist, Nabeel Rajab - 28 May: Bahrain activist Rajab released on bail
June 2012: 8 June: Police break up pro-democracy mass protests in Bahrain - 12 June: An 11-year-old boy chased down while playing in street and detained for nearly a month describes his time in custody, saying that police accused him of taking part in violent protests - 14 June: Bahrain court convicts medics for role in uprising - 27 June: Three policemen accused of killing three people during pro-democracy protests
July 2012: 10 July: Jail for Bahrain protest leader over tweet - 12 July: Huge crowds throng funerals for two Shia demonstrators killed by security forces in rallies following arrest of cleric - 20 July: Bahrain protesters renew clashes with police
August 2012: 3 August: Activists say Zainab al-Khawaja was held along with dozens of protesters demanding political reforms in Gulf kingdom - 7 August: Bahrain charges 15 policemen over abuses - 16 August: Bahrain activist Nabeel Rajab jailed for three years - 18 August: 16-year-old Husam al-Haddad died of injuries suffered after he was beaten by security forces in a confrontation late Friday night - 31 August: Tens of thousands join protest demanding release of prisoners and chanting anti-government slogans
September 2012: 4. September 2012: Manama Strafgericht verurteilt sieben bahrainische Regimegegner wegen ihrer Beteiligung an Strassenprotesten im Februar 2011 zu lebenslangen Haftstrafen - 8 September: Police fire tear gas at protesters calling for prisoner releases in Manama - 18 September: Seven lieutenants are charged with torturing Shia medics to obtain confessions - 29 September: Seventeen-year-old dies after police fire shotgun pellets at anti-government rally in Manama - 29 September: Police opens fire to disperse angry Shiite protesters following the funeral of the youth who was shot dead a day before
October 2012: 2 October: Bahrain medics jailed after losing appeal - 3 October: Rights activist Zainab al-Khawaja released from prison after a two-month jail term in an ongoing arbitrary political prosecution - 3 October: Protesters clashed with riot police after the funeral of a man jailed for taking part in last year's pro-democracy demonstrations - 6 October: Police use water cannon and tear gas to disperse mainly Shia protesters after memorial for Mohammed Ali Ahmed Mushaima who died in jail - 12 October: Police fire teargas and stun grenades to disperse hundreds of stone-throwing anti-government protesters - 30 October: Interior ministry imposed emergency-style rules banning all protest gatherings and threatening legal action against groups considered backing escalating demonstrations and clashes
November 2012: 2 November: Small demonstrations in support of a jailed opposition leader break out three days after the monarchy forbids them - 11 November: Government deploys paramilitaries to patrol city
December 2012: 1 December: Bahraini police fired tear gas and stun bombs to break up protests overnight in Shiite-populated villages around Manama, leading to arrests and injuries - 10 December: A court has sentenced pro-democracy activist Zainab al-Khawaja to one month in prison
January-March 2013: 7 January: Bahrain's highest appeal court has upheld the sentences of 13 activists for their part in anti-government protests last year - 10 February: Bahrain crisis talks to begin as Shiite envoys remain wary of opening a process that they believe has no chance of reaching their goals: forcing the ruling monarchy to give up its monopoly on power and allow an elected government - 14 March 2013: Anti-government protesters clash with riot police, two years after Saudi-led force quelled Gulf island's uprising - 28 March: Defence lawyer says, 21 medical personnel have been cleared of charges linked to anti-government protests but cases remain open against two others
April 2013: 21 April: Ongoing pro-democracy protests against Formula One Grand Prix 2013
May 2013: 10 May: The blogger Ali Abdulemam has been smuggled out of the troubled Gulf kingdom and taken refuge in the UK
2016: 2 avril 2016: Après le soulèvement de 2011 sur fond de printemps arabes, la répression dénoncée par les opposants se poursuit à Bahreïn - 13 June 2016: Bahrain detains rights activist Nabeel Rajab in raid that coincides with UN meeting in Geneva, as other activists were barred from attending and as UN official criticises repression - 18 July 2016: Bahraini authorities have stepped up their pressure on Nazeeha Saeed, the France24 correspondent who was detained and tortured 2011, now prosecuted for 'illegal reporting' on behalf of foreign media in what appears to be a renewed crackdown on free expression
2017: 26 January 2017: Bahraini human rights activist Nabeel Rajab accused at a court hearing, from which he and his lawyer were excluded, is facing a lengthy prison sentence simply for stating that journalists and international NGOs cannot enter Bahrain - 6 March 2017: Justice ministry files lawsuit to dissolve secular Wa’ad group, the main opposition party, and transfers many civilian judicial cases to a military court, amid fresh crackdown on dissent and human rights
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Bahrain: Bahraini society
Demographics and ethnic groups in Bahrain: Demographics of Bahrain - Ethnic groups in Bahrain - Ethnic, cultural and religious groups of Bahrain
Bahrani people: Bahrani people
Filipinos in Bahrain: Filipinos in Bahrain
Indians in Bahrain: Indians in Bahrain, today numbering at an estimated 400,000 people or 31% out of the country's total population of 1.3 million, making them the largest expatriate group in the country
Jews in Bahrain: Jews in Bahrain, as history of the Jews in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to Biblical times
History of the Jews in Bahrain: History of the Jews in Bahrain
10 November 2020 for first time ever Bahraini Jews mark anniversary of 1938 'Kristallnacht': 10 November 2020: For first time ever, Bahraini Jews mark anniversary of 'Kristallnacht', as Kingdom’s only synagogue lit up to remember 1938 assault by Nazis on Jews and their property in Germany, part of global ‘Let There Be Light’ campaign against anti-Semitism, racism
Pakistanis in Bahrain: Pakistanis in Bahrain
Migrant workers in Bahrain: As of 2011 there were more than 458,000 migrant workers in Bahrain, many of whom experience prolonged periods of withheld wages, passport confiscation, unsafe housing, excessive work hours and physical abuse, according to Human Rights Watch
Culture of Bahrain: Culture of Bahrain
Religion and freedom of religion in Bahrain: Religion and freedom of religion in Bahrain
Languages of Bahrain: Languages of Bahrain - Bahrani Arabic
Women and women's rights in Bahrain: Women in Bahrain - Polygamy - legal in Bahrain - Women's rights in Bahrain
Education in Bahrain: Education in Bahrain
Health in Bahrain: Health in Bahrain
Media of Bahrain: Media of Bahrain
Censorship in Bahrain: Censorship in Bahrain, notorious for jailing journalists, deemed ‘Not Free’ in terms of Net Freedom and Press Freedom by Freedom House, and the 2016 World Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders ranked Bahrain 162nd out of 180 countries
Journalist arrests: Journalist arrests, escalating during the uprisings of 2011
Newspapers in Bahrain: Newspapers in Bahrain
Internet in Bahrain: Internet in Bahrain - Internet surveillance and filtering - Arrested bloggers in Bahrain
Human rights in Bahrain: Human rights in Bahrain - Human rights organisations based in Bahrain
Since 2011 Human rights reports on the Bahraini uprising: Since 2011 Human rights reports on the Bahraini uprising
2017 'grand prix' protest: 15 April 2017: If F1 can't help protect ordinary Bahrainis, stop the grand prix, Bahrain Institute for Rights and Democracy's Alwadaei says, as the race exacerbates the human rights abuses that take place in Bahrain, with any protest or criticism being silenced to protect financial interests
Crime in Bahrain: Crime in Bahrain
Torture and police brutality in Bahrain: Torture in Bahrain
2012: 29 April 2012: Bahrain's police continues to beat and torture detainees including minors, Human Rights Watch says
2011/2016: 30 May 2011 - 20 January 2016: France 24 correspondent Nazeeha Saeed tortured for covering pro-democracy demonstrations
Prisons in Bahrain: Prisons in Bahrain
Corruption in Bahrain: Corruption in Bahrain
Human trafficking in Bahrain: Human trafficking in Bahrain
Law of Bahrain: Law of Bahrain - Constitutions of Bahrain - 'Amiri Decree', the decree of an Emir in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates - 1974 'State Security' decree law in Bahrain
Judiciary of Bahrain: Judiciary and court system of Bahrain
Court of Cassation (supreme court) in Bahrain: Since 1989 Court of Cassation, established as a supreme court of appeal, as the judges for the court are appointed and removed by royal decree and the current Chief Justice of Bahrain and president of the Court of Cassation is Khalifa bin Rashid Al Khalifa, a cousin of King Hamad and the prime minister, and a member of the Al Khalifa ruling family of Bahrain
December 2018 rights activist Nabeel Rajab case: 31 December 2018: Bahrain’s supreme court, whose verdicts are final, upheld a five-year jail term against high-profile rights activist Nabeel Rajab for writing tweets deemed offensive to the state and who is already serving a two-year term in another case
Law enforcement in Bahrain: Law enforcement in Bahrain
Prisons in Bahrain: Prisons in Bahrain
Capital punishment in Bahrain: Capital punishment in Bahrain
July 2019 Bahrain executions: 27 July 2019: Bahrain executes 2 in terrorism case decried by activists, despite last minute appeals by UN's Agnès Callamard and Human Rights Watch, citing allegations of torture - 27 July 2019: Bahrain executes three people, despite human rights outcry
Foreign relations of Bahrain: Foreign relations of Bahrain
International reactions to the 2011-2013 Bahraini uprising
Bahrain and the United Nations: Bahrain and the United Nations
July 2019: 26 July 2019: A last-minute appeal to stop the imminent execution of two men in Bahrain has been issued by the UN special rapporteur on extrajudicial killings, Agnès Callamard, also saying the men were allegedly tortured, prevented from attending their trial and sentenced to death in absentia, as pressure mounts on the country’s king to revoke the death sentences
Bilateral relations of Bahrain: Bilateral relations of Bahrain
Bahrain/Argentina relations:
July 2019 Hezbollah a terrorist organization: 19 July 2019: Bahrain on Friday joined Israel in commending Argentina for branding the Hezbollah a terrorist organization and freezing its assets, 25 years to the day after a bombing blamed on the Iran-backed group destroyed a Jewish community center
Bahrain/India relations: Bahrain/India relations
Indians in Bahrain: Indians in Bahrain
Bahrain/Iran relations: Bahrain/Iran relations - Arab-Iran relations: Bahrain - Safavid dynasty, Shia Islam state religion and Safavid rule in Bahrain 1602–1717
Relations since 1979 Islamic regime in Iran: Bahrain-Iran relations since 1979 Islamic regime in Iran and its intention to export its Islamic revolution throughout the Muslim world, especially in the Arab world
Bahrain/Israel relations: Bahrain/Israel relations
2018: 7 January 2018: With rare Israel visit, Bahraini delegation - including Sunni and Shiite Muslims, as well as Buddhists, Christians, Hindus and Sikhs - seeks new dialogue for coexistence
June 2019 Bahrain backs Israel’s right to exist: 26 June 2019: Israel is here to stay, and we want peace with it, Bahrain FM says to 'Times of Israel', also saying Manama conference could be 'gamechanger’
12 September 2020 Bahrain normalizes ties with Israel: 12 September 2020: Bahrain normalizes ties with Israel weeks after UAE deal
Bahrain/Oman relations: Bahrain/Oman relations
1717: 1717 Omani invasion of Bahrain
Bahrain/Pakistan relations: Bahrain/Pakistan relations - Pakistanis in the Middle East - Pakistanis in Bahrain
Bahrain/Philippines relations: Bahrain/Philippines relations
Filipinos in Bahrain: Filipinos in Bahrain
Bahrain/Portugal relations: Portuguese rule in Bahrain 1521-1602
Bahrain/Saudi Arabia relations: Bahrain/Saudi Arabia relations - Bani Utbah federation of Arab tribes, which originated from Najd - 1783 Bani Utbah invasion of Bahrain - House of Khalifa, the ruling family of Bahrain and belonging to the Utub tribe that migrated from Najd to Kuwait in the early 18th century
Bahrain/United Kingdom relations: Bahrain/United Kingdom relations
1820 Bahrain British protectorate: Signing the General Maritime Treaty with the United Kingdom in 1820, Bahrain became a British protectorate - General Maritime Treaty of 1820
1971 Bahrain's declaration of independence: After a plebiscite Bahrain declared independence on 15 August 1971
10 May 2019: 10 May 2019: I’m fasting in protest outside Royal Windsor Horse Show to save my father in Bahrain', Ali Mushaima says, whose father Hassan Mushaima, a major opposition party's leader and a lifelong campaigner for democracy in Bahrain, was arrested, tortured and jailed for life by military tribunal and is still denied medical care, as human rights groups have condemned his cruel and humiliating treatment and called for his release
Bahrain/USA relations: Bahrain/USA relations
2012: 11 May 2012: USA partially resumes military supplies to Gulf Arab ally Bahrain
Environment of Bahrain: Environment of Bahrain - Geology of Bahrain - Geography of Bahrain, consisting of Bahrain Island and 33 of the 37 Bahrain Islands, lying in the Arabian Gulf's Gulf of Bahrain off the north shore of Asia's Arabian Peninsula - Climate of Bahrain, having an extremely hot summer and a relatively mild winter
Landforms of Bahrain: Landforms of Bahrain - List of islands of Bahrain
Water in Bahrain: Water in Bahrain - Bodies of water of Bahrain, groundwater and seawater are the only sources
Environmental concerns and issues of Bahrain: Environmental concerns and issues of Bahrain include periodic droughts, dust storms, desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations, lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs

Iraq - Geography of Iraq - History of Iraq - Demographics of Iraq
Wars against Iran 1980-1988, against Kuwait 1990/1991 and war crimes: Iraq/Iran war 1980-1988 - Iraks Krieg gegen Iran 1980-1988 - Irakischer Giftgaseinsatz, USA-Lieferungen u.a. - USA support for Iraq during the Iraq/Iran war - Gulf War 1990/91 - Iraks Angriff auf Kuwait, zweiter Golfkrieg 1990/91 - March/April 1991 (after the Gulf War) uprisings in Iraq held back from continued success by internal divisions as well as a lack of anticipated USA support
Iraq War 2003-2011, Iraq/USA-United Kingdom relations and war crimes: Category: Iraq War 2003-2011 - Irakkrieg seit 2003 - Besetzung des Irak 2003-2011 - "Iraq War Logs" (Tagebuch des Irakkriegs) - 16 December 2011: Alleged Wikileaks activist Bradley Manning due in court - wide criticism of inhuman detention conditions since May 2010
'We don't do body counts' (USA-General Franks): "We don't do body counts" (US-General Franks) - Kriegsverbrechen z.B. der USA - Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse - 17 March 2013: At least 112,000 civilians were killed in the 10 years since the USA-led 2003 invasion of Iraq, according to the Britain-based Iraq Body Count group
2004: Second Battle of Fallujah
2005: USA Haditha massacre 2005
2008: 4,5 millions Iraq War orphans in 2008
2011: Iraq to chase $18bn of Iraqi oil money stolen after the 2003 USA-led invasion - USA rights group (Human Rights Watch) seeks Bush 'torture' inquiry' July 2011 - Human Rights Watch: Getting Away with Torture - 2 August: USA urges 'quick Iraq decision' on troop stay - 6 August 2011: Abu Ghraib abuse ringleader of USA military guards released from military prison - for 'good conduct' - 21. Oktober 2011: USA-Truppen werden vollständig zum Jahresende 2011 aus dem Irak abgezogen - 29 December 2011: USA pushes ahead with arms deals to Iraq including $11bn worth of fighter jets and tanks and coming in the worsening political crisis of the USA war victim
2012: 5 January 2012: Last member of squad of the USA Marine Corps accused of ambushing Iraqi civilians appears in court, six years after the massacre - Haditha massacre 2005 - 24 January: USA 'change' - Marine sergeant Wuterich who told his troops to "shoot first, ask questions later" in a raid that killed unarmed Iraqi women, children and elderly pleaded guilty Monday in a deal that will carry no more than three months confinement - 25. Januar 2012: Das USA-Massaker von Haditha 2005 bleibt ungesühnt - 4. Februar 2012: Wikileaks-Informant über Kriegsverbrechen Manning muß vor Militärgericht - 30 July: More than $200m was wasted on a programme to train Iraqi police that the government in Baghdad neither needed or wanted, US auditors have found
2013: 29 January 2013: British troops in Iraq killed civilians including women, the elderly and children and committed 'terrifying acts of brutality', the British High Court heard today - 3 February: American way of death - 'Al-Shaitan Ramad' named America's deadliest Navy Seal sniper after killing and murdering 160 Iraqis during the Iraq War shot dead at Texas gun range - 4 March 2013: The Al-Sweady Inquiry in London was shown gruesome photographs of bloodied corpses - 5 March: British troops alleged to have murdered up to 20 prisoners after a fierce battle in May 2004 in southern Iraq, and tortured five other captives - 9 mars 2013: Une enquête révèle que la torture était pratiquée en Irak pendant l'occupation américaine et accuse les États-Unis d’avoir couvert des actes de torture
Since 2003 sectarian violence, attacks, terrorism and continued war in Iraq: List of suicide bombings in Iraq since 2003 - Terrorist incidents in Iraq by year
2006-2008: Sectarian violence as part of the Iraq war, February 2006 – May 2008
May 2011: Mai 2011: Bombenanschläge in Kirkuk Mai 2011
September 2011: 30. September 2011: Viele Tote bei Anschlag auf Trauerfeier in Hilla
November 2011: 26 Novemer: Bomb blasts in Baghdad kill at least 15 Iraqis - 22 December: Deadly series of attacks rock Baghdad
December 2011: 26 décembre: Attentat-sucide meurtrier contre le ministère de l'Intérieur
January 2012: 5 January: New bombings target mainly Shia area of the Iraqi capital - 5 January: Wave of bombings leave scores dead across the country - 10 January: Many deaths in series of Iraq attacks - 14 January: Suicide bomb kills dozens in Basra Shia pilgrim attack - 15 January: A series of car and roadside bombs strike Ramadi, targeting the police - 24 January: Deadly blasts in Baghdad's Sadr City - 26 January: Deaths in attacks on Iraq's Sunni districts
February 2012: 23 February: Car bombings, shootings and explosions target mostly Shia neighbourhoods, leaving at least 55 dead across the country
March 2012: 5 March: At least 27 security and police personnel killed, officials say, as gunmen storm checkpoints in city of Haditha - 20 March: Deadly explosions in series of attacks on Iraqi cities
April 2012: 19 April: Several blasts in Iraq capital and northern city leave several people dead and dozens injured
May 2012: 31 May: Six blasts across Baghdad kill at least 17
June 2012: 4 June: Blast strikes Shia charity office in Iraq - 13 juin: Série d'attentats à Bagdad et Hilla
July 2012: 23 July: Deadly attacks and series of explosions in various cities, including capital Baghdad
August 2012: 1 August: At least 19 killed and another 47 wounded in explosions targeting shopping area and passport office in Iraqi capital - 10 August: At least nine people killed in multiple blasts targeting Shia worshippers and security forces in northern Iraq - NZZ 12. August: Sieben Tote bei Angriff auf Schiiten bei Amerili - 16 August: At least 13 people killed in separate explosions north of the capital Baghdad - 17 August: Bombs, attacks kill more than 50 in 15 cities and towns nationwide ahead of Eid
September 2012: 9 September: At least 73 people killed and more than 200 injured in attacks against Iraqi security forces across the country - 26 September: Bombings and shootings mainly targeting Iraqi security forces kill eight people, a day after a wave of attacks against members of the security forces left nine police officers and soldiers dead and 11 wounded - 30 September: Bomb and gun attacks in multiple cities kill at least 37 people and leave more than 90 wounded
October 2012: 28 October: Simultaneous bombs across Iraq target Shia Muslims leaving scores dead and wounding dozens
November 2012: 14 November: A series of car bombs and a roadside explosion have killed at least 20 people across Iraq - 29/30 November: Shia worshippers and security forces targeted in bombings that killed 48 and injured many more across four provinces
December 2012: 17 December: Attacks against Iraqi security forces and Shiites kill at least 20 people - 31 December: Car bombing kills two people south of Baghdad - 31 December: At least 23 people have been killed and scores injured in shootings and bombings in several cities and towns
January 2013: 3 January: A car bomb has killed at least 20 Shia Muslim pilgrims and injured others in the Iraqi town of Musayyib - 16 January: At least seventeen people killed and many others injured in two car bomb attacks in Kirkuk and Tuz Khurmatu - 23 January: Targeting the funeral of a relative of a politician who was killed a day earlier a suicide bomb at the Shiite Sayid al-Shuhada mosque in Tuz Khurmatu in north Iraq killed at least 42 people
February 2013: 3 février: Plusieurs dizaines de morts dans une attaque contre la police à Kirkouk - 4 February: A suicide bomb targeting anti-Qaeda militiamen collecting their salaries north of Baghdad killed at least 22 people and wounded 44 others - 8 February: A spate of car bombs in Baghdad and central Iraq, including two explosions minutes apart at a popular bird market, killed 16 people and wounded dozens - 9 February 2013: Six people including a woman were killed and more than 25 wounded in a rocket attack on an Iranian dissident camp in Iraq's capital Baghdad - 12 February: A suicide car bomber and unidentified gunmen killed at least 12 people in the Iraqi city of Mosul - 16 February: Suicide bombers in Tal Afar and a sticky bomb near Baghdad kill an army intelligence officer and a senior judge
March 2013: 1 March: At least 22 people were killed in a series of blasts in Shi'ite neighbourhoods of Baghdad - 12 March: Attacks across Iraq killed 12 people, including three people who died in a suicide bombing at a police station near a school that also wounded 165 others - 14 March: At least 20 people killed and 50 others injured after after three car bombs and a suicide attack hit the Green Zone of Baghdad - 17 March: Car bomb kills ten people, wounding 16, near the outskirts of the south Iraq city of Basra - 19 March 2013: A series of coordinated car bombs and roadside blasts hit Shi'ite districts across Baghdad and south of the Iraqi capital, killing at least 25 people and wounding 88 others ten years after the beginning of US-led invasion - 26 March: Explosion rips through armoured car, killing two local politicians in town of Tuz Khurmatu - 29 March: Four Shia mosques in Baghdad and one in Kirkuk struck by car bombs, with reports of at least 18 dead and dozens hurt
April 2013: 6 April: A coordinated attack involving a suicide bomber at an open-air election campaign meeting in Baquba in central Iraq kills 25 people - 12 April: A bomb exploded near a Sunni mosque north of Baghdad killing seven people, the latest in an uptick in violence in the run-up to elections next week - 15 April: Seven killed, 118 wounded in a series of car bomb blasts across the country - 23 April: Bomb attacks on Sunni mosques in Iraq killed 13 people and wounded dozens of other people - 24 avril: Après plusieurs jours de violences intercommunautaires où près de 125 personnes sont mortes, des hommes armés ont pris le contrôle de Souleimane Bek au nord de Bagdad - 26 April: Nearly 50 people were killed in clashes on Thursday in the northern Iraqi city of Mosul - 27 April: Bomb blasts in Baghdad killed at least 20 more people on Friday - 29 April: Three car bombs exploded south of Baghdad on Monday, killing nine people and wounding 70 others
May 2013: 2 May: At least 22 people were killed in attacks across Iraq on Wednesday - 6 May: A series of attacks including a blast near an Internet cafe in a Sunni area killed nine people and wounded dozens on Sunday in and around Baghdad - 7 May: Shootings and bombings in Iraq, including one targeting a provincial council member, killed seven people and wounded two others - 15 mai: Des vendeurs dans des magasins d'alcool à Bagdad disent craindre pour leur vie au lendemain d'une attaque d'inconnus contre des échoppes vendant de la bière et des spiritueux qui a fait douze morts - 15 May: Bomb attacks in Shi'ite areas of Baghdad and in northern Iraq killed more than 30 people on Wednesday - 16 May: A suicide bomber attacked a Shiite place of worship in Kirkuk, killing 12 people - 18 May: Bombs targeting Sunnis, including two outside a mosque in Baquba and one at a funeral procession, killed 67 people in Iraq on Friday, after dozens died in two days of attacks on Shiites - 18 May: Gunmen raid the house of an anti-terrorism police officer in the southern suburbs of Baghdad, killing five people including him and his sleeping family - 18 May: A string of attacks killed at least 16 people on Saturday, while gunmen abducted eight policemen guarding a post on Iraq's main highway to Jordan and Syria - 20 May: 10 Iraqi policemen killed by militants in attacks on checkpointsin the West of the country - 20 May: Wave of attacks hits Shiite and Sunni areas of Iraq, killing at least 86 people - 21 May: Four bombings in a Turkmen Shiite area of Tuz Khurmatu and in Kirkuk killed five people and wounded 69 today - 27 May: More than 70 people were killed in a wave of bombings in markets in Shi'ite neighbourhoods across Baghdad - 28 May: Bombings and gunfire in central and northern Iraq killed at least 11 people and wounded 35 others on Tuesday - 30 May: Car bombs and roadside explosions hit mainly Sunni Muslim districts of Baghdad and a northern city, killing at least 27 people - 31 May: Bombs kill 25 in Sunni-Shiite neighbourhoods across Iraq, three policemen killed by gunmen in Fallujah
June 2013: 6 June: Iraqi officials say two car bomb explosions in Baghdad have killed at least six people and wounded more than two dozen - 7 June: Car bomb in Najaf kills 10 Iranian pilgrims - 10 June: At least 12 people have been killed in a series of bombings in a market north of Baghdad - 10/11 June: A wave of bombings and attacks rocked central and northern Iraq on Monday, targeting market-goers, police posts including an assault on police headquarters in Mosul and killing more than 70 people - 16 June: At least 10 apparently coordinated car bombs and a shooting across Iraq have killed at least 24 and wounded dozens - 17 June: At least 12 people were killed in three bomb attacks in Iraq today, police said - 20 June: A suicide bombing in northern Iraq killed a provincial political party leader and four relatives, ahead of elections - 25 June: Baghdad car bombs kill 23, injures 81 - 25 June: Suicide bombers target Iraqi Turkmen, killing eight - 29 June: A series of bombs near a bakery, at a funeral, inside a senior police officer's car and at a football stadium killed at least 22 people across Iraq - 29 June: Attacks in Sunni Arab areas of Iraq killed 10 people on Saturday
July 2013: 1 July: A bomb planted near a yard where people were playing soccer in Nahrawan, south of Baghdad, killed 12 and wounded 24 people on Sunday - 2 July: More than 2,500 people were killed in Iraq in the past three months, the UN said on Monday as new attacks left 41 people dead - 3 July: Suicide attacks, bombings and shootings erupted across Iraq today, killing at least 17 people - 8 July: In two days of violence 19 people were killed, including six family members shot dead while returning from a wedding - 12 July: Militants killed 25 Iraqi security forces in a wave of attacks, and 15 other people died in other attacks including 10 mourners in twin bombings - 13 July: Bomb attack on a tea house in Kirkuk kills 31 people - 14 July: Two bomb attacks near Sunni mosques in the Iraqi capital killed at least 23 people who had gathered to pray - 19 July: Suicide bomber kills 20 people in a Sunni mosque in the town of Wajihiya - 21 July: A wave of bombings killed 65 people in Baghdad province and the commercial areas of the capital, without a claim of responsibility for the attacks - 22 July: Gunmen raid Iraq's Abu Ghraib and Taji jails, as bombings and shootings kill 13 people on Sunday - 22 July: A suicide bomber attacks an army convoy in the eastern Kokchali district of Mosul, killing at least eight soldiers and two passers-by - 23 July: At least 500 escape in deadly assaults on Iraq prisons - 23 July: Bombs targeting worshippers gathered for evening prayers at three Sunni mosques in Iraq killed nine people on Tuesday - 25 July: Militants killed nine police in an attack with mortars and automatic weapons, while 14 people including six soldiers died in other violence - 25 July: 14 Shia truck drivers shot dead after being stopped by gunmen on main road leading north of Baghdad - 26 July: At least 28 people killed in bombings and shootings across Iraq, including a car bomb that exploded in a busy market killing 14 people in central Muqdadiya - 28 July: A suicide car bomber rammed his vehicle into a Kurdish security patrol in northern city of Tuz Khormato killing eight people and wounding five more - 29 July: At least 22 killed and more than 100 injured in coordinated bombings targeting mainly Shia areas in Baghdad and Basra - 31 July: A Shiite and a Sunni mosque in Baghdad have been targeted in bombings that killed at least nine people, officials say
August 2013: 1 August: July deadliest month in Iraq since 2008, UN says - 4 August: Bombings and shootings across Iraq killed 19 people, including an ambush that targeted a military convoy - 7 August: A series of car bombs targeting busy markets and shopping streets in and around Baghdad killed at least 51 people and wounded more than 100 on Tuesday - 11 August: Baghdad car bombs kill dozens in attacks on Shia neighbourhoods - 15 August: Car bombs across Baghdad kill at least 33 people - 24 August: Suicide bombing in a park in northern Baghdad crowded by cafe- and restaurant-goers the bloodiest attack in a day of violence that killed at least 36 people across the country - 28/29 August: Baghdad bomb attacks extending the wave of sectarian bloodshed killed 86 people and wounded 263, police and medical sources say - 30 August: Iraqi officials say bomb blasts at a market north of Baghdad and another on the outskirts of the capital have killed 23 people - 30 August: Two roadside bombs exploded on the edge of the north Iraq town of Tuz Khurmatu, killing at least 13 people, most of them children - 31 August: Gunmen killed five worshippers at a Sunni mosque in Baghdad on Saturday
September 2013: 3/4 September: A series of car bombs exploded across Iraqi capital, killing nearly 60 people in predominantly Shi'ite districts - 10 septembre: Au moins 16 personnes ont été tuées, dont six alors qu'elles lavaient le corps d'un mort avant de l'enterrer - 12 September: Bombings at Shi'ite mosque in Baghdad kill at least 33 - 13 September: A pair of roadside bombs exploded outside of a Sunni mosque in Baquba, killing at least 30 people as they left the building after Friday prayers - 15 September: A suicide bomb attack at a funeral held by members of Iraq’s Shabak ethnic minority near the city of Mosul in northern Iraq killed 26 people and left 46 others injured - 16 September: A wave of car bombings and other attacks in Iraq killed at least 58 people in mostly Shiite-majority cities in south and central Iraq - 22 September: At least 56 killed in Baghdad bombings - 23 September: A suicide bomber struck a Sunni funeral in Baghdad on Sunday, killing at least 12 people - 23 septembre: Au moins neuf personnes ont été tuées et 27 blessées lundi dans un attentat contre des funérailles sunnites à Adhamiya, dans le nord de la capitale - 25 September: Militants attacked local government and police buildings in Hawijah with suicide bombings and mortar fire, sparking clashes that killed 14 people, among 24 deaths nationwide - 26 September: Bombs ripped through outdoor markets in and near Baghdad on Thursday, killing at least 21 people and wounding dozens - 29 September: At least 40 people were killed when a suicide bomber blew himself up at a Shi-ite Muslim funeral in Mussayab, 60km south of Baghdad, on Sunday - 29 septembre: Au moins six personnes ont été tuées dans une série d’attentats à Erbil, au Kurdistan irakien
October 2013: 2 October: Militants shoot down military helicopter in the region of Kirkuk and Salahuddin province, killing all four crew members - 5 October: Gunmen killed two Iraqi journalists in the city of Mosul, as other violence including a suicide bombing at a cafe left 20 people dead - 8 October: Eight explosions in mainly Shi'ite districts in Baghdad, one explosion in a mixed area and another in the predominantly Sunni Muslim neighbourhood of Doura kill at least 38 people - 10 October: 20 people killed on Thursday, among them four anti-Al-Qaeda fighters shot dead by gunmen, eight militants killed by security forces, civilians and police killed by bombings in Baghdad and northeast of Baquba - 12 octobre: Une voiture piégée a explosé au nord de Bagdad, faisant au moins 12 morts - 13 October: More than a dozen bombs exploded in Iraq on Sunday, killing at least nine people and wounding more than 70 others - 15 octobre: Neuf personnes ont été tuées dans un attentat ayant visé mardi des fidèles à Kirkouk, après la prière marquant le début de l'Aïd al-Adha - 17 October: Seven car bombs exploded in Baghdad province, killing at least 24 people and wounding at least 70 - 20 October: Dozens killed in bomb attack on Baghdad cafe while at least another 12 died in a spate of bomb attacks on security personnel and government buildings - 24 October: Iraqi journalist Bashar Abdulqader killed in Mosul - 26 October: Bombings in central Iraq that targeted a market, a cafe and the homes of police officers killed 13 people on Friday - 27 October: Ten bombings mainly targeting Shiite-majority areas of Baghdad province killed at least 41 people, while 20 died in bombings and shootings elsewhere in Iraq
November 2013: 5 novembre: Treize personnes, la plupart des membres des forces de sécurité, ont été tuées mardi en Irak - 8 November: Attacks in Iraq, including a double suicide car bombing targeting a military base in Tarmiyah, kill 30 people across the country - 10 novembre: Au moins sept morts dans des violences dans le nord du pays, principalement à Mossoul - 13 November: Violence across Iraq, including bombings against Shiites, kills twenty three people on the eve of rituals - 17 novembre: Au moins 17 morts dans des attaques à Bagdad - 22 November: A truck bomb tore through an outdoor vegetable market in Sadiyah, the deadliest of a series of attacks that killed at least 48 people - 26 novembre: Un attentat suicide à l'entrée d'une base de l'armée au nord de Bagdad a fait au moins 7 morts et 22 blessés - 29 November: Market bombings, attacks across Iraq kill 29 people - 30 November: 52 people dead in throwback to Iraq's sectarian bloodshed - 30 novembre: Sept personnes morts samedi dans de nouvelles attaques qui ont frappé la périphérie de Bagdad et les environs de Mossoul et Touz Khoumartou
December 2013: 7 décembre: Attaques contre des commerces de boissons alcoolisées, 9 morts - 8 December: 35 people killed in wave of Baghdad area bombings - 13 December: Oil workers massacred in Iraqi town of Muqdadiya in al-Qaida-style attack - 15 December: At least 17 people, most of them Shi'ite Muslims, killed in a wave of bombings and shootings across Iraq - 19 December: Suicide bombers, militant attack kill 41 across Iraq - 20 December: Two bombings in a market and another in a cemetery as people buried victims of the first blasts killed at least 11 people in Tuz Khurmatu - 21 December: At least 18 Iraqi military officers were killed in an ambush in the province of Anbar - 25 December: At least 34 people killed in bomb attacks in Christian areas of Baghdad on Wednesday, some by a car bomb exploding near a church after a Christmas service - 30 December: At least 18 people including soldiers were killed in attacks across Iraq on Sunday
2014-present Iraq War: Iraq War (2014–present)
January 2014: 2 January: Violence in Iraq surged in 2013 to its worst level in five years, fuelled by discontent among the Sunni Arab minority and the civil war in neighbouring Syria - 2 January: Iraqi security forces and armed tribesmen battle al Qaeda-linked jihadist militants who reportedly seized swathes of the two Sunni-majority cities of Fallujah and Ramadi - 3 January: Clashes kill 62 Al Qaeda militants in the Ramadi area - 4 janvier: La ville de Fallouja est passée aux mains des islamistes - 5 janvier: Les autorités irakiennes veulent reprendre la cité de Fallouja à Al-Qaïda - 6 January: Residents are fleeing Fallujah - 13 January: Bomb attacks kill at least 18 in Baghdad and Tuz Khurmatu - 19 January: Attacks across Baghdad, including car bombs at an up-scale shopping mall and near a juvenile detention centre, kill 21 people - 25 January: Shelling against a Shiite Muslim village killed six people on Saturday, including a young boy - 30 January: Baghdad bombs and shooting kill at least 19 people - 31 January: Six suicide bombers burst into a Ministry of Transportation building, took hostages and killed at least 24 people including themselves
February 2014: 5 February: A string of rush-hour bombings has hit Baghdad, killing at least nine people - 13 February: At least 17 civilians and soldiers were killed in bomb attacks across Iraq on Wednesday - 13 February: Sunni Islamists overrun Iraqi town of Sulaiman Pek north of Baghdad after seizing city - 18 February: Bomb blasts in predominantly Shi'ite districts of Baghdad and in Hilla kill at least 49 people
March 2014: 1 March: UN says 703 Iraqis killed and 1,381 wounded in violence in February - 7 March: Shelling in Fallujah and a shooting targeting a local official killed eight people on Friday
April 2014: 2 April: Bombings around Iraq kill eight people ahead of elections - 6 April: An explosion at a booby-trapped house, clashes with militants and roadside bombings killed 21 soldiers in Iraq - 9 April: Six car bombs rocked mainly Shiite-populated areas of Baghdad, killing at least seven people and wounding 30 - 15 April: Shelling in Fallujah killed five people and wounded 16, while mortar rounds and twin suicide bombings in Ramadi left one dead and eight wounded and a man was shot dead in the northern province of Kirkuk - 19 April: Two bombs planted on a street full of shoppers in Baghdad have killed four people and wounded eight - 25 April: Explosions at Iraq election rally in Baghdad kill 31 people
May/June 2014: 4 May: As officials count ballots from the general election, more than 30 people killed in 24 hours in Iraq violence - 12 May: Over 41 people were killed and 30 others injured across Iraq in separate attacks that mainly targeted security forces
June 2014: 8 June: A wave of car bombs exploded across Baghdad, killing more than 60 people, and militants stormed Anbar university campus - 2014 Northern Iraq Isis offensive since 5 June - 10 June: Isis insurgents seize control of Iraqi city of Mosul - 11/12 June: 500,000 people flee Iraq's second city of Mosul after Islamist militants took control and Iraq army capitulates in more cities - 12 June: Isis forces take Tikrit, a day after 35,000 Iraq soldiers reportedly fled an Isis force of 800 in Mosul - 12 June: Iraqi Kurdish forces take Kirkuk after central government's army abandons posts and Isis captured towns - 13 June: Iraq's senior Shi'ite cleric urges followers to fight Sunni militants, who captured two more Iraqi towns - 14 June: Iraqi forces massing in Samarra - 15 June: Series of explosions kills 15 people, wounds 30 in Baghdad as followers of Shia group heading to Baghdad to join the Iraqi army and fight against Sunni insurgents - 17 June: Residents flee as insurgents take the northern Iraqi city of Tal Afar after a two-day battle with security forces - 17 June: Scores of Iraqis killed during battle for provincial capital of Baquba, that also shuts main oil refinery - 19 June: Iraqi forces battle Islamists for control of country's largest refinery Baiji, as 250-300 workers are evacuated - 20 June: Iraqi militants seize Saddam's top chemical weapons facility used to make chemical agents including sarin during the Iran-Iraq war, but any weapons found inside reportedly useless - 21 June: Sunni militants seize Syrian border crossing after killing some 30 Iraqi troops in a day of clashes - 24 June: Islamists launch push to seize Baiji oil refinery as Kerry visits Irbil and Maliki agrees to set up new government by 1 July - 24 June: Iraqi air strikes killed at least 32 people as security forces held off attacks on Haditha and Baiji - 26 June: Iraqi Kurds strengthen their positions while Isis advances and Maliki insists that any new government must be based on an election he won - 26 June: With USA troops now deployed in Iraq, the Iraqi army is making a push to drive ISIS back from Baghdad and launches aerial assault against ISIS - 28 June: Thousands from a predominantly-Christian town south of Mosul flee from fighting between Isis and Kurdish forces - 28/29 June: Iraqi army makes push to retake Tikrit from Islamists, claiming Tikrit retaken
July 2014: 4 July: Iraq army reportedly retakes Awja - 6 July: Iranian pilot killed fighting against Sunni Muslim militants in Samarra north of Baghdad - 9 July: The Islamic State extremist group, formerly known as ISIS, has taken control of a vast former chemical weapons facility northwest of Baghdad, where remnants of 2,500 degraded chemical rockets filled decades ago with the deadly nerve agent sarin are stored along with other chemical warfare agents, a threat now played down by the USA, invading Iraq 2003 for alleged threat of weapons of mass destruction - 11 July: Iraq's security forces and allied Shiite militias executed at least 255 Sunni prisoners as they fled a lightning jihadist-led advance last month, Human Rights Watch says - 12 July: Iraq battles assault on the city of Ramadi while the Kurds claim disputed oilfields - 18 July: The escalating violence in Iraq has killed more than 5,500 civilians over the first six months of 2014, UN says - 19 July: Baghdad bombings kill dozens
August 2014: 6 August: Kurds, Islamic State clash near Kurdish regional capital Arbil - 8 August: USA's Barack Obama orders air strikes against IS terrorists in northern Iraq, humanitarian aid drops to threatened people - 9 August: USA forces bomb IS/Isis militant positions targeting frontlines around Kurdish capital of Irbil, food for civilians dropped on Mount Sinjar to help encircled refugees - 10 August: Obama warns of long campaign as Iraq strikes continue against Isis, as minorities flee Islamist onslaught and British planes join relief effort - 10 August: Aided by USA air strikes, Peshmerga forces liberate Zamar, Makhmour and al-Gweir areas northern Mosul, near Irbil - 11 August: USA conducts fourth food, water drop for civilians besieged by jihadists - 12 August: USA urges Abadi to form new government swiftly as fears grow for the besieged Yazidi community and the resistance movement against IS depends on solidarity and inclusion - 13 August: As UN's Ban Ki-moon urges countries to do more for threatened civilians in Iraq, USA sends more 130 troops to support the resistance in the Irbil area< - 14 August: USA team in Iraq assesses that there are far fewer Yazidis on Mount Sinjar than feared adding that the USA will continue to provide humanitarian assistance - 14 August: Thousands of Iraqi refugees reportedly 'still at risk' despite ending of Mount Sinjar siege, as hundreds of thousands driven from their homes by IS terrorists - 15 August: IS militants reportedly murdered some 80 Yazidis in a village in Iraq's north - 17 August: As part of a joint Iraq-USA plan, USA air strikes targeting Islamic State militants near Iraq's Mosul dam - 17/18 August: Key facility retaken by Kurdish forces after major campaign of USA airstrikes near Mosul Dam began
September/October 2014: 11 September: Obama announces expansion of USA campaign against terrorist 'Islamic State' in Iraq and Syria - 12 September 2014: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Gulf states agree to join USA-led military campaign against Islamic State terror group - 16 September: USA begins expanded air strikes on Islamic State in Iraq - 30 September/1 October: Retaking lost ground in August, Iraqi Kurdish forces capture a strategic border crossing and several villages from Islamic State terrorists, with new signs of cooperation in the border region of northern Iraq - 1 October: As Australia sends two unarmed planes to support USA air strikes in Iraq, British jets bomb Islamic State for first time - 11/12 October: At least 45 people killed in bombings in Baghdad and its rural outskirts as the government continues to fight against jihadists and USA defense secretary says Iraqi forces are in full control of Baghdad - 12 October: Islamic State suicide bombers kill 28 Kurds in an attack on a Kurdish security headquarters and a provincial police chief - 14 October: Rights group accuses Iraqi government of supporting and arming groups of Shiite fighters carrying out kidnappings and killings against Sunni civilians in response to Islamic State - 16 October: Islamic State terrorists target Baghdad with deadly wave of car bombs and mortar attacks - 20 October: After seizing two Kurdish villages, Islamic State terrorists reportedly advanced on the Iraqi town of Qara Tappa disguised as Kurdish peshmerga fighters, new deadly attacks in Bagdad and Kerbala - 24 October: Iraqi forces must be trained, armed and ready before major advances, USA says - 25 October: Kurdish regional forces retook the northern Iraqi town of Zumar and several nearby villages - 26 October: Iraq government forces and militias take control of strategic town of Jurf al-Sakhar south of Baghdad, breaking the grip of Islamic State terrorists after months of fighting - 28 October: As a car bomb kills at least eight people in Baghdad and a suicide bombing left dead at least 14 pro-government fighters south of the capital, the US-led coalition carries out fresh air strikes against terrorists in Iraq and Syria
November/December 2014: 2 November: Islamic State terrorists executed 67 people from a pro-government Sunni tribe in the western Iraqi province of Anbar - 27 November: Iraqi forces backed by tribesmen hold off 'Islamic State' attack on Ramadi - 28 November: New series of USA military air strikes hit 'Islamic State' in Iraq and Syria - 4 December: 'Islamic State' cedes little ground despite coalition's air attacks - 17 December: Iraqi Kurdish forces launch offensive to retake 'Islamic State' held areas - 18 December: Iraqi Kurds backed by USA air strikes reportedly free 'vast area' of Mt Sinjar freeing trapped Yazidis - 21 December: Iraq Kurds deliver aid to Mt Sinjar, expand their offensive against 'Islamic State' and push its militants out of a large area around Mt Sinjar, backed by USA-led air strikes - 28 December: Hundreds of executions by 'Islamic State', also killing its own members, in Syria reported, as Iranian general killed by sniper bullet in embattled Iraqi city - 29 December: Iraqi forces launch offensive on 'Islamic State' in Dhuluiyah
2015: 1 February: Iraq Kurdish forces retake oil field, villages in Kirkuk province from 'Islamic State' terrorists, freeing also 24 workers who had been taken captive - 8 February: At least 40 people killed in Baghdad bombings as decade-old nightly curfew ends, 'Islamic State' claims responsibility for one attack - 9 February: At least 13 civilians killed in a suicide bombing at a security checkpoint in western Baghdad's Shi'ite neighborhood of Kadhamiya - 14 February: Sunni tribal leader and seven others killed in Baghdad ambush - 20 February: Expected operation to retake Mosul from 'Islamic State' terrorists will likely begin in April or May - 24 February: Wave of bombings around Baghdad kills 28 people - 26 February: A USA-led coalition air strike near the Iraqi border town of Al-Qaim reportedly killed at least 17 'Islamic State' terrorists and nine civilians overnight - 28 February: Kurdish fighters rout 'Islamic State' terrorists from Tel Hamees in Syria’s northeastern Hassakeh region near Iraq - 28 February: Iraq bombs kill dozens in attacks north of Baghdad - 2 March: Iraqi forces begin assault on 'Islamic State' stronghold Tikrit - 3 March: USA-led coalition conducts more airstrikes on 'Islamic State' targets in Syria and Iraq, as at least four Shi’ite militias will help try to liberate Mosul - 6 March: Islamic State terrorists 'bulldozed' ancient city of Nimrud, Iraqi ministry says - 9 March: Backed by coalition airstrikes, Kurdish forces attack 'Islamic State' terrorists around Kirkuk - 12 March: Iraqi forces enter 'Islamic State' held Tikrit after 10-day push - 14 March: Evidence that IS used chemical weapons, Iraqi Kurds say - 22 March: Iraqi Sunnis accuse Shi'ite paramilitaries of burning homes outside Tikrit - 1 April: Iraq's defense ministry declares 'magnificent victory' over Islamic State terrorists in Tikrit - 4 April: Shi'ite fighters leave Tikrit under government deal after looting - 14 April: A car bomb in a commercial area in Mahmoudiyah south of Baghdad killed at least seven civilians and wounded 13 others - 16 April: IS terrorists clash with security forces inside Iraq's largest refinery in Anbar province - 18 April: Iraqi forces reportedly retake most of Baiji refinery - 19 April: More than 90,000 people fleeing violence in Iraq's Anbar province as bombings and mortar fire targeting public places kill 14 people around the capital Baghdad, UN says - 28 April: 3 car bombs on busy streets and marketplaces in Baghdad kill at least 19 people, a day after a wave of bombings hit the capital - 1 May: Five car bombs exploded across Baghdad on Thursday evening, killing at least 17 people - 14 May 2015: Five members of one family, including a pregnant woman and girl aged eight, died in Fadhiliya in suspected USA-led air strike, as other victims of the anti-IS air campaign may go unrecorded - 18 May: Ramadi falls to IS terrorists after Iraq military forces have fled abandoning their weapons, dozens of army vehicles and Iraqi PM's calls for reinforcement - 18 May: About 500 people — both civilians and Iraqi soldiers — are estimated to have been killed and thousands fled as Ramadi fell to the IS terrorists - 24 May: Iraqi forces regain ground from Islamic State terrorists east of Ramadi - 29 May: Bombings targeting two top hotels in Baghdad kill 15 people, with another 42 wounded - 4 June: UN appeals for half a billion dollars in international aid to help tackle worsening humanitarian crisis in Iraq triggered by the conflict with Islamic State - 10 June: USA's Obama weighs sending several hundred more USA troops to Iraq - 11 June: USA's expanded military campaign will set up a new base in Anbar Province to advise Iraqi forces on how to plan and organize operations and help them reach out to Sunni tribes and bring them into the battle
12 June 2015 - present 'Battle of Mosul', offensive launched by the Iraqi government and Kurdish forces against 'Islamic State' terrorists - 15 June: Seventeen people killed in battles between 'Islamic State' terrorists and pro-government forces near Iraq's Baiji refinery - 6 July: Heavy fighting as Iraqi Shi'ite fighters and army troops try to surround Falluja - 13 July: Baghdad bombings in Shia Muslim neighbourhoods and blamed on 'Islamic State' terrorists, reportedly kill at least 21 and wound 62 during Ramadan - 13 July: Iraq says operation to retake the country's largest province Anbar from 'Islamic State' underway - 14 July 2015: Iraq conflict leaves nearly 15,000 civilians dead over last 16 months, as UN report estimates death toll is in addition to 30,000 wounded and multiple gross human rights abuses - 18 July: A car bomb claimed by 'Islamic State' terrorists killed at least 80 people including children in a busy market in Iraqi town of Khan Bani Saad, about 20 miles northeast of Baghdad, while Muslims were celebrating end of Ramadan - 22 July: At least 32 people killed in bomb attacks across Iraq, the deadliest incident in northeastern Baghdad - 11 August: Three explosions, two of them suicide bombings, killed at least 33 people near Baquba, the capital of Iraq's eastern province of Diyala - 13 August: 'Islamic State' terrorists' truck bomb attack in the Iraqi capital's Jameela market kills 58 people also wounding at least 89 - 16 August: A series of bombings across Baghdad have killed at least 24 people on August 15 - 26 August: Kurds launch new assault on 'Islamic State' terrorists in northern Iraq - 30 September 2015: Kurds take ground from Islamic State terrorists in north Iraq, driving them out of several villages near the oil city of Kirkuk - 10 October: Iraq says forces advancing in several areas north and west of Ramadi - 17 October: Iraqi forces in huge anti-terrorist push in Baiji as part of their biggest advance against the Islamic State - 22 October: In a raid by Kurdish troops and USA special forces in northern Iraq nearly 70 hostages facing 'imminent mass execution' have been rescued from an Islamic State terrorists' jail, also leading to the first USA combat death since 2011
November/December 2015: November 2015 Sinjar offensive of Kurdish Peshmerga forces to recapture the city of Sinjar from the Islamic State terrorists - 12 November: Kurdish forces launch an extensive push to retake Sinjar city in northern Iraq, 15 months after it was seized by Islamic State terrorists - 13 November: Kurdish forces seize Iraq's Sinjar town from IS terrorists - 22 décembre: L'armée irakienne est entrée dans le centre de Ramadi - 27 décembre: Les forces kurdes ont arrêté et tué plusieurs membres du groupe Etat islamique à Riyadh en Irak - 28 December: Iraqi forces seize key base in Ramadi from 'Islamic State' terrorists - 29 December: Iraq's army will need Kurdish fighters' help to retake Mosul, Iraqi Finance Minister Zebari says, adding that its liberation would mark the end of the caliphate proclaimed by the 'Islamic State' terrorists
2016: 4 January 2016: At least two Sunni Muslim mosques have been attacked in Iraq in apparent retaliation for the execution of a Shi'ite cleric in Saudi Arabia - 11 January 2016: Dozens dead in spate of attacks by 'Islamic State' terrorists suicide bombers and gunmen in Iraq - 19 janvier: L'Etat islamique continue à mener des actes qui pourraient constituer des crimes de guerre, contre l'humanité et potentiellement un génocide, selon un rapport de l'ONU, qui cible aussi des violations de tous les autres acteurs - 22 January 2016: Kurds and Shias face off over Kirkuk in vacuum left by Iraqi army - 28 February: Bombings claimed by the Islamic State terrorists killed at least 33 and wounded at least 79 people in a Shiite area of Baghdad on Sunday - 6 March: Devastating busy checkpoint crowded with traffic in Hilla, 'Islamic State' terrorists' truck bomb kills 47 people south of Baghdad - 25 mars 2016: Double offensive à Palmyre et Mossoul contre le groupe Etat islamique - 25 March: Suspected 'Islamic State' suicide bomber kills 29 at football match in Iskanderiyah near Baghdad, as Iraqi forces recapture territory in western and northern provinces - 11 mai 2016: Au moins 34 personnes ont été tuées et une cinquantaine blessées mercredi dans un attentat à la voiture piégée ayant visé un marché à Bagdad - 15 May: Bomb attacks against a state-run cooking gas factory in Baghdad's northern outskirts on Sunday killed at least 11 people, including policemen, and wounded 21 others - 17 May: Two bombs went off in Baghdad on Tuesday, killing at least 13 people and wounding more than 40 - 24 mai: Les forces irakiennes poursuivaient leur vaste offensive pour reprendre la ville de Fallouja au groupe Etat islamique, une bataille qui met la population civile en grave danger - 29 May: Fears for civilians trapped inside Fallujah and in northern Syrian Islamic State terrorists' areas - 29 May: Servicemen from the USA-led coalition are assisting Kurdish Peshmerga forces in a new offensive in Iraq that aims to retake a handful of villages from Islamic State terrorists east of their Mosul stronghold - 30 May: Iraqi army enters Falluja in attempt to drive out Islamic State terrorists - 5 juin: Les forces irakiennes impliquées dans les opérations pour la reprise de Fallouja au groupe terroriste Etat islamique ont découvert dimanche une fosse commune qui contiendrait des centaines de corps - 9 June 2016: Two separate terror attacks targeting commercial street and army checkpoint in Baghdad kill at least 22 and wound more than 70 - 12 June: Iraqi forces gain ground against Islamic State terrorists south of Mosul - 17 June: Iraqi forces reportedly seized a tactically significant district in the embattled city of Falluja - 26 June 2016: Iraqi forces recaptured the last remaining district held by Islamic State terrorists in Falluja on Sunday, declaring the battle complete - 3 July 2016: At least 83 people were killed and 176 wounded in two separate bomb attacks in the Iraqi capital early Sunday, as one blast targets busy shopping center in Karada, killing 78 and wounding scores, claimed by Islamic State terrorists - 8 July 2016: Islamic State terrorists claim a triple suicide attack on Thursday evening near a Shia mausoleum north of Baghdad that killed at least 35 people and wounded 60 others - 9 July: Shia militias rule after battle to free Falluja, a city of ghosts and graffiti and a uncertain future for the people - 24 July: A suicide bomber struck near a checkpoint in a Shiite area of northern Baghdad, killing at least 12 and wounding at least 22 people - 25 juillet: Un attentat-suicide à la voiture piégée a fait au moins 12 morts et 37 blessés lundi matin à l'entrée de la ville de Khales au nord-est de Bagdad - 31 July: Thousands are fleeing Shirqat controlled by Islamic State terrorists, as Iraqi forces eye the northern Iraqi town, one of the last steps before Mosul - 14 August: Kurdish peshmerga forces in fresh push to recapture Mosul from Islamic State terrorists
October 2016: Since October 2016 Battle of Mosul, a joint offensive by Iraqi forces with allied militias, Kurdish Peshmerga of Iraqi Kurdistan, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from Islamic State terrorists, following March-September 2016 Mosul offensive against the the so-called Islamic State in the region in a joint effort by Iraqi forces and Kurdish Peshmerga, limited USA ground forces, and USA and allied air support - 14/15 October 2016: Iraqi and Kurdish forces are finalising plans to attack the last urban stronghold Mosul of Islamic State terrorists in Iraq, which after a month-long buildup is now largely surrounded by a 60,000-strong force, as terrorists have banned civilians from leaving the city, setting up checkpoints on roads out and blowing up the homes of those who do flee as punishment and to deter others - 15 octobre: Au moins 27 fidèles chiites, qui étaient rassemblés pour la fête de l'Achoura dans le quartier d'Al Chaab, dans le nord de la capitale irakienne, ont été tués dans un attentat-suicide revendiqé par 'l'Etat islamique' - 17 October 2016: Iraqi and Kurdish forces launch assault on Mosul, which has been in the hands of Islamic State terrorists since 2014 - 19 October: Mosul residents who have fled Islamic State say a homegrown resistance, raised over the past six months, has made plans to launch coordinated attacks against the group as Iraqi and Kurdish forces close in - 20 October: After 'Islamic State' terrorist leaders reportedly have begun to flee Mosul, Iraqi army, special forces and Kurdish peshmerga launch 'large-scale' operation to retake Mosul - 21 October: Islamic State terrorists launch a commando raid on Kirkuk as concerns mount over fate of civilians in Mosul - 22 October: Nearly 1,000 people have been treated for breathing problems linked to toxic gases from a sulphur plant which Islamic State terrorists are suspected to have set on fire near the city of Mosul - 28 octobre: Au moins 232 personnes ont été exécutées par le groupe Etat Islamique il y a quelques jours, près de Mossoul, alors que les troupes irakiennes s'approchaient de cette ville, selon l'ONU
November/December 2016: 2 November 2016: Iraqi special forces are holding their positions in Mosul a day after entering the Islamic State-held city for the first time since 2014 - 2 November: Mosul civilians flee heavy fighting and Islamic State terrorists - 4 November: Heavy fighting in Mosul as Iraqi forces launch assault - 7 November 2016: Peshmerga liberate Bashiqa in the joint offensive to liberate Mosul and its countryside - 12 November 2016: As Iraqi troops battle IS terrorists in Mosul, UN reports terrorists's executions, over 47,000 displaced people, and USA-backed forces in Syria advance on jihadist bastion of Raqqa - 15 November 2016: In cleared areas of Mosul, Iraqi troops struggle to provide civilians with food - 24 November 2016: Dozens of people, many of them Iranian Shia pilgrims, have been killed by a suicide bombing claimed by Islamic State terrorists near the Iraqi city of Hilla, 60 miles south of Baghdad - 21 décembre 2016: Des combattants du groupe Etat islamique ont 'délibérément' attaqué des civils refusant de leur servir de 'boucliers humains' dans leur fuite face aux forces irakiennes à Mossoul - 29 December: Iraqi troops resume push to take Mosul from Isis after two-week lull - 31 December 2016: Two bombs explode in a busy market area in Baghdad's central al-Sinek neighborhood on Saturday, killing at least 18 people and wounding dozens
January/February 2017: 2 January 2017: Baghdad car bomb attack leaves at least 16 dead - 8 janvier 2017: Au moins 13 personnes ont été tuées et une cinquantaine blessées dans un attentat-suicide à Bagdad, revendiqué par l'EI - 19 janvier 2017: En retrait en Irak et en Syrie, le groupe djihadiste Etat islamique a perdu 23% de son territoire en 2016 et voit sa cohésion menacée - 19 February 2017: Iraq forces launch operation to retake west Mosul - 21 février: Les forces armées resserrent l'étau à Mossoul - 25 février: Les troupes irakiennes avancent dans Mossoul
March/April 2017: 4 March 2017: Thousands flee Iraq’s Mosul overnight, as fighting rages on to recapture it from Islamic State terrorists - 4 March 2017: UN raises fears of chemical attack in Mosul as patients exhibit 'severe signs associated with exposure to a blister agent' - 8 mars 2017: L'EI recule encore en Syrie et à Mossoul - 14 mars 2017: Les forces irakiennes progressent près de la Vieille ville de Mossoul - 24 March 2017: For almost a week desperate neighbours had scraped through the rubble, searching for shouting children and as many as 130 people who lay buried after three homes in a west Mosul suburb were destroyed by coalition airstrikes, raising fresh questions about USA rules of engagement - 25 March 2017: Iraq suspends Mosul offensive after USA-led coalition airstrike atrocity - 28 March 2017: Residents in Mosul were instructed not to leave their homes ahead of airstrikes last week that are reported to have killed more than 150 civilians, rights group says
May/June 2017: 30 May 2017: A suicide bomber detonated an explosives-rigged vehicle at a popular Baghdad ice cream shop killing 15 people and wounding 24 and claimed by 'Islamic State' terrorists - 30 mai 2017: Les forces irakiennes continuant de progresser dans l'ouest de Mossoul où quelque 200.000 civils piégés sont en grand danger selon l'ONU - 4 June 2017: Isil has surrendered the key town of Baaj in north-west Iraq, a known hideout of the terrorist group’s leader which had been under Islamist militants’ control throughout 14 years of war and insurgency - 13 June 2017: Contaminated food supplied by a UK charity has made hundreds of people severely ill at a camp for Iraqi civilians who have fled Islamic State terrorists and fighting in Mosul - 18 June 2017: Iraqi troops move into Mosul’s Old City, last Islamic State stronghold, as UN says over 100,000 civilians are trapped in battle zone, where terror group is using them as human shields
July/August 2017: 9 July 2017: After thousands of civilians have been killed in the battle for Mosul and after almost one million people have been displaced in nearly nine months of bitter fighting to defeat the terrorist group in the city where it proclaimed its 'caliphate' in 2014, Iraq’s PM Haider al-Abadi declares victory over 'Islamic State' in devastated Mosul - 20 August 2017: Iraq begins battle to retake Tal Afar, Islamic State terrorists' bastion near Mosul - 27 août 2017: Forcés de fuir, les habitants de Tal Afar reviennent chez eux après la reprise de la ville
September/October 2017: 15 September 2017: More than 80 people dead after militants use car bombs and suicide vests to target checkpoint and restaurants near Nasiriyah - 5 October 2017: Iraqi army says it has recaptured Hawija, one of last Isis enclaves
October 2017 Battle of Kirkuk: October 2017 Battle of Kirkuk, Iraqi offensive to retake Kirkuk Governorate from the Kurdish Regional Government - 13 October 2017: Kurdish and Iraqi government forces have squared off south of Kirkuk rushing troops and armour to the oil-rich city, two weeks after the country’s Kurds voted for independence from Baghdad and after Baghdad government forces, that failed to resist Islamic State terrorists 2013-2016, took positions on the city’s approaches, prompting fears of fresh violence in one of the most bitterly contested corners of Iraq - 16 October 2017: Iraqi federal troops have seized several parts of the disputed Kurdish-controlled province of Kirkuk, as Kurds claim Iraqi troops 'burnt houses and killed many' in battle for oil-rich Kirkuk, supported by the Iranian-backed mainly Shiite Hashd al-Shaabi - 16 October 2017: USA military rushes to defuse looming crisis in Kirkuk after Iraqi army advances - 17 October 2017: Iraqi forces and Shia-led militia drive Kurdish fighters out of town of Sinjar
October 2017 recapture of Raqqa: 17 October 2017: Syrian Democratic Forces recapture Raqqa after gruelling four-month battle for de facto Isis capital - 18 October 2017: As Raqqa falls and Islamic State's caliphate is now on its last legs, underlying factors that fueled its rise in Iraq, Syria remain, and USA left picking up pieces of a shattered Middle East
October 2017: 26 October 2017: Iraq forces assault last IS bastion, advance on Kurds, as the autonomous Kurdish regional governmen says Iraqi forces and Iranian-backed PMF are shelling peshmerga positions, using heavy artillery
January 2018: 15 January 2018: A double suicide bombing killed 26 people in Baghdad targeting day laborers in bustling Tayyaran Square on Monday, the second such attack in three days
February 2018: 9 février 2018: Human Rights Watch a accusé vendredi les forces de sécurité kurdes irakiennes d'avoir commis 'un crime de guerre' en 2017 en procédant à des 'exécutions massives' de présumés membres du groupe État islamique qu'elles détenaient
Economy of Iraq: Economy of Iraq - main industries are petroleum, chemicals, textiles, leather, construction materials, food processing, fertilizer, metal fabrication/processing - Companies of Iraq by industry - List of companies of Iraq - Government-owned companies of Iraq
Energy and oil industry in Iraq: Energy and oil industry in Iraq - Oil fields of Iraq - Baba Gurgur (Kurdish Babagurgur) near the city of Kirkuk - Majnoon oil field, Basra governorate in southern Iraq - Rumaila oil field, 32 km from the Kuwaiti border - West Qurna Field, near Basra
Oil and gas companies of Iraq: Oil and gas companies of Iraq
2012: 30 mai 2012: Contrats d'exploration de sites pétroliers et gaziers mis aux enchères - 21 July 2012: Blast shuts down Iraq-Turkey oil pipeline - 16. August 2012: Der Irak mit einer täglichen Erdölproduktion von 3,2 Mio. Fass, die zweitgrösste Fördermenge innerhalb der Opec - 14 November 2012: Iraq investment concerns remain
August 2018 corruption fuels growing anger: 27 August 2018: Oil flows freely but corruption fuels growing anger, as those calling for an end to a 'rotten system’ risk detention and death
3 June 2023 western oil companies exacerbating water shortages and causing pollution in Iraq: 3 June 2023: Western oil companies are exacerbating water shortages and causing pollution in Iraq as they race to profit from rising oil prices after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, as water scarcity has already displaced thousands and increased instability, according to international experts, while Iraq is now considered the fifth most vulnerable country to the climate crisis by the UN. In the oil-rich but extremely dry south, wetlands that used to feed entire communities are now muddy canals
Electricity sector in Iraq: Electricity sector in Iraq - as of January 2016, the output of electricity sector in Iraq averages 13,000 MW, while the demand is 21,000 MW, lack of electricity tends to affect more severely the most vulnerable groups of Iraq’s society and increases their morbidity and mortality
2016: 25 January 2016: Though Iraq is a major OPEC oil producer, the country faces chronic electricity shortages, with its fragile grid struggling meet demand after decades of war, sanctions and neglect, now agreeing a $328.8 million deal with USA's General Electric to boost electricity production starting in 2017
Hydroelectric power stations in Iraq: Hydroelectric power stations in Iraq
Agriculture in Iraq: Agriculture in Iraq, despite its abundant land and water resources, Iraq is a net food importer - in 2004 the main agricultural crops were wheat, barley, corn, rice, vegetables, dates, and cotton, and the main livestock outputs were cattle and sheep
Since 2008/2009 Green Mada'in Association for Agricultural Development
Mesopotamian Marshes, Central, Hawizeh and Hammar Marshes: Mesopotamian Marshes - Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes - Central or Qurna Marshes, a large complex of wetlands in Iraq that were part of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, along with the Hawizeh and Hammar Marshes
Water in Iraq: Water in Iraq - List of rivers of Iraq - Dams in Iraq
Tigris–Euphrates river system: Tigris–Euphrates river system - the Tigris and Euphrates with their tributaries form a major system in Western Asia, from sources in the Taurus mountains of eastern Turkey they flow by/through Syria through Iraq into the Persian Gulf - Euphrates river - Tigris, the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates - Shatt al-Arab of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq - Dams in the Tigris–Euphrates river system - Dams in the Euphrates River basin
Water supply and sanitation in Iraq: Water supply and sanitation in Iraq, characterized by poor water and service quality, combined with limited environmental awareness three decades of war have destroyed Iraq's water resources management system - Ministry of Water Resources in Iraq
2012/2013: 20 July
July 2012 farmer in south Iraq commits suicide over lack of water: 20 July 2012: Farmer in south Iraq commits suicide over lack of water which has forced hundreds of families to abandon their homes in recent years
February 2013 large loss of fresh water reserves in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins: 12 February 2013: A large loss of fresh water reserves in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins since 2003 detected
March 2020 water scarcity is changing south Iraq: 19 March 2020: Water scarcity is changing south Iraq, as researchers find people are being forced from their homes because poor water supplies are leaving families unable to sustain themselves through agriculture
5 November 2021 Iraqis face intensifying water crisis: 5 November 2021: Iraqis face intensifying water crisis, struggling to cope with depleted water resources, exacerbated by climate change and disputes with neighbours
Tourism in Iraq: Tourism in Iraq - Visitor attractions in Iraq
World Heritage and archaeological sites in Iraq: World Heritage Sites in Iraq - Archaeological sites in Iraq
7 March 2015: Widespread outrage after 'Islamic State' bulldozes ancient Iraq city of Nimrud founded in the 13th century BC
Banking and financial services in Iraq: Banking in Iraq - Central Bank of Iraq - Trade Bank of Iraq - Industrial Bank of Iraq - Agricultural Cooperative Bank of Iraq - Iraq Stock Exchange
Infrastructure and investment in post-invasion Iraq: Infrastructure of Iraq - Reconstruction of Iraq - Economic reform of Iraq since 2003 - Investment in post-invasion Iraq - Development Fund for Iraq
External trade of Iraq: External trade of Iraq
Unemployment in Iraq: 2015: Almost seven million Iraqis, 23% of the total population, live in poverty, rising from 7% in 1990, youth unemployment rate is 30% double the national average of 15%, far from the target of 4% in 2015 and Iraq's economy is unable to produce enough jobs to employ the 450,000 Iraqis entering the labour force each year
Poverty in Iraq: 6 July 2013: Poverty in Iraq - 95% of its exports are from oil, but like other resource-rich countries this abundance of profit potential has not translated to a higher standard of living for the average Iraqi citizen, economic progress and social development has been hindered by ethnosectarian violence, severe setbacks in infrastructure, and poor educational quality
2015/2016: 2 October 2015: Poverty in Iraq grows as budgets squeezed by war with Islamic State terrorists and as more shanty towns are appearing across Baghdad, adding a wave of refugees to those already living in dire poverty - 25 April 2016: Facing poverty and unemployment not being adressed by the authorities, Iraqi families sell organs to overcome poverty as gangs are offering up to $10,000 for a kidney increasingly targeting the country’s poor
Military of Iraq and budget: Iraqi Armed Forces - List of current equipment of the Iraqi Army - Aircraft inventory - Navy equipment
Military budget - 2012 military budget rank 35
2013: 30 December 2013: Iraq's security forces face rising criticism that, with violence at the highest level in years, their heavy-handed tactics and alleged abuses do more harm than good
Politics of Iraq: Politics of Iraq - Demographics of Iraq - Political parties in Iraq - Trade unions in Iraq
Iraqi budget: 2 March 2013: Rafi al-Issawi will be first senior Sunni member to leave cabinet after months of anti-government protests, further intensifying the country's political crisis nearly a decade after the USA-led invasion - 7 March 2013: Iraq's parliament approved a $118.6 billion national budget - 31 January 2016: Iraq needs US$1.56 billion this year to finance its emergency response to the humanitarian crisis caused by the war against Islamic State terrorists, after the conflict has displaced more than 3.3 million people since 2014, according to a government report
Elections in Iraq: Elections in Iraq - Iraqi governorate elections 20 April 2013 - 20 April 2013: Iraq votes in test of stability as violence spikes - 21 April: Turnout for the provincial vote about 51 percent, but 14 candidates were killed in attacks ahead of the polls and a third of Iraq's provinces not voting due to security concerns and political disputes - 4 May: Iraq PM's group wins largest bloc in several areas - Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election 21 September 2013 - 21 September 2013: Iraq's Kurds vote amid rows, regional tensions - 28 September: Iraq president's party falls to third in Kurdish polls, with 95 percent of votes counted the KDP was first with 719,004 votes, the opposition Goran movement second with 446,095, and the PUK third with 323,867
Federal government and politics in Iraq: Federal government of Iraq
2011: 18 December 2011: Political crisis in Iraq as US withdraws - 20 December: Iraq issues arrest warrant for vice-president
2012: 10 September 2012: Fugitive Sunni Vice President Tariq al-Hashemi found guilty in absentia of running death squads and is sentenced to death - 10 September: Iraq vice-president rejects death sentence, dismissing verdict as 'politically motivated'
2013: 2 March 2013: Rafi al-Issawi will be first senior Sunni member to leave cabinet after months of anti-government protests, further intensifying the country's political crisis nearly a decade after the US-led invasion - 7 March 2013: Iraq's parliament approved a $118.6 billion national budget - 5 November 2013: The Iraqi government has announced that the parliamentary elections will be held on April 30, 2014
December 2013: 8 December: Two long-time parliamentary allies are distancing themselves from Iraqi PM al-Maliki ahead of April elections, accusing him of a deeply flawed security policy and nepotism- 28 décembre: Les forces de sécurité ont arrêté à l'ouest de Bagdad un député sunnite connu pour son soutien aux manifestants anti-gouvernement, au prix d'un raid ayant coûté la vie à son frère et à cinq gardes
April 2014: 11 April 2014: Iraqis go to the polls as extremism and violence rage - 27 April: In the first national election since USA troops left in 2011 and amid deepening sectarian divisions, Iraqis will vote on Wednesday
30 April 2014 Iraqi parliamentary election: Iraqi parliamentary election 30 April 2014 - 30 April: Iraqis stream to voting centres nationwide with a long list of grievances, ranging from poor public services to rampant corruption, high unemployment, and a deterioration in security - 30 April: Around 60 percent turnout in Iraq election, commission says
July 2014: 1 July: Iraqi parliament session collapses amid political standoff - 2 July: Control of rivers and dams reportedly has become a major tactical weapon for Isis and water supply one key to outcome of conflicts in Iraq and Syria - 8 July: Iraq’s new parliament postponed its next session for five weeks, extending the country’s political paralysis in the face of Sunni Islamist aggression - 10 July: Kurdish ministers boycott Iraqi cabinet meetings in response to prime minister Nouri al-Maliki's branding of Kurdish capital Irbil as haven for Isis militants - 16 July: Iraq's parliament elects new speaker al-Jabouri as Iraqi forces withdraw from Tikrit after heavy resistance - 25 July: USA congratulates Iraq on electing new president Fuad Masum, urging him to form a 'cohesive government' to help fight Islamic militants
August 2014: 10 August: Iraq parliament adjourns for 9 days with lawmakers unable to agree on a nominee for the post of PM - 11 August: USA stresses support for Iraq president after embattled PM al-Maliki accused him of violating the constitution and fears of coup in Baghdad - 12 August: Coalition of Shia parties nominate Haider al-Abadi to replace defiant Maliki as PM in bid to end Baghdad deadlock - 15 August: Iraq PM al-Maliki steps aside
December 2014: 1/2 December: After Iraqi government investigation has found 50,000 'ghost soldiers' on army payroll, Iraq PM sacks 24 senior officials announcing to tackle corruption
2015: 9 August 2015: In the face of mass protests against power cuts, corruption and bad government, Iraq’s cabinet approves wide-ranging reform plan that would abolish the three vice-presidential posts as well as the office of deputy PM in order to slash spending and improve its performance - 17 August: Iraq's parliament endorses a report calling for the trial of former PM Nuri al-Maliki and dozens of other top officials in connection with the fall of the northern city of Mosul to 'Islamic State' terrorists last year
2016: 16 April 2016: Iraqi government is teetering on the edge of collapse as PM Abadi tries to reshuffle his cabinet and rid the country of corruption, while members of Parliament continue to protest his efforts to appoint new leaders, calling for his ousting, and while Shiite clerics are pressuring Abadi to press forward with his reform movement - 30 April 2016: State of emergency declared in Baghdad after supporters of Shia cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, who demands to end corruption and political and sectarian quotas, stormed the Green Zone and entered the parliament building - 6 July 2016: Iraq’s interior minister Ghabban has resigned saying a deputy would take over his responsibilities, a few days after the deadliest of many car bombings in Baghdad since the Iraq war
May 2018 Iraqi parliamentary election: 12 May 2018 Iraqi parliamentary election - 13 May 2018: Updates in first Iraqi election since IS terrorists defeat, as turnout was 44.52% with 92% of votes counted - 14 May 2018: With 95% of the votes counted in 10 of Iraq’s 18 provinces, Iraq’s Sadr supporters gathered in Tahrir Square in Baghdad to celebrate and chanted against Iran and corruption and in support of the independence of the Iraqi decision, saying 'Iran is out, Baghdad remains free' - 19 May 2018: According to official results the political coalition led by Muqtada al-Sadr won the most seats in Iraq's national parliamentary elections, after Sadr led insurgencies against USA-led forces following the ouster of Saddam Hussein and is against Iranian and USA's influence in Iraq - 20 May 2018: Iraq’s election winner al-Sadr promises reforms but is constrained by the expansionist Iranian regime
June 2018: 10 juin 2018: Le Conseil judiciaire suprême irakien a chargé dimanche un groupe de magistrats de remplacer la commission électorale pour le recomptage des votes - 11 June 2018: Iraq election ballot warehouse catches fire in Baghdad ahead of recount - 12 June 2018: Manual recount of Iraq election expected to begin this week - 13 June 2018: Nationalist cleric Muqtada al-Sadr announced a surprise political alliance with pro-Iranian Hadi al-Amiri in a bid to lead Iraq over the next four years
September/October 2018: 15 September 2018: Iraq parliament elects nominee of pro-Iran list as speaker - 3 October 2018: Kurdish moderate Barham Saleh elected Iraq president in a parliamentary vote
26 December 2018: 26 December 2018: Both main blocs of Iraqi parliamentarians expressed outrage over Trump's unannounced visit to al-Asad Airbase in western Iraq, his first visit to troops in a war zone, and his vow that troops would remain in Iraq, saying Trump should not be allowed to arrive 'as if Iraq is a state of the United States', and calling for a vote to expel USA troops
4 October 2019 government admits 'legitimate demands' but kills protesters: 4 October 2019: After riot police have fired live rounds and tear gas every day to disperse protesters, leaving 33 people dead and hundreds wounded, Iraq’s premier Abdul-Mahdi said their 'legitimate demands' have been heard, now pledging to work on laws granting poor families a basic income and fight corruption - 4 October 2019: Police shot at a group of protesters in Baghdad on Friday after three deadly days of anti-government protest that left 44 dead and after authorities cut internet access in a desperate move to curb the rallies - 4 October 2019: Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani criticized the government, as well as the leaders of the two biggest parliament blocs, saying they failed to fulfill their promises to the people, calling on political leaders to take 'practical and clear steps' toward combatting corruption and on the government to 'carry out its duty' to diminish people’s suffering - 4 October 2019: Iraqi police open fire on protesters in Baghdad on fourth day of unrest
7 October 2019 Iraq military admits 'excessive force': 7 October 2019: Iraq military admits 'excessive force' used in deadly protests, after more than 100 people have been killed and over 6,000 wounded during a week of clashes, and after responsible PM Abdel Mahdi had insisted security forces were acting 'within international standards' in dealing with demonstrations
9 November 2019 Iraqi regime's violence: 9 novembre 2019: Les forces de sécurité ont chassé samedi les manifestants antigouvernementaux de plusieurs de leurs campements en Irak, après un accord politique qui prévoit le maintien du pouvoir en place quitte à recourir à la force pour en finir avec la contestation
11 November 2019 UN and AI condemn regime's violence: 11 November 2019: As Amnesty International said Iraq’s crackdown on anti-government protests has descended into a 'bloodbath', UN mission in Iraq proposes roadmap for ending upheaval, calling for release of jailed protesters, urging government to adopt electoral reform and series of anti-corruption measures, and USA urges early Iraq elections
29 November 2019 Iraqi PM says he will resign: 29 November 2019: After more than 400 killed in 2 months of protests, Iraqi PM says he will resign, following sermon by top Shiite cleric calling for lawmakers to withdraw their support
December 2019 Iraqi PM resigns as protests continue: 1 décembre 2019: La démission du gouvernement d'Adel Abdel Mahdi a été acceptée par le Parlement irakien alors que les manifestations continuent dans le pays
7 December 2019 gunmen opened fire in Baghdad’s Khilani Square: 7 December 2019: Unidentified gunmen in cars opened fire Friday in Baghdad’s Khilani Square, leaving at least 15 people dead and 60 wounded, medical officials said. as at least two of the dead were policemen and protesters fearing for their lives ran from the plaza to nearby Tahrir Square and to mosques to take cover, a day after a string of suspicious stabbing incidents targeting demonstrators left at least 13 wounded in Baghdad’s Tahrir Square
26 December 2019 President Saleh refuses to designate the nominee of an Iran-backed parliamentary bloc for PM: 26 December 2019: Iraqi president Saleh refused to designate nominee Asaad al-Eidani of an Iran-backed parliamentary bloc for PM, saying he would rather resign than appoint someone to the position who would be rejected by protesters, 'to avoid more bloodshed and in order to safeguard civil peace'
2 January 2020 Iran-backed 'Hashed al-Shaabi' (Popular Mobilization Forces) influences Iraqi government: 2 January 2020: Iran-backed Hashed al-Shaabi force, that besieged the USA embassy in Baghdad, also with close relations to the Syrian Assad regime tries to exert its will on Baghdad government and to control events on the ground - Since 2003 'Kata'ib Hezbollah' (Brigades of the Party of God), an Iraqi Shia paramilitary group which is part of the Popular Mobilization Forces supported by Iran, active in the Iraqi Civil War and Assad's war against the Syrian people since 2011 - Since 2014 'Hashed al-Shaabi' (Popular Mobilization Forces), an Iraqi state-sponsored umbrella organization composed of some 40 militias, trained and supported by military advisers from Turkey (for Sunni and Turkmeni troops), by Iran and Lebanese Hezbollah, including Qasem Soleimani, also said to have their own military intelligence, administrative systems, and a sort of 'media war team' that provides morale boosting, battlefield updates and propaganda videos, and a court of law, as PM Haider al-Abadi in 2015 placed the Popular Mobilization Forces under the direct command of PM's office, thus giving a further official status to the militia, and as chairman of the Popular Mobilization Committee in the Iraqi government is Falih al-Fayyadh, who is also the 'National Security Adviser'
3 January 2020 Iraq paramilitary chief slain alongside Soleimani was Iranian regime’s man in country: 3 January 2020: Iraq paramilitary chief Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, a sworn enemy of the USA, slain alongside Soleimani was Iranian regime’s man in country
1 February 2020 al-Sistani condemns use of force against anti-government protesters: 1 February 2020: Iraqi cleric al-Sistani condemns use of force against anti-government protesters, after 11 wounded by armed forces and 4 rockets fired at base housing USA troops, and as deadline nears for political blocs to agree on new premier
2 February 2020 Iraq protesters unconvinced after Mohammed Allawi named PM: 2 February 2020: Iraq protesters unconvinced as former communications minister Mohammed Allawi named PM, saying Allawi not the independent they had long demanded, after more than 480 people have died and nearly 30,000 been wounded during protests since October
February 2020 regime's campaign of kidnapping, intimidation, torture and killings: 18 February 2020: How a campaign of kidnapping, intimidation, torture and killings is being used to try to quell uprising in Iraq
2 March 2020 Mohammed Allawi will not form government: 2 mars 2020: Le Premier ministre irakien désigné Mohammed Allawi a annoncé qu'il renonçait à former un gouvernement, plongeant un peu plus dans l'inconnu son pays en crise
7 May 2020 former Iraqi intelligence chief approved as new PM: 7 May 2020: Former Iraqi intelligence chief Mustafa al-Kadhimi approved as new PM, as the country faces a severe economic crisis spurred by plummeting oil prices and the covid-19 pandemic
1 August 2020 Iraqi PM calls early election in 2021: 1 August 2020: Iraqi PM calls early election, accepting anti-government protesters' key demand
19 January 2021 Iraq's cabinet decided to postpone the general election to October 10: 19 January 2021: Iraq's cabinet decided on Tuesday to postpone the general election to October 10 from June, the state news agency said, as early elections were a key demand of anti-government protesters who staged mass demonstrations since October 2019, and as hundreds were killed by 'security' forces and gunmen suspected of links to militia groups
11 July 2021 Iraq’s PM visited pro-democracy activist Ali al-Mikdam in Baghdad hospital: 11 July 2021: Iraq’s PM al-Kadhimi visited pro-democracy activist Ali al-Mikdam in a Baghdad hospital two days after the campaigner, critical of pro-Iran armed factions operating in the country, had been abducted and assaulted
8 October 2021 Iraq holds early voting ahead of parliamentary elections: 8 October 2021: Early voting has begun in Iraq’s parliamentary elections, with security forces, prisoners and internally displaced people casting their ballots two days ahead of Sunday’s general vote
10 October 2021 Iraqi parliamentary election: 10 October 2021 Iraqi parliamentary election, deciding the 329 members of the Council of Representatives who will in turn elect the Iraqi President and confirm the Prime Minister
10 October 2021 Iraqis vote in polls amid damaged hopes: 10 October 2021: Iraqis vote in polls triggered by mass protests, amid damaged hopes that polls will deliver much needed reforms after decades of conflict and mismanagement, also seen as a 'test for their democratic system' - 10 October 2021: Turnout at Iraqi national election as low as 25% as many boycott polls, and as disillusioned youth and middle classes stay home rather than vote for system they believe has failed
7 November 2021 assassination attempt of Iraq PM Al-Kadhimi: 7 November 2021 assassination attempt of Iraq PM Mustafa Al-Kadhimi, as several members of his security personnel were injured, possibly connected to the 2021 Baghdad clashes 2 days befor - 7 November 2021: Iraqi PM al-Kadhimi survives drone attack on his home, now callong for 'calm and restraint from everyone', as attack, which comes after violent unrest over recent election results, was condemned by both the USA and Iran, BBC reports
28 July 2022 protesters storm Iraq parliament in support of cleric Moqtada al-Sadr: 28 July 2022: Hundreds of supporters of powerful Iraqi cleric al-Sadr danced and sang in parliament after storming Baghdad’s high-security Green Zone in protest at a rival bloc’s nomination for PM, as police fired barrages of teargas in a bid to stop the protesters from breaching the gates of the heavily fortified Green Zone, but the crowds surged forward and entered parliament
31 July 2022 Iraqi protesters camped at country's parliament for second day: 31 July 2022: Protesters and followers of powerful Iraq's Moqtada Sadr camped at the country's parliament Sunday for a second day, protesting against corruption and political mismanagemen, after - despite tear gas, water cannon and baking temperatures that touched 47°C - they stormed the complex pulling down heavy concrete barricades on roads leading to Baghdad's fortified Green Zone of diplomatic and government buildings
3 August 2022 supporters of al-Sadr instructed to leave parliament but to continue their protests outside: 3 August 2022: Supporters of Iraq’s al-Sadr told to withdraw from parliament, as senior pro-Sadr loyalist told supporters to end parliament sit-in within 72 hours, but called for protests to continue inside Green Zone, also announcing that a large prayer rally would take place on Friday in the Green Zone
14 August 2022 Supreme Judicial Council says it cannot dissolve country’s parliament: 14 August 2022: Iraq’s Supreme Judicial Council says it does not have the authority to dissolve the country’s parliament, days after influential cleric Muqtada al-Sadr escalated a political standoff by giving it one week to dismiss the legislature so new elections can be held
29 August 2022 Shia leader Muqtada al-Sadr announced he quits political life, closing his political offices: 29 August 2022: Iraq chaos as Muqtada al-Sadr supporters storm Green Zone after he quits political life, and as his ‘final withdrawal’ from politics announcement spurred followers to violently force their way into Baghdad’s presidential palace
Social movements and protests in Iraq: Protests in Iraq - 2011 Iraqi protests - 2012–14 Iraqi protests concerning corruption, unemployment, poor national security, poor public services, marginalization of Sunnis, unfair treatment of prisoners, poor salaries of Sahwa militia, abuse of De-Baathification laws, Iranian interference in Iraqi affairs
2011: 9 April 2011: Tens of thousands in Baghdad calling for an end to USA-presence - 26. Mai 2011: Zehntausende protestieren in Baghdad gegen die USA - 9 September 2011: Iraqis mourn murdered radio journalist Hadi al-Mehdi amid protests
2012: 22 January 2012: Iraq government abusing protesters and harassing journalists criticised by rights report - 19. März 2012: Bis zu einer Million Demonstranten und Anhänger von Moktada as-Sadr werfen Ministerpräsident Nuri al-Maliki Versagen bei der Bekämpfung der Armut vor - 26 December: Tens of thousands of protesters gather in Anbar province to denounce allegedly sectarian policies of PM Nouri al-Maliki - 28 December: In Anbar province tens of thousands of protesters in fresh rallies against the al-Maliki government - 30 December: Iraq protesters clash with official's guards in Ramadi
2013: 4 January: Tens of thousands of Sunni Muslims in Iraq have been staging anti-government protests in Baghdad and other cities - 11 January: Tens of thousands of people continue to protest in numerous cities, including Ramadi, Samara and Mosul - 26 January: Amid heightened tensions after troops killed seven anti-government protesters on Friday gunmen killed two soldiers and kidnapped three others in a series of shootings in Fallujah - 26 January: Thousands of mourners gathered in the Iraqi city of Fallujah on Saturday at the funerals of Sunni protesters killed by army troops a day earlier - 1/2 February: Hundreds of thousands of Iraqis protesting against alleged discrimination and PM Nuri al-Maliki in new rallies in Sunni-majority parts of the country - 22 February: Anti-al-Qaeda fighters targeted near Baghdad as fresh demonstrations are held against Maliki's Shia-led government - 24 April: After Iraqi forces raided a Sunni protest camp and deadly clashes between security forces and protesters in a wave of revenge attacks, gunmen seized control of Sulaiman Bek north of Baghdad - 31 August: Thousands of protesters in and around Baghdad and south Iraq angrily railed against lawmakers' lavish benefits
2014: 8 March 2014: Iraqi women protest bill permitting marriage of girls aged 9
2015: 8 February 2015: Baghdad residents are relieved following the end of their city's curfew after a decade - 1 August 2015: Several hundred Iraqis took to the streets of Baghdad to vent their anger at the electricity shortages, which they blamed on government corruption 12 years after Iraq's infrastructure was severely damaged during the 2003 USA-led invasion and chronic power shortages ever since - 5 August: Iraqis complain of poor government services as heat rises - 8 August: Thousands of demonstrators turned out on Friday in Baghdad and southern Iraq to protest against rampant corruption and abysmal electricity services, calling for officials to be held to account
2016: 26 April 2016: Hundreds of thousands of people have taken to the streets of Baghdad to protest at a months-long political crisis and lack of reform - 21 May 2016: At least four anti-government protesters have been killed and 90 injured as police forces ejected them from Baghdad’s heavily fortified green zone, according to medical sources
2017: 11 février 2017: Les forces de sécurité irakiennes ont utilisé des gaz lacrymogènes contre plusieurs milliers de partisans du religieux chiite Moktada al Sadr qui manifestaient à Bagdad, les heurts ont fait au moins sept morts
Since July 2018 Iraqi protests: July 2018 Iraqi protests - 14 July 2018: Iraq protests spread to several cities including Najaf, Nasiriya, Baghdad and Amara - 15 juillet 2018: Deux personnes ont été tuées dans le sud de l'Irak au cours d'un mouvement de contestation sociale qui gagne du terrain, poussant les autorités à décréter un couvre-feu à Bassora - 15 July 2018: Iraqis demanding better public services and jobs took to the streets again on Sunday in the southern oil-rich province of Basra, as authorities put security forces on high alert and blocked internet - 16 July 2018: Mass protests sweep Iraq, target pro-Iran militias and parties, as Baghdad government shuts Internet and sends USA-trained elite counter-terror units to quell economic unrest - 19 July 2018: Protests over widespread unemployment, pollution, dirty drinking water and electricity failures during a stifling heat wave spread through cities in Iraq's oil-rich Shia south, where residents are some of the country’s poorest
September 2018: 1 September 2018: Iraqis clash with security forces in southern oil hub of Basra in protest over neglect, demanding for better public services and an end to pervasive corruption - 5 September 2018: Seven dead, more than 30 wounded, as government forces respond to demonstrators in Basra because of lack of public services - 8 September 2018: Protesters in Basra have attacked or set fire to nearly every government building, including the headquarters of the ruling Da’wa Party, the offices of the state-run Iraqiya TV station, as well as the Iranian consulate and the headquarters of almost every Iranian-backed militia in the city - 25 September 2018: Masked gunmen shot dead human rights activist and mother of four Soad al-Ali, who has been involved in organizing protests demanding better services in the city, outside a supermarket in Basra on Tuesday
May 2019 'no to war' protests: 25 May 2019: Thousands of protesters and supporters of populist Iraqi Shi'ite Muslim cleric, who once led Shi'ite militiamen against USA forces and is vocally critical of Iranian influence in Iraq, chant 'no to war' and 'yes to Iraq', urging political and factional leaders to stay out of any conflict between Baghdad's two biggest allies, Iran and the USA, after Iranian proxies in Iraq reportedly fired rockets into Baghdad's USA, British, Australian and Egyptian embassies area
Since October 2019 protests: October 2019 Iraqi protests, an ongoing series of protests that consisted of demonstrations, marches, sit-ins and civil disobedience, starting on 1 October 2019 - 2 October 2019: Security forces fired in the air and used tear gas to disperse groups of demonstrators in Baghdad, killing one and wounding six in renewed protests after violent confrontations between protesters and police a day earlier, officials said - 3 October 2019: The death toll from mass rallies in Iraq against corruption and unemployment rose to 18 on Thursday, as the leaderless protest movement spread to virtually all of the south, and as the internet is down across most of Iraq on the third day of protests that were called for on social media, with a monitor saying 'intentional restrictions' have caused the near-blackout, and as Iraqi authorities don't comment on the blackout following a similar pattern in 2018
6 October 2019 UN demands end of government's violence: 6 October 2019: 'Five days of reported deaths and injuries', this must stop, said UN’s Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert, calling for an end to government's violence that left nearly 100 people dead, as police forces broke up a mass rally in the east of Baghdad, where protesters faced volleys of tear gas and live rounds
25 October 2019 protests and killed protesters: 25 octobre 2019: Quatre manifestants ont été tués vendredi par balles à Nassiriya, dans le sud de l'Irak, où les manifestants ont incendié le siège du gouvernorat lors de la reprise de la contestation antigouvernementale, selon des sources médicales et policières
26 October 2019 protests and killed protesters: 26 October 2019: Renewed anti-government protests across Iraq left more than 40 people dead on Friday through tear gas, live rounds and fires, a watchdog and security sources told AFP, as twelve people died in the southern city of Diwaniyah alone, while setting fire to the headquarters of the powerful Iran-backed Badr organization, and several died while trying to storm the offices of Asaib Ahl al-Haq, another Iran-backed armed faction, and as World Bank says one of five Iraqis still lives in poverty and youth unemployment amounts 25%, in OPEC’s second-biggest oil producing and the 12th most corrupt nation in the world - 26 octobre 2019: Des centaines d'Irakiens manifestent samedi à Bagdad sous les gaz lacrymogènes, peu avant une réunion du Parlement
27 October 2019 protests and killed protesters: 27 October 2019: Death toll rises as Iraqis rage against government in renewed protests, as at least 49 protesters killed in last two days, including several hit by gas canisters, and as powerful Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr joins protests, upping pressure on Baghdad - 27 October 2019: Video of a protester holding an Iraqi flag while apparently being gunned down went viral over the weekend - 27 October 2019: Anti-government protesters defy bloody crackdown in Iraq, as hundreds refuse to leave Tahrir square in Baghdad despite further deadly clashes with security forces
28 October 2019 school and university students protest: 28 October 2019: Iraqi security forces on Monday fired tear gas at school and university students who defied a warning from the PM and joined anti-government protests that have left about 231 people dead over the past month
29 October 2019 protests and regime violence: 29 October 2019: 18 protesters killed in Iraq as pressure on government mounts, and as more than 800 protesters are wounded when security forces open fire on crowds in Karbala in one of worst attacks since demonstrators began anti-government rallies rejecting corruption, lack of services, unemployment and other grievances - 29 October 2019: Iraq's young protesters count cost of a month of violence, as more than 250 people have died and thousands injured in anti-government protests
31 October 201 after Iranian visit snipers shot demonstrators: 31 October 2019: The day after Iranian regime's Qassim Soleimani’s visit, the clashes between the protesters and security forces in Iraq became far more violent, with the death toll soaring past 100 as unidentified snipers shot demonstrators
1 November 2019 protest against government and Iranian regime: 1 November 2019: Iraqis pour into streets for biggest protest day since Saddam - 1 November 2019: The protest movement in Iraq has pressed its demand for the removal of the government, staring down an embattled political elite and the widespread influence of the Iranian regime, which has not faced a threat to its authority of this scale in Iraq
2 November 2019 Gulf port Umm Qasr protests: 2 November 2019: Thousands of protesters were blocking all roads leading to Iraq's main Gulf port Umm Qasr on Saturday, after security forces used live rounds and tear gas on them overnight, security sources said, after thousands were demonstrating on Friday in Basra, the nearest big city to the port
3 November 2019: 3 November 2019: Iraqi protesters blocked roads in Baghdad on Sunday to raise pressure on the government to resign after more than a week of renewed mass demonstrations - 3 November 2019: Iran’s determination to shore up Iraq’s unpopular government does not augur well for democracy in the Middle East
4 November 2019 3 Iraqi protesters against Iranian regime shot dead: 4 November 2019: 3 Iraqi protesters were shot dead and 19 were wounded overnight during a demonstration outside the Iranian consulate in Iraq’s city of Karbala, as health officials in Karbala say security forces used live ammunition to disperse angry demonstrators, spray-painting 'Karbala is free, Iran out, out!' on the concrete blocks surrounding the imposing Iranian consulate, saying 'they intend to kill, not disperse', and asking 'why are they killing their own countrymen for another country?'
5 November 2019 more protesters killed: 5 November 2019: At least 3 anti-government protesters have been killed in clashes with security forces in southern Iraq, officials said Tuesday, as authorities tried to reopen the country's main port, which had been blocked by demonstrators for three days
6 November 2019 protests: 6 November 2019: Mainly directed at Iraq’s own political leaders, Iraqi protests reveal long-simmering anger at Iranian regime and resentment at its influence in the country as protesters in Baghdad’s Tahrir Square are using their shoes again, slapping them against banners depicting Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
9 November 2019 Iraqi regime's violence: 9 novembre 2019: Dans la ville de Bassora, trois manifestants ont été tués et des dizaines blessés par les forces de l'ordre qui ont tiré à balles réelles sur les protestataires, selon des sources médicales, alors que les forces de sécurité ont chassé samedi les manifestants antigouvernementaux de plusieurs de leurs campements en Irak, après un accord politique qui prévoit le maintien du pouvoir en place
10 November more killed and wounded protesters: 10 November 2019: Iraqi regime's forces killed 6 anti-government protesters and wounded more than 100 others on Saturday, pushing them back from three flashpoint bridges in central Baghdad, medical and security officials said, as in the southern city of Basra 3 more protesters were killed overnight, raising the death toll there to 8, and as the regime continues to release promises, blocking access to the internet - 10 novembre 2019: Malgré un accord pour un 'retour à la vie normale', les forces du régime ont intensifié la répression
14 November 2019 many protesters killed and wounded: 14 November 2019: In clashes between Iraqi protesters and security forces in central Baghdad four people were kille and 62 wounded 62 on Thursday, Iraqi medical and security officials said
15 November 2019 protest and killed protesters: 15 November 2019: A fresh wave of shootings by Iraqi security forces has left at least three people dead in central Baghdad after protesters demanded widespread changes
17 November 2019 protest: 17 November 2019: Iraq anti-government protesters block roads amid strike call, as at least 320 Iraqis have been killed and thousands wounded since October over widespread corruption, lack of job opportunities and poor basic services despite the country’s oil wealth
18 November 2019 Umm Qasr protests: 18 November 2019: Anti-government demonstrators in southern Iraq blocked roads leading to the Umm Qasr port, responsible for the bulk of the country’s commodities imports, on Monday, while the country’s central bank reduced working hours because of ongoing demonstrations, security officials said
21 November 2019 protests and regime's violence: 21 November 2019: Renewed clashes overnight in Baghdad between anti-government demonstrators and regime's armed forces killed four protesters shooting live fire and tear gas canisters at protesters, aimed directly at the head, Iraqi and hospital officials said Thursday, as the altercations on two key bridges in the Iraqi capital also left at least 44 people wounded
24 November 2019 Nassiriya protests and regime's violence: 24 November 2019: Regime's forces opened fire on protesters in the southern Iraqi city of Nassiriya late on Saturday, killing at least three people, using live ammunition, as more than 50 others were wounded, mainly by live bullets and tear gas canisters in clashes in the city, police and medical sources said
27 November 2019 three protesters killed: 27 November 2019: Three protesters were killed and 35 wounded by security forces in southern Iraq, when armed forces fired live ammunition and threw tear gas canister, after the previous day’s sit-ins and road closures, according to officials speaking on condition of anonymity
28 November 2019 at least 13 protesters killed by regime: 28 November 2019: At least 13 Iraqis have been killed and another 70 people were injured in a fresh wave of protests in the southern city of Nasiriya, as armed forces opened fire and used tear gas against protesters, taking to the streets to demand more jobs, an end to corruption, and better public services since 1 October
29 November 2019 Iraqi armed forces have shot dead at least 45 protesters: 29 November 2019: Iraqi armed forces have shot dead at least 45 protesters after demonstrators stormed and torched an Iranian consulate in Najaf, in what could mark a turning point in the uprising against the Iranian regime backed authorities
30 November 2019 protesters continue blocking bridges: 30 November 2019: Three-day mourning continues in Iraqi cities as protesters continue blocking bridges, and as protesters say Adel Abdel Mahdi’s announced resignation is ‘only the first step’ in rooting out government corruption
1 December 2019 Iraqi anti-government protests: 1 December 2019: Iraqis press anti-government protests as PM steps down and as 3 anti-government protesters were shot dead and at least 58 others wounded in Baghdad and southern Iraq on Saturday
4 December 2019 protests: 4 December 2019: Demonstrators torch Iranian consulate in the Iraqi city of Najaf as building was empty, and as politicians in Baghdad continue talks on a new PM and widespread protests continue, decrying corruption, poor services, lack of jobs and calling for an end to the political system that was imposed after the 2003 USA invasion
22 December 2019 thousands rally in Iraq against Iran’s political influence: 22 December 2019: Thousands took to the streets in Iraq’s capital and across the south against Iran’s political influence, as ahead of deadline for choosing new PM, protesters rail against candidacy of Qusay al-Suhail, who officials say is Tehran’s preferred pick
24 December 2019 les Irakiens contre une classe politique qu'ils accusent d'être corrompue, incompétente, et inféodée à l'Iran: 24 décembre 2019: En dépit de près de 460 morts et 25'000 blessés dans la répression des manifestations, les Irakiens coupent de nouveau mardi des routes et maintiennent la plupart des administrations fermées dans le sud de l'Irak pour protester contre toute nomination d'un Premier ministre ayant déjà été aux affaires
25 December 2019 protests following deadly attack: 25 décembre 2019: La mort d'un manifestant visé par un attentat et la tentative d'assassinat d'un célèbre satiriste font gronder la colère des Irakiens, qui poursuivent mercredi leur mobilisation en dépit du vote d'une réforme électorale qu'ils réclamaient
26 December 2019 demonstrations against Iran-backed PM pick: 26 December 2019: Demonstrators slam choice of government insider to replace leader who resigned, as protests regain momentum
3 January 2020 Iraqis demonstrators broke into song after a USA strike killed top Iranian commander Soleimani: 3 January 2020: Iraqis, who have demonstrated for months against a government they see as beholden to Iran, broke into song and dance Friday after a USA strike killed top Iranian commander Soleimani, cheering in Baghdad’s iconic Tahrir Square, the epicentre of their movement, 'Oh Qasem Soleimani, this is a divine victory', an AFP photographer said
8 January 2020 anti-Iran and anti-government protests: 8 January 2020: Anti-government protesters in Iraq have set fires and closed streets near Baghdad's Tahrir Square during a demonstration against the Iranian missile strike that targeted two military bases in Iraq housing USA troops, shouting 'Iran out, out' before they were dispersed by regime forces
18 January 2020 protester killed in Baghdad: 18 January 2020: Protester killed in Baghdad clashes as demonstrators try to cross key bridge
19 January 2020 anti-regime protests: 19 January 2020: Clashes, demonstrations erupt throughout Iraq shutting down roads and bridges, as the January 20 deadline for authorities to meet the demands of the people approaches, and after protesters on Saturday burned the Iran-backed Hezbollah headquarters in Iraq
20 January 2020 Iraqi armed forces fire tear gas and live rounds: 20 January 2020: Iraqi armed forces fired tear gas and live rounds during clashes with anti-government protesters overnight and on Monday morning in Baghdad, wounding at least 13 demonstrators
25 January 2020 Iraqi armed forces set fire to anti-government protest tents: 25 January 2020: Iraqi armed forces set fire to anti-government protest tents in the country's south early Saturday and re-opened key public squares in Baghdad that had been occupied by demonstrators for months
26 January 2020 armed forces shot live rounds against protesters: 26 January 2020: Armed forces shot live rounds to clear protest hotspots in Baghdad and southern Iraq for a second day Sunday, sparking skirmishes with demonstrators determined to keep up their movement
29 January 2020 more protesters killed: 29 janvier 2020: La répression des manifestations qui secouent l'Irak a fait de nouveaux morts mardi tandis qu'une chaîne de télé a été interdite de diffusion
27 July 2020 2 anti-government protesters killed and 21 injured in Baghdad: 27 July 2020: Two anti-government protesters were killed and 21 were injured in Baghdad in new clashes between demonstrators and Iraqi armed forces, human rights monitors and officials said, as since October 2019 over 600 demonstrators have been killed during protests due to live fire and tear gas used by armed forces
25 October 2020 protesters gather on anniversary of protest movement: 25 October 2020: Protesters gather on anniversary of protest movement in Baghdad and other cities in southern provinces, demanding reforms and end to corruption
1 October 2021 Iraqis have taken to the streets in Baghdad to mark two years since fierce protests and bloody crackdown: 1 October 2021: Hundreds of Iraqis have taken to the streets in Baghdad to mark two years since fierce protests roiled the Iraqi capital, fuelled by anger over corruption and unemployment, as about 1,000 protesters marched to Tahrir Square on Friday, carrying photos of friends and relatives killed by security forces during the uprising, which began in October 2019 and fizzled out after a bloody crackdown resulted in the death of over 600 people
5 November 2021 supporters of parties that suffered losses in latest polls clash with security forces: 5 November 2021: Protests against the results of Iraq’s recent parliamentary election have turned violent in Baghdad, with demonstrators denouncing 'fraud' clashing with security forces outside the capital’s high-security Green Zone, after supporters of pro-Iranian groups, which suffered large losses in the polls, threw stones at security forces, who fired tear gas and shot in the air to disperse the crowd on Friday
28 July 2022 protesters storm Iraq parliament in support of cleric Moqtada al-Sadr: 28 July 2022: Hundreds of supporters of powerful Iraqi cleric al-Sadr danced and sang in parliament after storming Baghdad’s high-security Green Zone in protest at a rival bloc’s nomination for PM, as police fired barrages of teargas in a bid to stop the protesters from breaching the gates of the heavily fortified Green Zone, but the crowds surged forward and entered parliament
Iraqi society, culture, religion and human rights in Iraq: Iraqi society
Human rights in Iraq: Human rights in post-invasion Iraq - Human rights in Iraq - Law of Iraq
Governorates and districts of Iraq: Governorates (provinces) of Iraq - Districts of Iraq
Baghdad Governorate: Baghdad Governorate
Baghdad city: City of Baghdad city - Neighborhoods of Baghdad - History of Baghdad
Economy of Baghdad: Economy of Baghdad, accounting for 22.2% of Iraq's population and 40% of the country's gross domestic product
Timeline of Baghdad: Timeline of Baghdad since 1,792 BC, as Babylonian city of Baghdadu in existence
Since 1,792 BC Baghdadu city becoming a major capital city in the Babylonian Empire: Since 1,792 BC Babylonian city of Baghdadu becoming a major capital city in the Babylonian Empire, at the time of Hammurabi's reign, as Babylonia was called 'the country of Akkad', that was often involved in rivalry with the older state of Assyria - including Assyria to the north (today Hassakh province and ancient city of Nineveh, today on the outskirts of Mosul in northern Iraq, located on the eastern bank of the Tigris river, formerly the capital and largest city of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, as well as the largest city in the world for several decades), Andarig (including towns of Andarig and Kurds), Yamad (today Idlib, Hama, Lattakia and Aleppo provinces), Mari (an ancient Semitic city-state 11km north-west of Abu Kamal on the Euphrates River western bank, some 120km southeast of Deir ez-Zor, and today approximately al-Raqqah, Deir Ezzor provinces in Syria), Qatna (today Rif Damasqh province, including Damascus), and Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar in Iraq's Diyala governorate, an ancient Sumerian and later Akkadian city and city-state in central Mesopotamia) to the east, neighbouring ancient Iran - According to Sumerian sources the land of the Amorites - appearing as an uncivilized and nomadic people in early Mesopotamian writings from Sumer, Akkad, and Assyria - is associated with the lands to the west of the Euphrates, including Canaan - today northern Israel - , and what was to become Syria by the 3rd century BC.
6th century BC Cyrus Cylinder and human rights: Cyrus Cylinder, an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several pieces, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia's Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great, and dubbed the 'first declaration of human rights'. It dates from the 6th century BC - discovered in the ruins of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Babylon, now in modern Iraq in 1879 - and was used as a foundation deposit following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, when the Neo-Babylonian Empire was invaded by Cyrus and incorporated into his Persian Empire
Amorites land west of the Euphrates, including Canaa, and what was to become 3rd century BC Syria: According to Sumerian sources the land of the Amorites - appearing as an uncivilized and nomadic people in early Mesopotamian writings from Sumer, Akkad, and Assyria - is associated with the lands to the west of the Euphrates, including Canaan - today northern Israel - , and what was to become Syria by the 3rd century BC.
812-813 siege of Baghdad between al-Amin and al-Ma'mun for the right belief: 812-813 siege of Baghdad, part of a civil war between al-Amin - the sixth Arab Abbasid Caliph who succeeded his father Harun al-Rashid in 809 and ruled until he was deposed and killed in 813 during the civil war by his half-brother al-Ma'mun - and al-Ma'mun for the right belief i.e. for the 'Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad'. The siege lasted from August 812 until September 813. The siege is described in great detail by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, as the casualties and losses for Al-Amin's forces were high. Then Muhammad was forced to lift the siege after his men informed him that his brother Malik Shah has captured Hamadan.
January–July 1157 siege of Baghdad, the last Seljuq attempt to capture Baghdad from the Abbasids: January–July 1157 siege of Baghdad, the last Seljuq attempt to capture Baghdad from the Abbasids. Caliph al-Muqtafi successfully defended his capital against the coalition armies of Seljuq Sultan Muhammad of Hamadan and Qutb ad-Din of Mosul, after in 1133 the caliph, deserted by his troops, was taken prisoner. Left in the caliphal tent, in the sultan's absence, he was found murdered while reading the Quran. To avenge his father's death, the new Caliph Al-Rashid Billah insulted the envoy of sultan Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud. In January 1157, Muhammad reached the walls of western Baghdad. The following Siege of Baghdad was a fifty-day blockade of Baghdad, Later Al-Muqtafi eventually realized that the siege was useless, so he preferred to fight for his throne. Thus the Siege of Baghdad came to end on 13 July 1157
16th–19th centuries timeline of Baghdad: 16th–19th centuries timeline of Baghdad, as in 1508 city was taken by Persian Ismail I., as in 1534 city of Baghdad captured by the Ottomans, as in 1535 the city becomes capital of the Baghdad Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire, as in 1544 city was taken by forces of Suleiman I., as in 1602 city was taken by forces of Abbas I of Persia, as in 1623 Baghdad captured by by Safavids, as in 1625 siege of Baghdad during the Ottoman–Safavid Wars began, as in 1638 Baghdad captured of by forces of Ottoman Murad IV., in 1683 city besieged and in 1780 Mamluk Sulayman Pasha the Great came in power, as in 1799 the city was besieged by Wahhabi-Saudi forces, as in 1816 Mamluk Dawud Pasha came in power
20th century timeline of Baghdad: 21st century timeline of Baghdad
March 1917 Fall of Baghdad in Central Powers' World War I, followed by British Mandate: March 1917 Fall of Baghdad during the Mesopotamia Campaign, fought between the forces of the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire in Central Powers' World War I, and Indian Army in Baghdad, as the following British temporary government evolved into the British Mandate for Mesopotamia and Mandatory Iraq
May 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War during WWII, the Holocaust and since 1948 new State of Israel: May 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War, a British-led Allied military campaign during Axis Powers' Second World War against the Kingdom of Iraq under Rashid Gaylani, who had seized power in the 1941 Iraqi coup d'état, with assistance from NSDAP-ruled Germany and Italy. The campaign resulted in the downfall of Gaylani's government, the re-occupation of Iraq by the British, and the return to power of the Regent of Iraq, Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, a British ally. 1948 Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, preparing an independent new State of Israel following the Jewisch disaspora since almost 2,000 years
1968-2003 Ba'athist Iraq under the rule of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party: 1968 coup d'état led by civilian Ba'ath Party members in contrast to the military coup of 1963 - 1968-2003 Ba'athist Iraq under the rule of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. This period began with high economic growth and soaring prosperity, but ended with Iraq facing social, political, and economic stagnation, followed by USA and UK led 2003 invasion, and the search of a new Iraqi government
21st century in Baghdad: 21st century in Baghdad
April 2003 Battle of Baghdad: April 2003 Battle of Baghdad, a military invasion of Baghdad as part of the invasion of Iraq. The USA declared victory on April 14, but Baghdad suffered serious damage to its civilian infrastructure, economy, and cultural inheritance from the fighting, as well as looting and arson. During the invasion, the Al-Yarmouk Hospital in south Baghdad saw a steady rate of about 100 new patients an hour. Over 2,000 Iraqi soldiers as well as 34 coalition troops were killed in the battle. After the fall of Baghdad, Coalition forces entered the city of Kirkuk on April 10 and Tikrit on April 15, 2003 and the war lasted until 2011, when the Arab spring began in the 'Middle East'.
2014 growing slums: 6 May 2014: Iraq faces challenge to find solution for growing slums
2015 end of their city's curfew after decade: 8 February 2015: Baghdad residents are relieved following the end of their city's curfew after a decade
February 2015 Baghdad’s first female mayor Zekra Alwach: 21 February 2015: Baghdad’s first female mayor Zekra Alwach to take reins
November 2015 Baghdad's slums and political parties: 11 November 2015: Baghdad's slums, fertile recruiting ground for political parties
25 April 2021 Iraq says 82 died in fire at Baghdad hospital housing covid-19 patients: 24 April 2021 Baghdad hospital fire - 25 April 2021: Iraq says 82 died in fire at Baghdad hospital housing Covid patients, as negligence blamed for Saturday night blaze and as PM dismisses key hospital officials
19 July 2021 Baghdad suicide bombing claimed by ISIL: 19 July 2021 Baghdad suicide bombing - 20 July 2021: A suicide bomber has killed at least 35 people and wounded more than 60 citizens in a crowded market in the Sadr City neighbourhood of Baghdad on Monday, the eve of the Eid al-Adha festival, security and hospital sources said, as Islamic State group terrorists claimed responsibility for the attack, on the eve of the Eid al-Adha festival, security and hospital sources said
1 August 2022 Shia factions mass in the streets of Baghdad: 1 August 2022: Shia factions mass in the streets of Baghdad following occupation of Iraqi parliament amid a political vacuum, as protesters from rival Shia blocs have also taken to the streets of several Iraqi cities in a show of force amid a 10-month political standoff about naming a new government
6 August 2022 Baghdad residents struggled to cope with the scorching heat: 6 August 2022: Baghdad residents struggled to cope with the scorching heat on Friday as temperatures soared above 50 degrees Celsius. Such heatwaves in Iraq add to the population's hardships as the country suffers from regular power cuts amid Irak's economic and political crisis.
Akkad former Mesopotamian city: Akkad former Mesopotamian city that was the capital of the Akkadian Empire, and that was the dominant political force in Mesopotamia during a period of about 150 years in the last third of the 3rd millennium BC. Its exact location is unknown, although there are a number of candidate sites, mostly situated east of the Tigris, roughly between the modern cities of Samarra and Baghdad
Akkad area and distribution of land in the 'Old Babylonian Empire': Location of Akkad city, as many older proposals put Akkad on the Euphrates, but more recent discussions conclude that a location on the Tigris is more likely. Based on an Old Babylonian period itinerary from Mari, Akkad would be on the Tigris just downstream of the current city of Baghdad. Mari documents also indicate that Akkad is sited at a river crossing. On the Land grant to Marduk-apla-iddina I by Meli-Shipak II the recipient is given land in of the city of Agade located around the settlement of Tamakku adjacent to the Nar Sarri (Canal of the King) in Bit-Piri’-Amurru, north of the 'land of Istar-Agade' and east of Kibati canal, by the Kassite ruler Meli-Shipak II ca. 1186–1172 BC - 1894 BC – c. 1595 BC 'Old Babylonian Empire' coming after the end of Sumerian power with the destruction of the Third Dynasty of Ur, and the subsequent Isin-Larsa period - 626 BC - 539 BC 'Neo-Babylonian Empire', the last of the Mesopotamian empires to be ruled by monarchs native to Mesopotamia. Beginning with Nabopolassar's coronation as King of Babylon in 626 BC and being firmly established through the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 612 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire and its ruling Chaldean dynasty were short-lived, conquered after less than a century by the Persian Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC. The defeat of the Assyrians and the transfer of empire to Babylon marked the first time the city, and southern Mesopotamia in general, had risen to dominate the Ancient Near East since the collapse of Hammurabi's Old Babylonian Empire nearly a thousand years earlier.
Samarra citySamarra city in Iraq, standing on the east bank of the Tigris in the Saladin Governorate, 125km north of Baghdad. The city of Samarra was founded by Abbasid Caliph Al-Mutasim for his Turkish professional army of around 3,000 soldiers which grew to tens of thousands later. In 2003 the city had an estimated population of 348,700 citizens. During the Iraqi Civil War, Samarra was in the 'Sunni Triangle' of resistance. In medieval times, Samarra was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate and is the only remaining Islamic capital that retains its original plan, architecture and artistic relics
Basra city and port: Basra city located on the Shatt al-Arab, with an estimated population of 2.5 million in 2012, as Basra is Iraq's main port, although it does not have deep water access, which is handled at the port of Umm Qasr
Timeline of Basra since 638 CE: Timeline of Basra since 638 CE
November 1914 Battle of Basra in World War I: November 1914 Battle of Basra, a battle of World War I which took place south of the city of Basra between British and Ottoman troops, resulting in the British capture of Basra
March-April 1991 uprising in Basra: March-April 1991 uprising in Basra, the beginning of the unrest in Iraq following the Gulf War, as uprising started after demoralized troops throughout Iraq began to rebel against Saddam Hussein and Basra became a chaotic battlefield between military defectors and Iraqi Republican Guard, with most of Basra had been retaken by mid March amid a crackdown against civilians and suspected supporters of the uprising, following USA's withdrawl abandoning the Iraqi democracy and the opposition against Saddam Hussein's dictatorship
Basra in the 21st century: Timeline of Basra in the 21st century
March-April 2003 Battle of Basra started by the United Kingdom and USA: March-April 2003 Battle of Basra, one of the first battles of the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United Kingdom and USA
April 2003 aerial bombing by the invading forces: April 2003 aerial bombing by the invading forces using cluster bombs and also using heavy metals, such as lead and mercury
Since April 2003 aftermath of Battle of Basra, health issues and withdrawl of victimised Red Cross: Since April 2003 aftermath of Battle of Basra and health issues, as the Red Cross, itself victimised by bombings, withdrew from Basra in October 2003, exacerbating ongoing health issues
December 2007 UK troops 'return' Basra to Iraqis: 17 December 2007 UK troops 'return' Basra to Iraqis
Dhi Qar Governorate: Dhi Qar Governorate in southern Iraq with its provincial capital Nasiriyah, as prior to 1976 the governorate was known as Muntafiq Governorate, as Dhi Qar was the heartland of the ancient Iraqi civilization of Sumer, and includes the ruins of Ur, Eridu, Lagash, Larsa, Girsu, Umma, and Bad-tibira, and as the southern area of the governorate is covered by Mesopotamian Marshes
Nasiriyah city: Nasiriyah city, the capital of the Dhi Qar Governorate in Iraq, situated along the banks of the Euphrates River about 360 km southeast of Baghdad and near the ruins of the ancient city of Ur, as its population in 2003 was about 560,000 citizens, making it the fourth largest city in Iraq, and as it had a religiously diverse population of Muslims, Mandaeans and Jews in the early 20th century, but today its inhabitants are predominantly Shias
History and timeline of Nasiriyah: History and timeline of Nasiriyah city
1872 establishment in the Ottoman era by Nasir al-Sadoon Pasha: 1872 establishment in the Ottoman era, founded by Nasir al-Sadoon Pasha of the Muntafiq tribal confederation
27 November 2020 deadls Al-Habboubi Square attack: 27 November 2020 Al-Habboubi Square attack, as part of the 2019-2021 Iraqi protests, as aAfter finishing Friday prayers, an armed group known as the 'Peace Companies' attacked civil protesters at the Al-Habboubi Square in Nasiriyah leaving 4 civil protesters dead and 70 protesters injured, as the attack's alleged motive was to expel protesters from the area
13 July 2021 rising public anger over Iraq’s healthcare system after ward fire: 13 July 2021: The death toll from an overnight inferno in a covid-19 hospital ward in southern Iraq's city of Nasireyah has risen to 64, amid rising anger and questions about the competence of the country’s health sector, as the blaze was the second in a coronavirus unit in the past three months, and after more than 80 people died in a Baghdad hospital in April, and as in both cases the fires were thought to have started after oxygen tanks ignited
Diyala Governorate in eastern Iraq: Diyala Governorate in eastern Iraq, extending to the northeast of Baghdad as far as the Iranian border, as its capital is Baqubah. A large portion of the province is drained by the Diyala River, a major tributary of the Tigris. Because of its proximity to two major sources of water, Diyala's main industry is agriculture, primarily dates grown in large groves. The province also contains one of the largest olive groves in the Middle East. It is also recognized as the orange capital of the Middle East. The Hamrin Mountains pass through the governorate.
27 October 2021 deadly ISIL attack in Diyala province in eastern Iraq: 27 October 2021: At least 11 people have been killed and others wounded in an ISIL attack on a village in Diyala province in eastern Iraq, according to the country’s security forces, as the attack targeted 'defenceless civilians' in the village of al-Hawasha, near the town of Muqdadiya
28 November 2021 Peshmerga soldiers killed in an ambushing attack by ISIL: 28 November 2021: Five Peshmerga fighters were killed in an ambushing attack by the ISIL armed group in northern Iraq, KRG said on Sunday, as also four Peshmerga were wounded in Diyala province on Saturday night, as the five Peshmerga killed were in a convoy on their way to attend to the wounded when they hit a roadside bomb planted by the armed group
Districts of Diyala Province: Districts of Diyala Province, including Al Khalis District, Al-Miqdadiya District, Ba'quba District, Balad Ruz District, Khanaqin District, Kifri District and Diyala Governorate
Diyala River: Diyala River, a tributary of the Tigris. It is formed by the confluence of Sirwan river and Tanjaro river in Darbandikhan Dam in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate of Northern Iraq, covering a total distance of 445km
Baqubah city: Baqubah city, the capital of Iraq's Diyala Governorate, located some 50 km to the northeast of Baghdad, on the Diyala River. In 2003 it had an estimated population of some 467,900 people. During the Abbasid Caliphate, it was known for its date and fruit orchards, irrigated by the Nahrawan Canal. It is now known as the centre of Iraq's commercial orange groves
History and timeline of Baqubah cityHistory and timeline of Baqubah city
Miqdadiyah city: Miqdadiyah city in the Diyala Governorate of Iraq. Its population of 155,968 citizens in 2014 is a mix of Arabs, Turkmens and Kurds. The city is located about 80km northeast of Baghdad and 30km northeast of Baquba
27 October 2021 deadly ISIL attack in Diyala province in eastern Iraq: 27 October 2021: At least 11 people have been killed and others wounded in an ISIL attack on a village in Diyala province in eastern Iraq, according to the country’s security forces, as the attack targeted 'defenceless civilians' in the village of al-Hawasha, near the town of Muqdadiya
Al Anbar Governorate: Al Anbar Governorate, geographically the largest Iraqi governorate with a population of 1,771,656 citizens in 2018 Population of Al Anbar - 2015 Al-Karmah offensive
2015 planned reforms against corruption and sectarian and party quotas for government positions: 13 August 2015: Iraq's Anbar governor announces to implement a package of reforms as part of PM's campaign to combat corruption and end sectarian and party quotas for government positions
Ramadi city: Ramadi city in central Iraq, the capital of Al Anbar Governorate about 110 kilometers west of Baghdad and 50 kilometers west of Fallujah, as the city extends along the Euphrates and is the largest city in Al-Anbar, as - after its foundation by the Ottoman Empire in 1879 - today with a population of about 223,500 people (2018), near the entirety of whom are Sunni Arabs from the Dulaim tribal confederation
Since 1987 University of Anbar: Since 1987 University of Anbar, an Iraqi university in Ramadi, founded in 1987 with a college of education and a college of girls' education, and then expanded until it reached university status in 2011 with 19 colleges
History of Ramadi: History of Ramadi
1917 Battles of Ramadi during WWI: 1917 Battles of Ramadi were fought between the forces of the British and Ottoman Empires in July and September during World War I, as the two sides contested the town of Ramadi in central Iraq, about 100 km west of Baghdad on the south bank of the Euphrates River, where an important Ottoman garrison was quartered, as the town's strategic position on the road between Aleppo and Baghdad made it a key British target during the Mesopotamian campaign, but the hostile climatic conditions meant that it took two attacks over the course of three months for the town to fall
2015/2016 Battle of Ramadi: 2015/2016 Battle of Ramadi, launched by the forces of Iraq to successfully recapture the city of Ramadi from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIL, which had taken the city earlier in 2015 in a previous battle, as air power now was a major component of the battle, as the USA's and other nations' airstrikes were the main reason why the city was recaptured by Iraqi forces, but predicting that it would take several months to clear the city of the bombs ISIL left behind, and at the time, Ramadi had suffered more damage than any other city or town in Iraq
Nineveh Governorate: Nineveh Governorate
Mosul city: Mosul city, a major city in northern Iraq located some 400 km north of Baghdad, standing on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank
Education in Mosul: Education in Mosul, having several universities and colleges (including the University of Mosul), and multiple highschools (some coeducational)
History of Mosul: History of Mosul
2016-2017 Battle of Mosul: 2016-2017 Battle of Mosul, a major military campaign launched by the Iraqi Government forces with allied militias, the Kurdistan Regional Government, and international forces to retake the city of Mosul from the Islamic State terrorists
March 2019 ferry disaster: 21 March 2019 Mosul ferry sinking - 21 March 2019: At least 94 people, including 19 children, have drowned after a ferry overloaded with revellers celebrating the Kurdish new year and Mother’s Day capsized in the Tigris river near Mosul in Iraq
Erbil Governorate: Erbil Governorate, a governorate of Iraq in Kurdistan Region. It is home to the capital and economic hub of the autonomous region of Kurdistan Region
Erbil city: Erbil city, the capital and most populated city in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. It has around 1.5 million inhabitants, while Erbil Governorate has 2,932,800 inhabitants as of 2020
History of Erbil: History of Erbil, as the region in which Erbil lies was largely under Sumerian domination from c. 3000 BC, until the rise of the Akkadian Empire (2335–2154 BC), which united all of the Akkadian Semites and Sumerians of Mesopotamia under one rule. Today the Assyrian people, a Syriac-speaking community who claim descent from Akkadian speakers, endure as a minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, south east Turkey and north west Iran, their population is estimated to be 3.3 million.
Erbil Governorate: Erbil Governorate, a governorate of Iraq in Kurdistan Region. It is home to the capital and economic hub of the autonomous region of Kurdistan Region
Timeline of Erbil since 1232: Timeline of Erbil since Middle Ages
17 December 2021 at least 8 people died, several injured as torrential rains caused severe flooding in Erbil: 17 December 2021: At least eight people have died and several have been injured after torrential rains caused severe flooding in Erbil, the capital of the semi-autonomous Kurdish region of northern Iraq, according to officials
Demographics and minorities in Iraq: Demographics of Iraq - Ethnic groups in Iraq - Minorities in Iraq
Arabs in Iraq: Arabs in Iraq - Arabs have been the majority in Mesopotamia since the Sasanian Empire 224-637, from the eighth century following the Muslim conquest of Persia Arabic became the dominant language of Iraqi Muslims
Assyrians in Iraq: Assyrians in Iraq or Iraqi-Assyrians are an ethnoreligious and linguistic minority in present-day Iraq with significant populations in Baghdad, Dohuk and Nineveh Governorates - History of the Assyrian people - Assyrian homeland
Jews in modern Iraq: History of the Jews in modern Iraq
Kurds in Iraq: Kurds in Iraq, the largest ethnic minority in Iraq, comprising between 15% and 20% of the country's population, as Sunni Islam became the dominant religion of the Kurdish people Kurds made sure to keep spiritual identity separate from national identity and today many Muslim Kurds do not consider themselves particularly religious but secondary practices of Islam have a stronghold in Kurdish culture - History of the Kurdish people - Iraqi Kurdistan - Disputed territories of Northern Iraq
2016: 8 September 2016: Iranian Kurdish rebel group Kurdistan Freedom Party received military training in weapons and explosives from USA and European advisers as part of the international program backing Kurds in the war against Islamic State terrorists in Iraq
2017: September 2017 Iraqi Kurdistan independence referendum, scheduled to be held on 25 September 2017
Palestinians in Iraq: Palestinians in Iraq, most of whom have been residing in Iraq after they were expelled from their homeland in 1948, before 2003, there were approximately 34,000 mainly concentrated in Baghdad, however, since the 2003 Iraq war, the figure lies between 10,000 - 13,000
Iraqi Turkmens: Iraqi Turkmens are a Turkic ethnic group, mainly residing in northern Iraq, and the third largest ethnic group in Iraq after Arabs and Kurds
Yazidis: Yazidis are an ethnically Kurdish religious community indigenous to northern Mesopotamia
2016: 17 September 2016: Yazidi Nadia Murad Basee Taha, who survived rape and abuse as a sex slave of Islamic State terrorists, became a UN goodwill ambassador for the dignity of survivors of human trafficking, calling for justice for the victims of the terrorists and argued that the 2014 attack on the Yazidis should be recognised as a genocide
Religion in Iraq: Religion in Iraq - Freedom of religion in Iraq
Shia–Sunni relations in modern Iraq: Shia–Sunni relations in modern Iraq
June 2017: 22 June 2017: In another devastating blow to Iraq’s heritage, Islamic State terrorists blows up Mosul’s iconic leaning minaret and the adjacent mosque, that had stood for over 840 years, and where al-Baghdadi in 2014 declared himself 'caliph', as Iraqi PM said that the destruction of the Grand Nouri mosque is an admission by the militants that they are losing the fight for the country’s second-largest city
History of the Jews in Iraq: History of the Jews in Iraq - Talmudic Academies in Babylonia - History of the Jews in modern Iraq
Culture and languages of Iraq: Culture of Iraq - History of Mesopotamia - Architecture of Mesopotamia - Languages of Iraq - Modern Standard Arabic - Kurdish languages - Syriac language - Armenian language - Neo-Aramaic languages
Mesopotamian Arabic
Women in Iraq: Women in Iraq - Women's rights - Organization of Women's Freedom in Iraq
February 2014 Iraqi forces detaining thousands of women illegally, subjecting them to torture and abuse: 6 February 2014: Iraqi security forces are detaining thousands of women illegally and subjecting them to torture and abuse, Human Rights Watch says
8 March 2014 Iraqi women protest bill permitting marriage of girls aged 9: 8 March 2014: On internaational women's day Iraqi women protest bill permitting marriage of girls aged 9
14 December 2022 women are burning themselves in Iraqi Kurdistan: 14 December 2022: Women in Iraq are facing rising levels of domestic abuse. Cases of gender-based violence have seen a surge of 125% between 2020 and 2021, according to the United Nations. In the Kurdistan region, women who feel trapped in abusive households often see suicide by self-immolation as their only way out. The Kurdistan Regional Government has tried to combat violence against women, but many remain at risk.
Children in Iraq:
June 2016 3.6 million children in Iraq face risks of death, injury, sexual violence and recruitment: 30 June 2016: 3.6 million children in Iraq face risks of death, injury, sexual violence and recruitment, and a third of all Iraqi children need humanitarian aid, with conditions only getting worse following ongoing conflicts, Unicef says
July 2017: 5 July 2017: Years of living under Islamic State has left the children of Mosul with such dangerous levels of psychological damage they are unable to show emotion or play and are haunted by waking nightmares, according to 'Save the Children', based on discussions with children who had escaped to the Hammam al-Alil camp for displaced persons
Youth in Iraq: Youth in Iraq, Iraqis between 15–24 years old represent 19.6% of Iraq’s population of 32 million, the population continues to rise, but the youth population have experienced poor health from the effects of both malnutrition and poverty and securing employment is difficult for youth in Iraq
2014 almost 1 million young Iraqis aged 15-24 are registered as unemployed: 22 October 2014: Youth make up a major part of Iraq's population and almost 1 million of them aged 15-24 are registered as unemployed, Unesco says
Education in Iraq: Education in Iraq
Schools in Iraq: List of schools in Iraq
July 2017: 29 July 2017: Schoolgirls in Iraq’s Mosul aim to catch up on lost years after years of war, IS rule and despite difficult conditions
Universities in Iraq: Universities in Iraq
Violence against academics in post-invasion Iraq: Violence against academics in post-invasion Iraq since 2003
Health in Iraq: Health in Iraq
Water supply, quality and sanitation in Iraq: Water supply and sanitation in Iraq
Medical outbreaks, disasters and man-made disasters in Iraq: Medical outbreaks in Iraq - Disasters in Iraq - Man-made disasters in Iraq
2007 Iraq cholera outbreak: 2007 Iraq cholera outbreak
Since February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Iraq: Since February 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Iraq
Since February 2020 timeline of the covid-19 pandemic in Iraq: Timeline of the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Iraq - Overview of confirmed covid-19 cases in each Governorate of Iraq
14 April 2020 Iraq reports 1,378 covid-19 cases and 78 victims: 14 April 2020: Iraq reports 1,378 covid-19 cases and 78 victims
14 April 2020 Iraq suspends Reuters' licence over covid-19 but agency contradicts: 14 April 2020: Iraq has suspended the licence of the Reuters news agency after it published a story saying the number of confirmed covid-19 cases in the country was higher than officially reported, but Reuters said it stood by the story, which it said was based on multiple, well-placed medical and political sources, and fully represented the position of the Iraqi health ministry
Healthcare in Iraq: Healthcare in Iraq - Childbirth in Iraq
List of hospitals in Iraq: List of hospitals in Iraq, listed by city - Medical education in Iraq - Hospitals in Baghdad
24/25 April 2021 Baghdad hosptial fire: 24/25 April 2021 Baghdad hosptial fire at the Ibn al-Khatib hospital, that left at least 82 people dead and 110 others injured, as the fire was started by the explosion of oxygen tanks designated for covid-19 patients
13 July 2021 rising public anger over Iraq’s healthcare system after ward fire: 13 July 2021: The death toll from an overnight inferno in a covid-19 hospital ward in southern Iraq's city of Nasireyah has risen to 64, amid rising anger and questions about the competence of the country’s health sector, as the blaze was the second in a coronavirus unit in the past three months, and after more than 80 people died in a Baghdad hospital in April, and as in both cases the fires were thought to have started after oxygen tanks ignited
Media of Iraq: Media of Iraq - Media in Iraq by city - News agencies based in Iraq - Media in Iraqi Kurdistan
Media in Baghdad, Basra, Erbil, Mosul and Sulaymaniyah: Media in Baghdad - Economy and media of Basra - Media in Erbil - Media in Mosul - Media in Sulaymaniyah
2003 media coverage of USA/United Kingdom's Iraq War: 2003 media coverage of the Iraq War, as USA's und UK's invasion involved unprecedented USA media coverage, especially cable news networks, and the coverage itself became a source of controversy, as media outlets were accused of pro-war bias, reporters were casualties of both Iraqi and invaders' gunfire, and claims of censorship and propaganda became widespread
Newspapers in Iraq: Newspapers in Iraq
Broadcastingin Iraq: Radio in Iraq - Television in Iraq - 28 April 2013: Iraqi authorities announced that they had revoked the operating licenses of pan-Arab broadcaster Al-Jazeera and nine other satellite TV channels, alleging that they are promoting a sectarian agenda as the country grapples with a wave of violence - 24 October 2013: Iraqi journalist Bashar Abdulqader killed in Mosul
Internet in Iraq: Internet in Iraq - Iraqi news websites
December 2019 social media sets rules of media coverage: 24 December 2019: Armed with cameras, Iraqi protesters are shaping the nation's memory, as social media now sets the rules after the modest part it had in the 2011 uprising, providing videos showing Iraqis fleeing bullets fired by regime's armed forces and Shi’ite militias
Crime in Iraq: Crime in Iraq - War crimes in Iraq
Religiously motivated violence in Iraq: Religiously motivated violence in Iraq
December 2019 Iranian-backed militia stabbed Iraqis in Baghdad: 5 December 2019: More than a dozen people have been stabbed in a Baghdad square that has become a focal point for anti-government and anti-Iran protests after supporters of an Iranian-backed militia flooded the area
Terrorism in Iraq: Terrorism in Iraq - Terrorist incidents in Iraq by year - Since October 2003 suicide bombings in Baghdad
Since 2004 chlorine bombings in Iraq: Chlorine bombings in Iraq began as early as October 2004, when terrorists in Al Anbar province started using chlorine gas in conjunction with conventional vehicle-borne explosive devices
2013 terrorists planned to produce chemical poisons: 2 June 2013: A suspected al Qaeda cell captured that planned to produce chemical poisons such as mustard gas, government says
Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2016: Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2016
Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2017: Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2017
Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2018: Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2018
Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2019: Terrorist incidents in Iraq in 2019
21 January 2021 Baghdad bomb terrorist attack: 21 January 2021 Baghdad bombings, a terrorist attack carried out by two suicide bombers at an open-air market in central Baghdad - 21 January 2021: Two suicide bombers kill 28 shoppers in first Baghdad strike in three years, and dozens of civilians were wounded, as bomber in secondhand clothes market pretends to be ill before detonating device as people come to help
23 January 2021 deadly Baghdad attack: 23/24 janvier 2021: Onze combattants du Hachd al-Chaabi, une coalition de paramilitaires désormais intégrés à l’État irakien, ont été tués samedi soir dans une embuscade du groupe jihadiste État islamique au nord de Bagdad, ont rapporté à l’AFP
Attacks on buildings and structures in Iraq: Attacks on buildings and structures in Iraq - Attacks on diplomatic missions in Iraq - Marketplace attacks in Iraq - Attacks on religious buildings and structures in Iraq - Attacks on buildings and structures in Baghdad
May 2020 Katyusha rocket struck Baghdad's heavily fortified Green Zone: 19 May 2020: A Katyusha rocket struck Baghdad's heavily fortified Green Zone, the seat of Iraq's government, the first attack on the area since new PM was sworn in earlier this month
1 May 2021 4 jihadist attacks: 1 mai 2021: Dix-huit Irakiens ont été tués de nuit dans quatre attaques jihadistes, notamment dans la grande ceinture de Bagdad, ont indiqué à l’AFP des sources de sécurité
'Islamic State' terrorists: Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant - Timeline of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant events in 2014 - 2014 ISIL beheading incidents
2014: 25 September 2014: ISIS kill lawyer Samira Salih al-Nuaimi for 'apostasy' when she criticised them on Facebook for being religious bigots - 4 October 2014: Isis video shows murder of British hostage Alan Henning, who had gone to Syria to help victims of conflict by joining an aid convoy and was taken captive on December 26
2021 list of terrorist incidents linked to ISIL also in Iraq: 2021 list of terrorist incidents linked to ISIL, committed in Afghanistan, Iraq and Pakistan
Persecution of Yazidis and Assyrians by the 'Islamic State': Persecution of Yazidis by Islamic State - Persecution of Assyrians by the Islamic State
Destruction of cultural heritage by 'Islamic State' terrorists: Destruction of cultural heritage by Islamic State terrorists
Corruption in Iraq: Corruption in Iraq
Human trafficking in Iraq: Human trafficking in Iraq
Law enforcement in Iraq: Law enforcement in Iraq
Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 1918-2003, disputed territories and regional government: Iraqi–Kurdish conflict 1918-2003 - 16 March 1988 Halabja poison gas attack, genocidal massacre against the Kurdish people
Kurdistan Regional Government and disputed territories of Northern Iraq: Kurdistan Regional Government - Disputed territories of Northern Iraq
Timeline of Erbil since 1232: Timeline of Erbil since Middle Ages
Kirkuk–Ceyhan Oil Pipeline: Kirkuk–Ceyhan Oil Pipeline
2015 Financial and economic crisis in the Kurdistan region: 2015 Financial and economic crisis in the Kurdistan region
Iraqi Kurdistan society, politics and human rights: Iraqi society - Human rights in Iraqi Kurdistan
Elections and politics in Iraqi Kurdistan: Iraqi Kurdistan legislative election 25 July 2009
2012/2013: 28 July 2012: Kurd leader Massoud Barzani warns against budget cuts by Iraq - 10 January 2013: Syrian Kurds find refuge in northern Iraq - camp Domiz is home to about 30.000 Syrian Kurds who are allowed to move freely and work in the region - 14 mai: Les premiers rebelles du PKK arrivent en Irak après leur retrait de Turquie - 11 June 2013: More than 1,000 Kurdish career soldiers in the Iraqi army have deserted and want to be integrated into the Kurdish former rebel peshmerga militia - 26 June 2013: A Kurdish bloc won the most seats in one of two provinces that held delayed elections last week, surprisingly beating out the governor's Sunni Arab party - 28 July: A suicide car bomber rammed his vehicle into a Kurdish security patrol in northern city of Tuz Khormato killing eight people and wounding five more - 18 août 2013: Des milliers de Kurdes syriens affluent dans la région autonome du Kurdistan irakien en quête d'un peu de répit, loin des privations et des combats contre les jihadistes
Kurdistan Region/Israel relations: Kurdistan Region/Israel relations
Kurdistan Region/European Union relations: Kurdistan Region/European Union relations
Since July 2021 Belarus–European Union border crisis: Since July 2021 Belarus–European Union border crisis
Kurdistan Region/Syria relations: Kurdistan Region/Syria relations
Foreign relations of Iraq: Foreign relations of Iraq
Treaties of Iraq: Treaties of Iraq
Iraq/Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) relations: Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
2014: 12 June 2014: UN official to Iraq briefs Security Council saying there is no immediate threat to Baghdad - 2 July: UN and USA sharply criticised Iraqi leaders, warning time is running out after chaos in parliament despite calls for unity in the face of Isis offensive - 15 August: Iraq PM al-Maliki's decision to step down welcomed by UN's Ban Ki-moon, who urges meeting on nuclear-free Mideast - 20 September 2014: UN urges global support for Iraq to fight terror, reaffirms support for its force in Golan - 24 September 2014: As USA-led coalition's campaign against 'Islamic State' continues in Iraq and Syria, a UN Security Council committee blacklists more than a dozen foreign extremist fighters, fundraisers and recruiters tied to militant groups in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, Tunisia and Yemen - 18 October 2014: UN Security Council urges the international community to further strengthen support for the Iraqi government including Security Forces in the fight against Islamic State
Bilateral relations of Iraq: Bilateral relations of Iraq
Iraq/Australia relations: Iraq/Australia relations
Iraq/Bahrain relations: Iraq/Bahrain relations
Iraq/PR of China relations: Iraq/PR of China relations
Since February 2020 Chinese 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Iraq: Since February 2020 Chinese 2020 coronavirus pandemic in Iraq
2014-present Iranian intervention in Iraq: Iranian intervention in Iraq (2014–present)
Iraq/Turkey relations: Iraq/Turkey relations - Euphrates river
2008 Turkish incursion into northern Iraq2008 Turkish incursion into northern Iraq
August 2011 Turkey-Iraq cross-border raids: August 2011 Turkey-Iraq cross-border raids
Iraq/United Kingdom relations: Iraq/United Kingdom relations
British/USA-led Iraq War (2003-2011) and aftermath: Iraq War (2003-2011) - Category: Iraq War since 2003 - Bush and Blair determined to go to war regardless of the facts - memo of the meeting 31 January 2003 - Besetzung des Irak seit 2003 - "Iraq War Logs" (Tagebuch des Irakkriegs) - 104.924 recorded Iraqi deaths including 66.081 civilian deaths until 2009 - 20 October 2012: The families of two soldiers killed in Iraq have been told they can sue the Ministry of Defence for negligence - 21 December: Britain has paid out $22.7m to Iraqis who accused UK troops of illegally detaining and torturing them following the 2003 invasion - 29 January 2013: British troops in Iraq killed civilians including women, the elderly and children and committed 'terrifying acts of brutality', the High Court heard today - 17 March 2013: At least 112,000 civilians were killed in the 10 years since the US-led 2003 invasion of Iraq, according to the Britain-based Iraq Body Count group - 1 June 2013: Britain must investigate torture in Iraq, Afghanistan, UN says
3 March 2021 airbase hosting USA troops in Iraq targeted in rocket attack: 3 March 2021 airbase hosting USA troops in Iraq targeted in rocket attack, coalition says
Natural disasters in Iraq - heatwaves, droughts, dust storms, flooding: Natural disasters in Iraq
23 August 2021 water crisis and drought threaten more than 12 million in Syria and Iraq: 23 August 2021: Water crisis and drought threaten more than 12 million in Syria and Iraq, Norwegian Refugee Council says
116 May 2022 Iraq's eighth sandstorm since mid-April: a href="https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-61469512">16 May 2022: Iraq has been engulfed by dust and sand once again, hospitalising hundreds with breathing difficulties and forcing flights to remain grounded, in Iraq's eighth sandstorm since mid-April aa the red haze reduced visibility to just a few hundred feet in In Baghdad and southern Iraqi cities
Earthquakes in Iraq: Earthquakes in Iraq

Israel - Geography of Israel - History of Israel - Demographics of Israel
Manufacturing companies of Israel: Manufacturing companies of Israel
Medical technology companies of Israel: Medical technology companies of Israel
High technology in Israel: High technology in Israel
Aircraft manufacturers of Israel: Aircraft manufacturers of Israel
Since 19 September 1988 launch history of Israeli reconnaissance satellites: Since 19 September 1988 launch history of Israeli reconnaissance satellites
Oil and gas companies of Israel: Oil and gas companies of Israel
Since 2007 Grand Technion Energy Program: Grand Technion Energy Program since 2007
March 2013 Israel begins gas delivery from offshore Tamar field: 30 March 2013: Israel begins gas delivery from offshore Tamar field
2016 nearly half of Israel's farmland threatened by over-processing and climate change: 24 April 2016: Nearly half of Israel's farmland threatened by over-processing and climate change
February 2020 in pilot Israeli dairy won’t separate calves from mothers: 11 February 2020: In first pilot of its kind, Israeli dairy won’t separate calves from mothers
Irrigation in Israel: Irrigation in Israel
Agricultural research in Israel: Agricultural research in Israel
Fishing in Israel: Fishing in Israel
External trade of Israel: External trade of Israel
Banking in Israel: Banking in Israel - Banks of Israel
Financial services in Israel: Financial services in Israel
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange: Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
Economic history of Israel and economic cycles: Economic history of Israel
1949-1959 Austerity in Israel: 1949-1959 Austerity in Israel
1983 Israel bank stock crisis and 1985 Economic Stabilization Plan: 1983 Israel bank stock crisis - 1985 Israel Economic Stabilization Plan
Palestinian workers in Israel: Palestinian workers in Israel
Standard of living and poverty in Israel: Standard of living in Israel
28 April 2021 high cost of living weighs on Israelis’ quality of life: 28 April 2021: High cost of living weighs on Israelis’ quality of life, IMF data shows
Taxation in Israel: Taxation in Israel
Government budget in Israel: Israel Government Budget

Israel Defense Forces: Israel Defense Forces
Since 1904-1914 'Second Aliyah' history of the IDF: History of the Israel Defense Forces, as IDF traces its roots to Jewish paramilitary organizations in the New Yishuv, starting with the Second Aliyah (1904 to 1914). The first such organization was Bar-Giora, founded in September 1907. Bar-Giora was transformed into Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920. Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, and was mainly created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property. The Zion Mule Corps and the Jewish Legion, both part of the British Army of World War I, would further bolster the Yishuv with military experience and manpower, forming the basis for later paramilitary forces. After the 1920 Palestine riots against Jews in April 1920, the Yishuv leadership realized the need for a nationwide underground defense organization, and the Haganah was founded in June of the same year. The Haganah became a full-scale defense force after the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine with an organized structure, consisting of three main units—the Field Corps, Guard Corps, and the Palmach. During World War II, the Yishuv participated in the British war effort, culminating in the formation of the Jewish Brigade. These would eventually form the backbone of the Israel Defense Forces, and provide it with its initial manpower and doctrine.
Since early Middle Ages old 'Yishuv' of Jewish residents in the Land of Israel, since Roman empire's decay: Seit dem frühen Mittelalter kamen Einwanderer aus aschkenasischen und sefardischen jüdischen Gemeinden nach Palästina, um bei dortigen Rabbinern das jüdische Gesetz zu studieren und um das Gebot, im Lande Israel zu leben, zu erfüllen, aber auch um hier ihre letzte Ruhestätte zu finden. In der Regel passten diese Einwanderer ihre Lebensweise der orientalischen Umgebung an. Der alte Jischuv (old 'Yishuv') umfasste in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts hauptsächlich die vier Heiligen Städte des Judentums Safed, Tiberias, Hebron und Jerusalem. Weitere Orte waren Jaffa, Haifa, Pek’in, Akkon, Nablus, Schefar’am und bis 1779 Gaza. Im alten Jischuv herrschte überwiegend große Armut. Viele Menschen lebten von Spenden von jüdischen Gemeinden der Diaspora. Ihrerseits fertigten Menschen aus dem Jischuv geschnitzte rituelle Gegenstände aus Olivenholz, die sie zum Verkauf in der Diaspora anboten.
Since 19th century new 'Yishuv' of Jewish residents amid growing anti-Semitism in Europe: Als neuer Jischuv wird das jüdische Gemeinwesen Palästinas bezeichnet, das nach 1860 durch die überwiegend zionistisch motivierte Einwanderung insbesondere aus Mittel- und Osteuropa entstand und seine eigenen (teils proto-staatlichen) Strukturen entwickelte. Am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts kristallisierte sich heraus, dass diese Einwanderungswelle nicht die Fortsetzung der traditionell von kleinen Gruppen oder Individuen getragenen Einwanderung war, sondern den Beginn einer neuen Form jüdischen Zuzugs bildete. Differenziert wurde aber nicht nur nach dem Zeitpunkt der Einwanderung, sondern auch nach dem Lebensstil. Der alte Jischuv war überwiegend arabisch- und ladinosprachig, die neuen Einwanderer sprachen überwiegend Jiddisch und andere europäische Sprachen (Polnisch, Russisch, Ukrainisch, Deutsch u. a.); der alte Jischuv war sephardisch, der neue hingegen aschkenasisch geprägt. Angehörige des neuen Jischuv gründeten die ersten Stadtviertel Jerusalems außerhalb der Stadtmauer und in Form von Moschawot die ersten landwirtschaftlichen jüdischen Siedlungen in Palästina. Damit legten sie eine wichtige Grundlage für die spätere Gründung des Staates Israel. Da sich der neue Jischuv als politische Bewegung verstand, bildete er in Palästina Strukturen zur Organisation und Verwaltung des jüdischen Gemeinwesens auf Basis von Anerkennung oder Ablehnung aus freien Stücken der Mitglieder. Die Organisationen und Verwaltungen standen als privatrechtliche Einheiten neben den älteren öffentlich-rechtlichen Verwaltungsformen des Osmanischen Reiches und später der britischen Mandatsverwaltung. Bereits 1903 gründete sich die erste Knesset, und ab 1920 fanden turnusmäßig Wahlen zu einer Repräsentantenversammlung des Jischuv statt. 1908 folgte das Palästinaamt und 1909 die Selbstverteidigungsorganisation HaSchomer. Weiter wurden Schulen und Hochschulen, Arbeiterorganisationen, Gesundheits- und Kulturleistungen gegründet. 1928 erkannte die britische Mandatsregierung den Jischuv als öffentlich-rechtliche Personalkörperschaft an, und zwar im Rahmen der 1926 erlassenen palästinensischen Religious Communities Organisation Ordinance (Verordnung bezüglich religiöser Gemeinschaftsorganisationen). War eine Beteiligung an Organisationen und Wahl in die Vertretungsorgane des Jischuv vorher davon abhängig, ob man deren Satzungen anerkannte und im Gegenzug von den Organisationen aufgenommen wurde, bildete nunmehr der Jischuv eine Körperschaft aller Juden des Landes, von deren Selbstorganisation man zwar Abstand nehmen konnte, aus der einen die Organe selbst aber nicht ausschließen konnten. Dadurch fanden auch nichtzionistische Juden, sowie Anhänger verschiedener, sich bekämpfender Strömungen des Zionismus, die sich zuvor kaum zu einer gemeinsamen Organisation zusammenfinden konnten, ihre Vertretung in den öffentlich-rechtlichen Organen des Jischuvs als Personalkörperschaft
29 November 1947 UN Partition Plan and 1947–1948 civil war in Mandatory Palestine: 29 November 1947 UN Partition Plan for Palestine - 30 November 1947 – 14 May 1948 civil war in Mandatory Palestine
31 May 1948 Israel Defense Forces founded, with no room for defensive war tactics: Die Israelischen Verteidigungsstreitkräfte wurden am 31. Mai 1948 gegründet und gingen aus Untergrundorganisationen im Jischuw hervor. Die größten Gründungskontingente stammten insbesondere aus der Hagana und dem Palmach. Auch die paramilitärischen Teile des mit der Hagana rivalisierenden Irgun und Lechi wurden in die Armee eingegliedert. Die Gründung fand in den Wirren des seit 1947 schwelenden Arabisch-Israelischen Krieges statt, als die konkurrierenden jüdischen Organisationen die Notwendigkeit der Zusammenarbeit für das gemeinsame zionistische Anliegen erkannten. Zu diesem Zeitpunkt waren die auf dem Papier technisch und organisatorisch weit überlegenen Armeen Transjordaniens, des Irak, des Libanon, Ägyptens und Syriens als Reaktion auf die Staatsgründung Israels am 14. Mai 1948 eingefallen. Seit Gründung ist die allgemeine Einsatzdoktrin der Israelischen Verteidigungsstreitkräfte von der Ansicht geprägt, dass Israel aufgrund seiner geringen territorialen Ausdehnung keinen Raum für defensive Kriegstaktiken hat. Militärische Konflikte, ob vorbereitet oder durch militärische Eskalationen ausgelöst, müssen daher auf politischer Ebene verhindert werden. Das Militär unterstützt diese außenpolitische Leitlinie mit einem wirksamen Abschreckungspotenzial.
Prepare for defense, saying a small standing army with an early warning capability, regular air force and navy, an efficient reserve mobilization and transportation system
Move to counterattack, saying multi-arm coordination, transferring the battle to enemy territory quickly, quick attainment of war objectives
Code of conduct, as in 1992, the IDF drafted a Code of Conduct that combines international law, Israeli law, Jewish heritage and the IDF's own traditional ethical code—the IDF Spirit

Military equipment of Israel: Military equipment of Israel
Israeli Air Force, equipment and defense missile systems: Israeli Air Force - History of the Israeli Air Force - Israel Air Forces equipment
Unmanned aerial vehicles of Israel: Unmanned aerial vehicles of Israel
Israeli aeronautics missile and defense systems: Aeronautics missile and defense systems - IAI products
Technological and Logistics Directorate: Since 1947 Technological and Logistics Directorate
Since 1950 Military Intelligence Directorate in Israel: Since 1950 Military Intelligence Directorate in Israel
Conscription in Israel, reserve duty and women in the Israel Defense Forces: Conscription in Israel - Reserve duty - Women in the Israel Defense Forces
Israeli military personnel: Israeli military personnel
Members of the Israel Defense Forces who are missing in action: Members of the Israel Defense Forces who are missing in action
Exemption from military service in Israel: Exemption from military service in Israel
Refusal to serve in the IDF: Refusal to serve in the IDF
Israeli security forces: Israeli security forces

Foreign relations of Israel: Foreign relations of Israel
Treaties of Israel: Treaties of Israel
International recognition of Israel: International recognition of Israel
Jewish global population by country, following the Roman empire's destruction of Judea in 66–136 CE and the Jewish diaspora: Jewish global population by country following the Roman empire's destruction of Judea in 66–136 CE, resulting in the Jewish diaspora
Israel's membership in international organizations: Israel's membership in international organizations
Israel and the United Nations: Israel and the United Nations
Permanent Representatives of Israel to the UN: Permanent Representatives of Israel to the United Nations
Israel, Palestine and the United Nations: Israel, Palestine and the UN
2013 Iranian Mullah regime's 'window of opportunity' against Israel: 29 January 2013: Remembering a decision last year to investigate Jewish settlements in the West Bank Israel boycotts UN rights council in unprecedented move - 31 January 2013: UN inquiry concludes all Israeli settlement activity in West Bank is unlawful and must cease 'immediately', and calls for sanctions against Israel over West Bank settlements - 26 February 2013: The United Nations has called for an independent inquiry into the death of Palestinian Arafat Jaradat in Israeli custody - 2 October 2013: Iran now has a window of opportunity to prove its nuclear program is for peaceful purposes, UN's Ban Ki-moon reportedly told PM Benjamin Netanyahu during their meeting in New York - 29 October 2013: Israel returns to UN rights forum after 1.5 year boycott
2014 amid present aggessions and nuclear threats Israel condemns UNESCO decision against exhibition tracing 3,500 years of Jewish history: 19 January 2014: Israel's PM Benjamin Netanyahu condemns UNESCO decision to postpone an exhibit tracing 3,500 years of ties between the Jewish people and Israel, following pressure from Arab countries - 28 February 2014: Israel urges IAEA to issue full report on Iran nuclear research - 13 March 2014: UN's Ban Ki-moon strongly deplores heavy rocket barrage on Israel from Gaza - 22 June: UN envoy Robert Serry denies claim he tried to funnel $20m to Hamas behind Israel's back - 17 July: 20 missiles found in UN-run school in Gaza, confirming Israel’s oft-repeated claim that Hamas and other Gazan terror groups use civilian infrastructure to hide weapons - 20 July 2014: 'United' Nations agency UNRWA handed 20 missiles found in Gaza school back to Hamas, not to International Criminal Court - 22 July 2014: For the second time in less than a week, rockets have been found in a school in Gaza operated by the UNRWA - 23 July 2014: UN's Ban Ki-moon is 'alarmed' to hear that rockets placed in UN-run school in Gaza now 'have gone missing', demanding a full review - 24 July 2014: In Geneva the UN human rights council voted to launch an international inquiry to investigate violations of international human rights and humanitarian law in Gaza, with the USA opposing the move and 17 countries abstaining - 14 August: Having no faith in the planned UN investigation into the Gaza war, IDF conducting own inquiry into Gaza civilian deaths - 22 October 2014: UN's Ban Ki-Moon debriefing Security Council will push forward on an investigation into the destruction in Gaza also of UN-buildings, including incidents when Hamas weapons were found in UN schools
2015 Israel asks UN to condemn Iran Holocaust cartoon contest: 21 February 2015: Israel asks UN to condemn Iran Holocaust cartoon contest, as upcoming Tehran competition to offer first place prize of $12,000 for best drawing on Shoah denial - 8 April 2015: Some 100 representatives from Arab and Muslim states expected in Jerusalem next week for summit on banning nuclear testing sponsored by the UN and organized by CTBTO - 26 April 2015: After 20 years, Israeli delegation will attend UN nuclear disarmament summit to encourage negotiations with 'moderate countries' - 6 June 2015: UN agencies in Israel and the Palestinian territories reported an alarming number of child victims in last year's war in the Gaza Strip but were split on whether Israel should be put on a list of violators of children's rights
2016 Russian request not to vote for war crimes investigative mechanism at the UN, Obama and Netanyahu: 21 December 2016: 'International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism to Assist in the Investigation and Prosecution of Those Responsible for the Most Serious Crimes under International Law Committed in the Syrian Arab Republic since March 2011' resolution, adopted by a recorded vote of 105 in favour and 15 against, with 52 abstentions, with Israel’s absence at the UN General Assembly on this resolution A/71/L.48 - 24 December 2016: Israel rejects 'shameful' UN resolution, demanding a halt to all Israeli settlement activity in the West Bank and East Jerusalem after Obama administration refused to veto - 28 December 2016: PM Netanyahu, who reportedly acceded to Russian request not to vote for war crimes investigative mechanism at the UN General Assembly, days before anti-settlements resolution passed at UN Security Council with Moscow’s help, loses confidence
2017 amid PA's payments to terrorists Israel cuts UN payment again by $2 million over 'anti-Israel’ bias: 30 March 2017: Israel cuts UN payment again by $2 million over 'anti-Israel’ bias following votes critical of Israel at the Geneva-based Human Rights Council, and condemns the 'obsessional discrimination against Israel on the part of the United Nations and its agencies' - 14 April 2017: Israel's PM and president send condolences to family of British Hannah Bladon after a Palestinian East Jerusalem resident, said to be a mentally ill, killed the exchange student at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem on tram in capital - 27 May 2017: The mother of USA yeshiva student Ezra Schwartz, who was shot to death in November 2015 by a Palestinian terrorist in the West Bank, told a UN forum that the perpetrator 'and his family should not be compensated for murdering innocent people (in) just another way to glorify and encourage terrorism', as Israel's UN envoy said that the Palestinian Authority paid out nearly $130 million to terrorists in prisons in Israel and another $175 million to the families of terrorists killed during their attacks, who are recognized as martyrs - 30 May 2017: Denial of Israel’s right to exist is anti-Semitism, UN's Guterres says, rejecting efforts to deny Jewish history in the Holy Land - 13 October 2017: Netanyahu orders diplomats to start preparing for Israel's departure from UNESCO, saying that 'UNESCO has become a theater of the absurd', after USA announced departure from UNESCO over anti-Israel bias
6 February 2021 Israel's Benny Gantz says ICC ruling 'tool in hands of Israel's enemies: 6 February 2021: Israel's Benny Gantz says ICC ruling 'tool in hands of Israel's enemies
Since 2000 Israeli membership in the WEOG and UN council memberships: After years of discussions marked by opposition from key European nations reportedly led by Ireland, Spain and France, since 2000 Israeli membership in the Western European and Others Group WEOG, one of five unofficial Regional Groups in the UN that act as voting blocs and negotiation forums formed since 1961 to encourage voting to various UN bodies from regional groups - As of May 2014 192 of the 193 UN member states are divided into five regional groups including the African Group, with 54 member states, the Asia-Pacific Group, with 53 member states, the Eastern European Group, with 23 member states, the Latin American and Caribbean Group, with 33 member states and the Western European and Others Group WEOG, with 28 member states, plus 1 member state USA as an observer state - List of members of the UN Security Council and members of Regional Groups - List of members of the UN Economic and Social Council
Israel/Afghanistan relations: Israel/Afghanistan relations
History of the Jews in East Africa: History of the Jews in East Africa
Israel/Algeria relations: Israel/Algeria relations
Israel/Angola relations: Israel/Angola relations
Israel/Argentina relations: Israel/Argentina relations
1960 UN and CDU-ruled Germany following Argentine's complaint over captured Eichmann: In June 1960, after a complaint that the transfer of Adolf Eichmann to Israel from Argentina constituted a violation of the latter's sovereignty, UN Security Council declared in its resolution 138, approved by eight votes, that such acts could endanger international peace and security and requested that Israel make the appropriate reparation in accordance with the UN Charter, but Israel held the view that the matter was beyond the Council's competence and should instead be settled via direct bilateral negotiations, as the capture of Eichmann caused alarm at the USA's CIA and West German Bundesnachrichtendienst, which had known for at least two years that Eichmann was hiding in Argentina, but did not act, fearing what Eichmann might say in his testimony about West German national security advisor CDU Hans Globke, who had coauthored several antisemitic Nazi laws, according to documents declassified in 2006, also revealing that both agencies had used some of Eichmann's former Nazi colleagues to spy on European countries
2015 January 2015 prosecutor Nisman in Argentina Jewish center bombing 1994 found shot dead: 19 January 2015: Prosecutor Alberto Nisman in Argentina Jewish center bombing 1994 found shot dead before hearing on Iran deal
16 March 2021 more Argentine Jews made the move to Israel in 2020 despite the pandemic: 16 March 2021: More Argentine Jews made the move to Israel in 2020 despite the pandemic
Israel/Armenia relations: Israel/Armenia relations
1914-1918 German and Ottoman empires' World War I and Armenians in Palestine mostly in Jerusalem: 1914-1918 German and Ottoman empire'a World War I, British and Jordanian periods, and 2,000–3,000 Armenians in Palestine, mostly in Jerusalem
Israel/Australia relations: Israel/Australia relations
Israel/Austria relations: Israel/Austria relations
History of the Jews in Austria: History of the Jews in Austria
History of the Jews in Azerbaijan: History of the Jews in Azerbaijan
Since 1990s Israeli–Azerbaijani trade relations and cooperation against Iran: Since early 1990s Israeli–Azerbaijani trade relations and cooperation against Iran
Israel/Bahrain relations: Israel/Bahrain relations
12 September 2020 Bahrain normalizes ties with Israel: 12 September 2020: Bahrain normalizes ties with Israel weeks after UAE deal
15 November 2020 Israel ratifies normalization deal with Bahrain: 15 November 2020: Israeli cabinet ratifies normalization deal with Bahrain
Israel/Brazil relations: Israel/Brazil relations
Since 16th century history of the Jews in Brazil: Since 16th century history of the Jews in Brazil
1939-1945 Brazilian support for the Jewish people: 1939-1945 Brazilian support for the Jewish people during World War II
October 2013 Israel to join Brazilian Jews’ aid program in Africa: 26 October 2013: Israel to join Brazilian Jews’ aid program in Africa
Israel-Brazil economic relations: Brazil-Israel economic relations
Israel/Bhutan relations: Israel/Bhutan relations
Israel/Cameroon relations: Israel/Cameroon relations
Israel/Canada relations: Israel/Canada relations
Israel/Central African Republic relations: Israel/Central African Republic relations
Israel/Chile relations: Israel/Chile relations
17 September 2022 Chile postponed meeting with Israeli envoy following IDF killing of Palestinian boy: 17 September 2022: Chilean President Boric postponed meeting with Israeli envoy following Israeli army killing of Palestinian boy on the same day
Israel/P.R. of China relations: Israel/China relations
Israel/Czech Republic relations: Israel/Czech Republic relations
Israel/Egypt relations: Israel/Egypt relations
21 February 2021 Egyptian minister makes rare visit to Israel to talk energy cooperation: 21 February 2021: Egyptian minister makes rare visit to Israel to talk energy cooperation
Israel/Estonia relations: Israel/Estonia relations
History of the Jews in Ethiopia: History of the Jews in Ethiopia
Israel/European Union relations: Israel/European Union relations
2014: 13 February 2014: Knesset walkout during speech of EU Parliament chief Schulz and comments about Palestinians of this German SPD-politician, accused of selective hearing and 'false' claims - 9 March 2014: EU's Catherine Ashton, on visit in Tehran and meeting Rohani and Zarif, told by Israel's Netanyahu to ask Iran about its Gaza-bound arms boat - 7 August 2014: Israel ready to consider European proposal calling for international mechanism to demilitarize Gaza Strip, ease restrictions on movement, trade and fishing - 17 December: Israel expects the EU to put Hamas back on the terror blacklist immediately, PM Netanyahu says - 17 December 2014: After an EU court's decision, body led by EU foreign Policy chief Federica Mogherini releases statement saying that the EU upholds the 'Quartet principles' that bans engagement with Hamas until it forswears terrorism
26 October 2023 EU leaders hold summit to discuss Middle East situation and support for Ukraine, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates: 26 October 2023: EU leaders hold summit to discuss Middle East situation and support for Ukraine, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates
Israel/France relations: Israel/France relations
June 2016: Paris summit a ‘missed opportunity': 3 June 2016: Paris summit was a ‘missed opportunity,’ Israel says
Israel/Germany relations: Israel/Germany relations
7 May 2020 Netanyahu's son becomes star of German neo-Nazi linked AfD party:
Israel/Guatemala relations: Relaciones Israel/Guatemala
Israel/Guinea relations: Israel/Guinea relations
Israel/Haiti relations: Israel/Haiti relations
Israel/Hungary relations: Israel/Hungary relations
2012-2014: 17 July 2012: Hungarian president assures Netanyahu of his opposition to anti-Semitism - 5 mai 2013: Le Congrès juif mondial a entamé l'assemblée générale à Budapest en solidarité avec la communauté juive de Hongrie où les actes antisémites se sont multipliés depuis 2012 - 8 November 2013: Hungary Jews struggle with rising anti-Semitism, according to a recent EU Fundamental Rights Agency survey - 26 January 2014: Holocaust survivor and historian Randolph L. Braham returns award to Hungary in protest of country's attempt to 'rewrite history' - 27 January 2014: Hungarian President Ader addresses Holocaust after accusations Hungary 'whitewashed' past - 9 February: Hungary Jews call boycott of Holocaust memorial year accusing PM Orban's government of ignoring the sensitivities of survivors
2013: 14 June 2013: Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu, visiting the former Nazi death camp at Auschwitz, says the Jewish state would act - alone if necessary - to prevent a repetition of the Holocaust - 2 August 2013: In Quds Day remarks broadcast on state TV and in one of his last public speeches Iran's outgoing President Ahmadinejad warns Israel will be 'uprooted' - 2 August: After Israeli criticism, Iran's media changed their version of Rohani remarks, that Israel had inflicted a 'wound' on the Muslim world and that the Israeli wound 'must be cleansed', now taking out the reference to 'cleansing' - 19 September: Rohani says Iran wants peace, but slams Israel as 'occupier that does injustice to the people of the region' - 25 septembre: Plusieurs membres du gouvernement israélien ont jugé mercredi que la condamnation par le président iranien Hassan Rohani des "crimes des nazis envers les juifs" n'était pas suffisante, réclamant qu'il désavoue les dirigeants de son pays ayant nié l'Holocauste - 2 October: PM Netanyahu at UN makes strongest-ever Israeli public threat to attack Iran’s nuclear facilities - 2 October: Iran now has a window of opportunity to prove its nuclear program is for peaceful purposes, UN's Ban Ki-moon reportedly told PM Benjamin Netanyahu during their meeting in New York - 24 November: Israel slams 'bad' deal between Iran, world powers
26 January 2021 Israel's IDF chief Kohavi says he’s ordered fresh military plans to thwart Iran’s nuke program: 26 January 2021: Israel's IDF chief Kohavi says he’s ordered fresh military plans to thwart Iran’s nuke program
Israel/Iraq relations: Israel/Iraq relations - Israeli–Kurdish relations - History of the Jews in Iraq
Israel/Iraqi Kurdistan relations: Israel/Iraqi Kurdistan relations
Israel/Italy relations: Israel/Italy relations
Weapons sales between North Korea and Iran and global military cooperation: Weapons sales between North Korea and Iran and military cooperation
Israel/South Korea relations: Israel/South Korea relations since 1962
Israeli-South Korean economic relations: Israeli-South Korean economic relations
Israel/Kosovo relations: Israel/Kosovo relations
Israel/Kurdistan relations: Israel/Kurdistan relations
29 October 2019 Kurdish lesson for Israel: 29 October 2019: The Kurdish lesson for Israel
Israel/Latvia relations: Israel/Latvia relations
31 October 2012 Latvia calls for development of economic relations and support for Latvia's OECD membership: 31 October 2012: Latvia's FM Rinkevics calls for development of economic relations and support for Latvia's OECD membership
Israel/Lebanon relations: Israel/Lebanon relations - Hasbani River
26 August 2020 after shots from Lebanon toward Israeli soldiers IDF strike Hezbollah observation posts: 26 August 2020: After shots were fired from Lebanon toward IDF soldiers, Israeli aircraft strike Hezbollah observation posts
1 February 2021 Israeli drone crashes in southern Lebanon as Hezbollah terror group says it shot it down: 1 February 2021: An Israeli drone crashes in southern Lebanon, as the Hezbollah terror group says it shot it down
29 June 2022 Israel accuses Hezbollah of trying to hack UN Lebanon peacekeepers: 29 June 2022: Israel accuses Hezbollah of trying to hack UN Lebanon peacekeepers
List of Lebanese rocket attacks on Israel: List of Lebanese rocket attacks on Israel
Israel/Libya relations: Israel/Libya relations
Israel/Malawi relations: Israel/Malawi relations
History of the Jews in East Africa: History of the Jews in East Africa
Israel/Mexico relations: Israel/Mexico relations
2017: 29 January 2017: Mexico chides Israel's PM Netanyahu for apparently endorsing USA president Trump’s plan to build a wall along its border with the USA - 29 January 2017: Facing Mexico’s fury, spokesperson says Netanyahu’s statement declaring USA southern barrier a 'great idea’ is not a comment on USA-Mexico relations, after Netanyahu also declared that USA's Trump was 'right' in pushing for a wall along the USA-Mexico border to block illegal immigration - 29 January 2017: Mexican Jews alarmed by Netanyahu tweet on Trump’s wall - 30 January 2017: Mexico calls on Netanyahu to apologize for tweet about USA border wall, after Israeli PM praised Trump’s executive order at weekend - 31 January 2017: Jewish community south of the USA border pans Israel's PM Netanyahu as Trump’s 'lackey', condemning his support for Trump’s border wall as disappointing and shameful
Israel/Morocco relations: Israel/Morocco relations
During 20th century and World War II history of the Jews in Morocco: During 20th century and World War II history of the Jews in Morocco
Israel/Myanmar relations: Israel/Myanmar relations
Israel/New Zealand relations: Israel/New Zealand relations
Israel/Oman relations: Israel/Oman relations
Israel/Pakistan relations: Israel/Pakistan relations
Israel/Papua New Guinea relations: Israel/Papua New Guinea relations
Israel/Paraguay relations: Israel/Paraguay relations
Israel/Philippines relations: Israel/Philippines relations
History and economic relations: History of Israel–Philippines relations
Since the 16th century history of the Jews in the Philippines: Since the 16th century history of the Jews in the Philippines
2018: 1 February 2018: Israel condemns passing of Polish Holocaust law, as Yad Vashem criticizes the Polish Senate’s approval of a contentious Polish Holocaust bill that would outlaw blaming the Polish state or nation for crimes of the Holocaust committed in Poland and vowed to continue supporting research into the 'Polish population’s attitudes toward Jews during the Holocaust' - Efraim Zuroff, the director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center’s Israel office, welcomes Israel's opposition to the Polish complicity bill, but laments that other countries including Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Croatia and Hungary have been getting away with much worse for decades - 8 February 2018: Holocaust survivors entered the Polish embassy compound in Tel Aviv protesting the Polish complicity bill
January 2020 Israel snubs Poland's president ahead of World Holocaust Forum: 5 January 2020: Poland's Andrzej Duda threatens to boycott the World Holocaust Forum set for later this month in obsequious Israel after he was not given an opportunity to speak at the event, ahead of an expected address by an individual, who has recently waged a campaign against Poland accusing it of responsibility for World War II, Russian regime's war criminal Putin - 7 January 2020: Polish president will skip Holocaust Forum in Israel, as organizers would not allow him to speak there, even though others including Russian war ciminal Putin would, saying he does not approve of the fact that representatives of Russian regime, Germany, France, Britain, and the USA will be able to speak at the event while Poland won't be able to
Israel/Qatar relations: Israel/Qatar relations
2016: 11 January 2016: Hezbollah terrorists reportedly receive long-range missiles, laser-guided rockets and other sophisticated weaponry directly from Russia in Syria, and are free to use that weaponry against Israel, following recent Netanyahu visit of servility to Moscow, including the shaking of bloody hands, amid fears in Israel that the Russian military aggression against Syrian people will threaten its defence and fears that Russian-supplied weapons will end up in the hands of Hezbollah - 7 June 2016: Israel's Netanyahu says Iranian regime cannot be allowed to use Hezbollah as a proxy to attack Jewish state, ahead of Putin meeting - 9 October 2016: Russian missile deployment in Syria facilitates Hezbollah's smuggling of advanced weapons, following Netanyahu's visit in June encouraging the Putin regime to commit more war crimes in Syria and Ukraine
June 2019: 24/25 June 2019: PM Netanyahu told murderous Russian regime's Nikolai Patrushev that Israel will do 'anything it takes' to ensure Iran does not obtain nuclear weapons, saying 'I’m certain that Russia understands what it means for us when a regime calls for our annihilation, and acts on a daily basis to achieve that aim', as USA's John Bolton urged Iran to step back from its 'malign behavior' and enter into 'real negotiations' over its nuclear weapons program, ballistic missile development, and backing for international terror groups, accusing Tehran regime of supporting violence throughout the region, from Hezbollah in Lebanon to the Assad regime in Syria, as well as Shiite militias in Iraq, Yemen’s Houthi rebels, and terror attacks on USA forces in Afghanistan, and of threatening Middle Eastern oil supplies - 25 June 2019: Israeli air strikes on Syria undesirable, Russian regime's Nikolai Patrushev says, amid Assad's and Russian regime's northwestern Syria offensive since April 2019, murdering hundreds of civilians, and as Iran-backed terror group Hezbollah is now giving orders to Assad’s army, using it to spy on Israel along Golan border
30 January 2020 obsequious PM Netanyahu in Moscow thanking Russian regime's war criminal Putin: 30 January 2020: Shaking bloody hand, obsequious PM Netanyahu thanked Russian regime's war criminal Putin, responsible for Polonium, Novichok attacks, many other assassinations, the downing of the MH17 flight in 2014 killing 298 people etc., for his 'speedy' decision to pardon and release Israeli-American backpacker Naama Issachar, who had been held in a Russian prison for some 10 months, sentenced by the regime to 7.5 years in prison after less than 10 grams of marijuana were found in her luggage in a Moscow airport - 30 January 2020: Air strikes by Russia's Putin regime hit near a bakery and a medical clinic in the town of Ariha in Syria’s opposition-held Idlib region early on Thursday, killing 10 civilians including at least five women, bringing the total number of civilians killed by Putin's air strikes in Idlib over the past 24 hours to 21, war monitor SOHR said, reporting that the wailing of women and children rang out as rescue workers searched for corpses beneath the rubble
4 March 2022 Israel should take clear position on the Russian war against the Ukrainian people since February: 4 March 2022: USA demands that Israel should take clear position on the Russian war in Ukraine and against the Ukrainian people since February 2022
Israel/Saudi Arabia relations: Israel/Saudi Arabia relations
November 2018 'horrendous' murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi: 2 November 2018: In his first public comments on the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi in Saudi Arabia’s Istanbul consulate, a short-sighted and obsequious Israeli PM Netanyahu said that while the killing was 'horrendous', it was still necessary to preserve stability in the Islamic kingdom, that reportedly dissolved the body of Jamal Khashoggi, in a further attempt to make humans disappeared without a trace - 14 November 2018: 'The spectacle of an Israeli leader lobbying to excuse an Arab dictator for murder will only compound the damage he has done to his country’s relationship with the United States', according to Washington Post's Jackson Diehl, asking 'why is Israel tossing a lifeline to Jamal Khashoggi’s killers?', pointing to the Iranian expansionism but concealing its promotion by Obama's and EU's (including the UK) betrayal concerning Syria and the region
Israel/South Africa relations: Israel/South Africa relations
Israel/South Sudan relations: Israel/South Sudan relations
June 2012 Israel deports South Sudanese migrants: 18 June 2012: Israel deports South Sudanese migrants
Israel/Spain relations: Israel/Spain relations
2015 Israeli and Spanish consortium to build 121-megawatt facility in Negev desert: 20 July 2015: Consortium of Israeli and Spanish companies to build 121-megawatt facility in Negev desert
Israel/Sudan relations: Israel/Sudan relations
History of the Jews in Sudan: History of the Jews in Sudan
Israel/Sweden relations: Israel/Sweden relations
Timeline of Israel-Sweden relations written by the 'Times of Israel': Timeline of Israel-Sweden relations written by the 'Times of Israel'
Since 1953 Sweden–Israel Friendship Association: Since 1953 Sweden–Israel Friendship Association, nationwide since 1978
Israel/Switzerland relations: Israel/Switzerland relations
2015 FIFA Fédération Internationale de Football Association à Zurich: 29 May 2015: Israel's PM hails diplomatic victory as FIFA thwarts Palestinian suspension bid
Israel/Syria relations: Israel/Syria relations
Since 1967 Purple Line - ceasefire line between Israel and Syria: Purple Line - ceasefire line between Israel and Syria after the 1967 Six Day War
2013: 30/31 January 2013: Israel conducted an airstrike inside Syria near the border with Lebanon, hitting a convoy of trucks with weapons bound for Hezbollah in Lebanon while Assad's army (and television) says an Israeli airstrike targeted a military research centre in Jamraya, causing large-scale material damage and killing two people - 4 February: Israel's Defence Minister Ehud Barak strongly implied that his country was behind an air strike on Syria last week - 24 March: Israel's army fires anti-tank missile at Syrian army post after coming under fire for second time in 12 hours and vows an 'immediate' answer to 'every violation of Israeli sovereignty and shooting from the Syrian side' - 29 April: Israeli official says intelligence services worldwide have evidence of Assad's chemical weapons use - 'these are not intelligence estimates' - 4 May: US reports quoting unnamed officials say, that Israeli warplanes have launched an air strike in Syria, likely targeting a weapons site - 5 May: Israeli missiles struck a research center near the Syrian capital Damascus - 21 mai: L'armée sraélienne réplique après avoir été la cible de tirs depuis la Syrie - 6 June: Israel reacts angrily to Austria's withdrawal from Golan Heights due to clashes in Syria - 14 July: Israel reportedly targeted advanced anti-ship cruise missiles near Latakia in an air attack on July 5 - 18 août: Israël réplique après des tirs d'obus syriens - 21 August: Israel says Syria regime used chemical weapons - 22 August: Israeli intelligence backs reports of latest chemical weapons attack in Syria as intelligence minister criticizes international community over inaction - 25 August: PM Benjamin Netanyahu said Sunday that the world must not tolerate the use of chemical weapons in Syria, adding that Israel was 'poised and ready' and would always know how to defend itself - 28 August: Israeli intelligence 'intercepted Syrian regime talk about chemical attack', information passed to US by Israeli Defence Forces's 8200 unit, former official says - 1 November: Israel reportedly destroyed Hezbollah-bound missile shipment in Syria, targeting Russian-made SA-125 missiles
2014: 27 January: Israel Air Force bombed a Syrian base in the Latakia airport, Lebanese media reports - 11 February 2014: District Court Judge jails Israeli Arab for 18 months for trying to join fight against Assad - 5 March: Israel army opens fire at Hezbollah fighters on Israel-Syria border, trying to plant bomb - 16 March: Syrian opposition willing to trade Golan claims for Israeli military support, wanting Israel to enforce a no-fly zone - 19 March: Israel strikes Assad's army targets that 'enabled and aided' Tuesday's attack on IDF troops which left four Israeli soldiers wounded - 28 March: Israeli army shoots two people near Syria border trying to damage border infrastructure - 27/28 May: Syria's oldest synagogue in the Jobar neighborhood of Damascus destroyed by Assad forces in the months-long bombardment of Jobar - 23 June: In response to a cross-border missile shooting which killed an Israeli boy and wounded his father and two other civilians, Israel Air Force struck nine targets belonging to the Syrian military, among them command centers - 7 July: Israel fires into Syria after mortar shell hits Golan - 13 July: Mortar fired from Syria hits Israeli side of the Golan Heights - 23 September: IDF shoots down Syrian fighter plane over Golan after infiltrating Israeli airspace - 8 December 2014: Hezbollah drones, anti-aircraft missiles destroyed in alleged IAF attack, says Syrian opposition
2015: 18 January: An Israeli strike on targets in the Syrian Golan Heights reportedly killed 10 people, including eight Hezbollah members - 27 January: IDF retaliates after two suspected Hezbollah rockets fired from Syria explode on Golan Heights, sending locals and some 1,000 visitors to the Mount Hermon ski site fleeing for cover - 28 January: Following Golan rocket attacks Israel Air Force struck Assad's army artillery targets - 25 April: Israeli Air Force jets reportedly target Syrian bases of strategic missile brigades 155 and 65 in Kalamoon and Hezbollah targets in Syrian-Lebanese border region - 26 April: Israeli airstrike kills a group of four militants placing mine inside Israel at Syria frontier - 12 June 2015: Israeli official said to meet with secular Syrian opposition, contacts reportedly focused on common foes, including Iran, Hezbollah - 22/23 June: Syrian war casualty killed as Israeli Druze attack IDF ambulance - 24 June: Druze community condemn Golan Heights ambulance attack - 29 June: Israel acknowledges it is helping Syrian rebel fighters, thus keeping the Druze in Syria out of immediate danger - 30 July: Israel strikes targets near Israel-Syria border, reportedly killing two Hezbollah operatives and three Syrian regime militiamen of the National Defense Forces in the Golan Heights - 5 September 2015: As hundreds of thousands seek sanctuary, Israel has a duty to take in Syrian refugees from the war and push for the establishment of an urgent international conference on the issue, opposition leader Isaac Herzog says - 6 September: Israel should take in thousands of refugees, deputy minister Ayoub Kara says - 22 September: Israeli company SodaStream offers to take in Syrian refugees and employ them in its new factory in the Negev Desert - 31 October: IAF reportedly targets Hezbollah assets in Syria - 24 November: Israel strikes Hezbollah positions in Syria, killing 13 - 4 December 2015: Israeli jets carry out strikes north of Damascus, targeting a four-truck Syrian army convoy loaded with ballistic missiles
2016: 5 May 2016: When Germany's Adolf Hitler first sent Jews to die, Europeans and Americans agreed that it was not their problem, but also Israel today may be about to make the same and repeated mistake about Assad's killings in Syria, Shlomo Bolts says - 14 October 2016: Syria is suffering 'a small holocaust’ as 'every day not far from here, as we sit here, men, women and children are murdered in Syria, and particularly in Aleppo', Israeli chief rabbi Yitzhak Yosef says, demanding that Jews must not be silent in the face of genocide across northern border - 22 November 2016: Israeli activists launch awareness campaign to express their solidarity with the civilians in the face of a military escalation being carried out by Russia, Assad and his allied militias, calling for communal prayers on Jewish holiday for the 'hundreds of Syrians who are dying daily in Syria, men, women and children, while the world is silent' - 30 November 2016: Israeli warplanes were said to have struck a military compound in the Syrian capital of Damascus, while a raid reportedly targeted a weapons convoy led by Hezbollah, as Hezbollah has thousands of fighters in Syria, providing military support to Assad regime and Iranian forces and after Israel already had carried out strikes against Hezbollah to prevent the terror group from obtaining advanced weapons - 7 December 2016: The Israeli military reportedly fired missiles from Golan Heights at the important Syrian regime Mazzeh airbase outside Damascus, hosting the headquarters of the feared air force intelligence service and its notorious prison, as terrorist group Hezbollah sites and guided missile sites belonging to Hezbollah near the Syrian capital were also targeted overnight by airstrikes that killed and injured a number of fighters in the Shiite militia - 7 December 2016: Israeli defense ministry acknowledges that Israel was responsible for recent attacks in Syria, saying that they were meant to prevent 'advanced weapons, military equipment and weapons of mass destruction' from reaching Hezbollah - 11 December 2016: The Israeli airstrike on an Assad regime airbase outside Damascus last week targeted a convoy of chemical weapons en route to the Shiite terror group Hezbollah, a Syrian opposition spokesman Fahed al-Masri says, adding that jihadist and Iranian militants will continue to advance on northern border as long Assad remains in power - 18 December 2016: Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial's Chairman Avner Shalev expresses 'deep concern over the appalling images of massacres' in Syria, saying that the world must put an end to the killing - 28 December 2016: Israel’s absence at the UN General Assembly on resolution A/71/L.48 to collect, consolidate, preserve and analyse evidence of violations of international humanitarian law and human rights violations and abuses in Syria since 2011, reportedly the result of 'a cynical deal' between Jerusalem and Moscow
March/April 2017: 17 March 2017: IAF 'Arrow’ battery intercepts Syrian missile after Assad regime fired three anti-aircraft missiles at Israeli jets - 18 March 2017: Israel's PM says that Syria raids targeted ‘advanced’ Hezbollah arms, and that Israel will continue to operate against weapons transfers from Assad regime to Shiite terror group - 19 March 2017: After Israeli officials have warned of the possibility Hezbollah and Iran could attempt to set up a base to attack Israel near the border with the Israeli Golan Heights, and hours after Israel's defense minister threatened to destroy Assad's air defense systems targeting Israeli aircraft, an Israeli aircraft reportedly struck a truck driving near the town of Khan Arnabeh in the Quneitra province on the road to Damascus, killing a pro-Assad fighter - 20 March 2017: Israeli jets reportedly took out a number of targets near the Lebanon-Syria border including a Hezbollah weapons convoy and Syrian military sites - 22 March 2017: Israeli jets were reported to have carried out airstrikes in the Mount Qasioun region near Damascus early Wednesday, hours after PM Netanyahu vowed to continue hitting weapons convoys and rebuffed claims Russia had ordered the strikes halted - 4 April 2017: Holocaust horrors compel Israel to aid gassed Syrians, says Israeli president Rivlin, urging international community to act immediately to bring an end to ‘murderous madness' as finance minister Moshe Kahlon says Israel has resources to help - 23 April 2017: After three mortars fired from Syria landing in the Golan Heights on Friday, an Israeli attack on a Syrian camp for pro-Assad regime forces reportedly killed three fighters near the Golan Heights on Sunday - 27 April 2017: Intelligence Minister Yisrael Katz appears to confirm reports that Israel was behind an overnight airstrike near the Damascus airport, saying that 'the incident is completely compatible with our policy of preventing weapons transfer to Hezbollah', the Lebanon-based terror group supported by the Syrian regime and Iran - 28 April 2017: Four cargo planes originating from Iran landed at airport outside Damascus just hours before Syria accused Israel of attacking a military compound nearby
August/September 2017: 24 August 2017: Taking Israeli aid, Syrian rebel and militia commander says Jewish state’s assistance is life-saving and crisis on Golan overrides old hatreds - 7 September 2017: Israeli jets have reportedly bombed a Syrian regime's facility in the north-west of the country believed to be associated with Bashar al-Assad’s chemical weapons programme - 10 September 2017: Israeli satellite images show impact, geo-strategic sensitivity of airstrike attributed to Israel on an Assad regime site where chemical weapons, missiles were believed to have been produced - 14 September 2017: Israel will 'act to enforce' Syria red lines, the transfer of major weapons to Hezbollah and the establishment of a permanent Iranian beachhead in the country, its USA ambassador Ron Dermer says - 19 September 2017: Israel has shot down an Iranian-supplied Hezbollah reconnaissance drone over the Syrian border - 22 September 2017: Israeli warplanes early on Friday morning reportedly struck a Hezbollah weapons convoy outside Damascus
February 2018 Israel–Syria incident: 10 February 2018 Israel–Syria incident - 10 February 2018: Israel launches 'large-scale' strikes in Syria after drone infiltration, as IDF hits 12 Iranian, Syrian sites in 2nd wave of attacks following airspace breach, as planes met with heavy anti-aircraft fire, as F-16 crashes in Israel with 2 pilots injured, one in serious condition, and as Israeli military spokesman Jonathan Conricus says that 'Syrians and Iranians, from our point of view, are playing with fire' - 10 February 2018: SOHR reports that 6 members at least of the gunmen loyal to the regime of Syrian and non-Syrian nationalities including members of the regime forces, were killed in the air strikes which were carried out by Israeli warplanes on several Syrian areas - 11 February 2018: The Israeli army identified some of the targets of the retaliatory airstrikes it conducted in Syria after an Iranian drone infiltrated Israeli airspace the day before, while Syrian rebel forces reportedly provided details on the rest - 20 February 2018: With the Assad regime's advances and USA's reduced involvement in the region, Israel has been forced to make significant changes in its policies in the Golan Heights
July 2018: 8 July 2018: SOHR told AFP that a missile bombardment targeted 'Iranian fighters' at Syrian base, as regime's news outlet acknowledged that the airstrike caused damage to the T-4 air base, located between the cities of Homs and Palmyra - 12 July 2018: Israeli Air Force strikes Assad's army posts near border in response to drone infiltration, confirming attacks on three targets after Assad regime's UAV is downed over the Sea of Galilee - 13 July 2018: IDF launched a Patriot missile at an Assad regime's drone that was flying inside the demilitarized zone - 16 July 2018: Up to 22 pro-regime fighters killed, including 9 Iranians, in an overnight strike in northern Syria, according to SOHR, saying Israeli missiles targeted an Iranian Revolutionary Guard center, near the Neyrab military airport in Aleppo province
June 2019: 2 June 2019: After rockets fired at Golan Heights, Israeli airstrikes target Syrian military positions, including anti-aircraft battery, weapons caches and a military training facility, connected to Iran and is proxy militias in Syria, in the area of al-Kiswah, south of Damascus - 3 June 2019: Syrian state media reported that Israel attacked the T-4 airbase near the northern city of Homs just after midnight Sunday, destroying weapons depot on airbase that Israel has targeted several times before, now in an attack coming hours after Netanyahu warned Iranian regime, killing one soldier and wounding two others - 3 June 2019: A senior USA official says the USA has made it clear to Russia several times in recent months that USA supports Israeli attacks in Syria as long as Iranian forces are operating in the country, according to Channel 13
November 2019 IDF attacked targets in Syria over rockets fired by Iranian regime: 20 November 2019: Israel strikes ‘dozens’ of targets in Syria over rockets fired by Iranian force, as army says it attacked Iranian and Assad regime sites in the country, blaming Iranian regime’s Quds force for launches at Israel, as video footage from Syria appeared to show a Syrian air defense missile crashing to the ground in a heavily populated area shortly after launching, which may account for some of the casualties, and as SOHR reports at least 11 people killed in Syria strikes, 7 of them likely Iranian - 21 November 2019: Rocket attack on Golan reportedly 'response' to IDF strike on Syria-Iraq border crossing in the Albukamal region, which Israel fears will be used by Iranian regime to transport weapons, equipment and fighters through Iraq, into Syria and onward to Lebanon and other countries in the region, as Assad's sources told Lebanese newspaper 'al-Akhbar', that 'the enemy is seeking to destroy movement back and forth between Iraq and Syria in order to prevent the resistance axis from benefiting from that'
5 March 2020 Assad regime says Israeli airstrikes target bases near Homs, southern Syria: 5 March 2020: Assad regime says Israeli airstrikes target bases near Homs and in southern Syria in the southwest of Quneitra province
21 April 2020 Israeli airstrike on targets in Homs province targeting Iranian militias: 21 April 2020: Syria reports Israeli airstrike on targets in Homs province, targeting Iranian militias according to SOHR
20 February 2021 in exchange for captive, Israel said to buy $1m of Russian covid doses for Syria: 20 February 2021: In exchange for captive, Israel said to buy $1m of Russian covid doses for Syria
20/21 February 2021 Netanyahu says Israeli covid-19 vaccines not part of prisoner swap with Syria: 20 February 2021: Netanyahu says Israeli covid-19 vaccines not part of prisoner swap with Syria, rejecting Arab media reports
22 July 2021 war monitor says Hezbollah ammunitions and weapons depots were destroyed by Israeli strikes: 22 July 2021: War monitor says Hezbollah ammunitions and weapons depots were destroyed by Israeli strikes
Israel/Thailand relations: Israel/Thailand relations
Israel/Tunisia relations: Israel/Tunisia relations
April 2002 Ghriba synagogue bombing: April 2002 Ghriba synagogue bombing
1 November 2012 Israel admits responsibility for 1988 assassination of terrorist Abu Jihad in Tunisia: 1 November 2012: Israel admits responsibility for 1988 assassination of terrorist Khalil al-Wazir (Abu Jihad) in Tunisia
May 2018 Tunisian Liberal Party's Mounir Batour calls for normalization with Israel: 12 May 2018: Tunisian politician Mounir Batour, head of Tunisia Liberal Party, calls for normalization with Israel
27 December 2020 Tunisian who sang duet with Israeli faces backlash, death threats: 27 December 2020: After Tunisian president Kais Saied, well-known for his hardline views on normalization, called establishing open ties with Israel 'treachery' in a 2019 statement, Tunisian musician Nouman al-Shaari, who collaborated with Israeli singer Ziv Yehezkel on a song promoting religious tolerance between Muslims and Jews has faced serious backlash, including reportedly being fired from his job at a state broadcaster and death threats on social media, as song was penned by a Yemenite artist who wishes to remain anonymous for his own safety, as he lives in territory controlled by the pro-Iranian Houthi militias, as collaboration was arranged by the Arab Council for Regional Integration, which attempts to advance Arab-Israeli dialogue in the region, and as some fellow Tunisian artists, however, have come to the producer’s and musician's defense
History of the Jews in Ukraine: History of the Jews in Ukraine
2 March 2022 Israel cabinet wants to support Ukraine, but there are other financial, economic, political links: 2 March 2022: A week ago the sight was unthinkable: a memorial at the site of one of the worst massacres of the Holocaust, engulfed in smoke and flame from an airstrike. Yet on Tuesday a Russian attack near the Babyn Yar memorial complex in the Ukrainian capital Kyiv achieved exactly that. 5 people died in the strike targeting the TV broadcast tower next door, while firefighters battled to extinguish a fire caused by the explosion in a building inside the Jewish cemetery. Events in Ukraine since Vladimir Putin announced his invasion six days ago are grim echoes of the atrocities committed on European soil in the 20th century: desperate people squeezing on to trains out of cities; refugees lining up on the border; families separated as able-bodied men stay behind to fight. But government officials in Israel – a country that rose from the ashes of the second world war – have not directly condemned the criminal Putin regime for the attack on Babyn Yar, and criticism of the invasion itself has been muted.
January 2017: 21 January 2017: As demonstrators gathered outside of the USA Embassy in Tel Aviv as part of worldwide women’s marches and as hundreds of thousands massed in the USA’s capital Washington and in cities around the globe to send Donald Trump an emphatic message that they won’t let his agenda go unchallenged over the next four years Israel's PM Netanyahu tweeted 'Congrats to my friend President Trump' - 22 January 2017: Reflecting the Torah portion, joyous rebellion as women march, as part of the 21 January 2017 Women's March in cities around the world, initially centered around Washington D.C. to promote women's rights and to address racial inequities, workers' issues, and environmental issues, an estimated 2.9 million people attended the 408 marches across the USA and other marches occurred in 168 countries around the world
May 2017: 17 May 2017: We must reassess what info we share with USA, Israeli intelligence says, after Trump revealed highly classified information to Russians in recent White House meeting, putting Israeli spy’s life at risk - 17 May 2017: Ex-Mossad head Shavit says in an interview that USA's Trump is like a ‘bull in a china shop… If tomorrow I were asked to pass information to the CIA, I would do everything I could to not pass it to them’, as another former head of the Mossad Danny Yatom demands to penalize the USA over Trump’s leak because his acts could endanger Israeli sources - 20 May 2017: 'Horrified’ Israeli intelligence officials ‘were shouting at US counterparts’ over Trump leak to Russian war criminals, as the now endangered Israeli spy was also reportedly a major asset in gaining information on the actions of Iran in Syria, through its Revolutionary Guards Corps and Hezbollah terrorists, both of which have been fighting for Bashar Assad
8 November 2020 Netanyahu and Rivlin congratulate Biden on election win: 8 November 2020: After hours of silence, Netanyahu and Rivlin congratulate Biden on election win
21 January 2021 Israel’s energy minister cheers Biden’s return to 2015 Paris climate deal: 21 January 2021: Israel’s energy minister Steinitz cheers USA president Biden’s return to 2015 Paris climate deal
21 May 2021 USA's president Biden commends Netanyahu for bringing Gaza violence to close: 21 May 2021: USA's president Biden commends Netanyahu for bringing Gaza violence to close, reaffirming that Israel has the right to defend itself, adding that it will fully replenish the Iron Dome missile defense system, reiterating USA's policy that Israelis and Palestinians equally deserve to live safely and securly while enjoying equal measures of freedom, prosperity and democracy (that needed to be discussed in a profound and international relations and alliances inclusive manner, because also in this case the Iranian Mullah regime - incapable of encompassing maintenance and construction work and amid crisis of oilindustry and climate crisis - and its proxies abuse impoverished and desperate humans up to martyrdom)
24 June 2021 Israel earlier reportedly gave a list of possible Iranian nuclear targets to the USA: 24 June 2021: The New York Times says Israel gave a list of possible Iranian nuclear targets to the USA
25 August 2021 Israeli PM Bennett in Washington ahead of first meeting with president Biden: 25 August 2021: Israeli PM Bennett in Washington ahead of first meeting with president Biden, 'Haaretz' reports live
27 March 2022 Lapid and Blinken vow to halt nuclear Iran in joint press conference: 27 March 2022: Ahead of Mideast summit Israeli Foreign Minister Yair Lapid and USA Secretary of State Antony Blinken vowed to work together to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons in a joint press conference on Sunday at 11:13 AM standard time (and not crazy German and even EU so-called 'Sommerzeit', erstmals am 30. April 1916 im 'Deutschen Kaiserreich' sowie der 'Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie' eingeführt um die verbrecherischen, energieintensiven 'Materialschlachten' - erstmals tödliches Giftgas und in großen Mengen gegen britische, belgische, französche Soldaten seit April 1915 - des Ersten Weltkriegs der sog. Mittelmächte einschließlich 'Osmanisches Reich' Devlet-i Ebed-müddet 1914-1918 zu unterstützen)
Israel/Vietnam relations: Israel/Vietnam relations
Israel/Yemen relations: Israel/Yemen relations

Political parties in Israel: Political parties in Israel
November/December 2019 MK Gideon Sa’ar formally requests snap vote for Likud leader: 22 November 2019: 56% of Israelis think that PM Netanyahu should resign, according to a Channel 13 poll published Friday after AG Avichai Mandelblit announced that he would be indicting the premier in three corruption cases - 24 November 2019: Netanyahu challenger MK Gideon Sa’ar formally requests snap vote for Likud leader, saying leadership race should be held in next 2 weeks 'to prevent the state from lapsing into unnecessary elections’ - 27 December 2019: After Likud win, Netanyahu vows to 'finalize borders', get USA to back annexation - 29 December 2019: Most of the public does not support the idea of the Knesset granting PM Netanyahu immunity from prosecution in the three corruption cases against him, Channel 12 news poll says
9 December 2020 Gideon Sa’ar quits 'tool for Netanyahu’s interests’ Likud: 9 December 2020: Gideon Sa’ar quits Likud, 'a tool for Netanyahu’s interests,’ to lead 'New Hope’
21 February 2019 Moshe Ya'alon, Benny Gantz, Yair Lapid and Gabi Ashkenazi forge alliance and a united list: 21 February 2019: Former defense minister Moshe Ya'alon, Israel Resilience's Benny Gantz, Yesh Atid's Yair Lapid and former IDF chief of staff Gabi Ashkenazi forge alliance and a united list, that will be named 'Blue and White', in the upcoming elections, saying they 'will present a new team of security and social leaders that will ensure the security of the nation and reunite the fractured elements of Israeli society', and agreeing to rotate being PM should they win the elections - Since 21 February 2019 'Blue and White', a political alliance running in the 2019 Israeli legislative election, composed of Israel Resilience Party, Yesh Atid, and Telem - 24 February 2019: Ehud Barak confidant and lawyer Oshi Elmalich reportedly behind campaign pushing for center-left parties to unite forces in upcoming elections - 9 March 2019: In his first major interview since entering politics last month, former Israeli army chief of staff Gabi Ashkenazi says that his job had been to ensure that the political echelon has 'realistic' options and to give his professional advice - 2 June 2019: Blue and White party leaders say they’ll stick to format that 'led to incredible achievement of 35 seats' also in the upcoming September 17 election and they will keep their deal to rotate the premiership if they form the next government

Trade unions in Israel: Trade unions in Israel

Government and taxation in Israel: Israeli system of government
Ministry of National Infrastructures, Energy and Water Resources: Ministry of National Infrastructures, Energy and Water Resources since 1977
Ministry for the Development of the Periphery, the Negev and the Galilee: Ministry for the Development of the Periphery, the Negev and the Galilee since 2005
Ministry of Environmental Protection: Ministry of Environmental Protection in Israel
Ministry of Finance: Ministry of Finance, the main economic ministry of the Government of Israel, responsible for planning and implementing the government's overall economic policy, as well as setting targets for fiscal policy, preparing the draft state budget and monitoring implementation of the approved budget, also managing state revenues, collecting direct and indirect taxes and promoting nonresident investments, as in addition the ministry conducts economic relations with foreign governments, economic organizations and the international community, also regulating the state owned companies sector and the capital market, savings and insurance, as ministry is also responsible for auxiliary units for government ministries in motor vehicles, computer services, printing and government procurement - Main functions and list of ministers of the Ministry of Finance since May 1948
Ministry of Aliyah and Integration: Ministry of Aliyah and Integration since 1948
Taxation and government budget in Israel: Taxation in Israel - Israel Government Budget

Elections and politics in Israel: Elections in Israel - Israeli Central Elections Committee
February 2009 Israeli legislative election: 10 February 2009 Israeli legislative election
July-December 2011: Israeli lawmakers pass West Bank settlement boycott law (47 to 36 votes, 120 members of Knesset) 11 July - 13. Juli: Klage in Israel gegen Boykottgesetz - 4. August: Israel forciert Siedlungsbau - 930 weitere Wohnungen auf besetztem Gebiet am Südrand Jerusalems - 11. August: Israels 'endgültige Genehmigung' für 1.600 neue Wohnungen in Ost-Jerusalem - 16 August: Israel parliament (only opposition) meets in an emergency session on Tuesday to discuss social protests - 27. September: Israels Regierung läßt laut UN-Experten immer mehr Häuser von Palästinensern im besetzten Westjordanland zerstören, Vertreibung und Zerstörung weiterer Lebensgrundlagen - 16 October: Israel names 477 Palestinian prisoners to be freed - 18. Oktober: Gilad Shalit an Ägypten übergeben, heute Rückkehr nach Israel - 1 November: Israel orders new building in East Jerusalem after Unesco membership of Palestine - 11. Novemer: Israels Armee erschießt jüdischen Siedler an Straßensperre im Westjordanland - 28 December 2011: Israel appoves more homes in east Jerusalem
July-December 2012: 8 July 2012: After large rally Israeli PM's party announces to back full conscription - 17 July: Kadima quits Israel government over conscription law - 2 September: Evacuation of Migron outpost begins, in advance of Supreme Court deadline - 6 October: Israeli air force downs unmanned aircraft after it entered the south of the country - 9 October: Israel's prime minister has called an early general election, which could come as soon as January 2013 - 11 October: Hezbollah admits launching drone over Israel - 16 octobre: La Knesset a voté sa dissolution et convoqué des élections législatives anticipées pour le 22 janvier 2013 - 30 November: Netanyahu/Lieberman security-cabinet authorises 3.000 units in illegal settlements in occupied territory, a day after UN General Assembly upgraded Palestine's status - 2 December: Israel halts Palestinian tax transfer - 13 December: Israeli FM Avigdor Lieberman charged with fraud and breach of trust - 14 December: Lieberman resignation signals shift in Israeli politics - 17 December: Israel pushes ahead with plans to build 1.500 settler homes in east Jerusalem - 21 December: PM Netanyahu says that he is not interested in what UN says about settlement construction - 25 December: Israel endorses first university in West Bank near Nablus - 26 December: Israel has advanced the process of building 942 more settler homes in East Jerusalem under a new fast-track plan to tighten its grip on the territory - 28 December 2012: Palestinian-Israeli politician and Knesset member Haneen Zoabi is appealing a court ruling barring her from running in January general elections - 30 December 2012: In unanimous ruling High Court rules that Israeli Arab MK Hanin Zuabi can run in upcoming election
July-September 2013: 30 juillet 2013: 'J’ai tué beaucoup d’Arabes dans ma vie – et il n’y a aucun problème avec ça', a affirmé le chef de 'Foyer juif' et ministre israélien de l'Économie Naftali Bennett - 4 August: Israel adds 20 West Bank settlements to its list for public aid in housing, infrastructure, education, cultural activities and security spending - 11 August: Israel to start building nearly 1,200 new units in West Bank and East Jerusalem - 12 August: Almost all prisoners, slated to be released as a gesture toward the Palestinian Authority in the renewed peace talks, were convicted of murdering Israelis - 8 September 2013: The Israeli government on Sunday approved the allocation of 5,000 work permits for Palestinians from the West Bank - 17 September 2013: Israel strikes down law targeting African migrants
December 2014 Israeli legislators agree on 17 March 2015 parliamentary election: 3 December 2014: Israeli legislators agree on 17 March 2015 parliamentary election
26 December 2014 High Court orders evacuation of Amona outpost within two years: 26 December 2014: High Court orders the evacuation of the Amona outpost in the West Bank within two years
July-December 2015 High Court orders Beit El’s Dreinoff settlement buildings torn down: 29 July 2015: High Court orders Beit El’s Dreinoff settlement buildings torn down - 9 August: As the funeral of Palestinian Dawabsha, the father of a toddler killed when their home was firebombed by Jewish extremists, was attended by thousands, Israeli security forces search 7 homes in hilltop settlements, detain at least 9 people - 7 September: Record number of Palestinian structures slated for demolition in West Bank - 14 September: Netanyahu calls emergency meeting on stone throwing and fire bombs in Jerusalem and its vicinity - 28 November 2015: 'Liberman’s understanding of the war on terror amounts to the automatic firing of empty slogans, which have a merely coincidental relation to reality', Likud says after ex-FM calls PM’s handling of terror wave 'catastrophic'
May 2016 Ya’alon warns of 'dangerous’ forces who 'took over’ Likud: 20 May 2016: Leaving politics, Ya’alon warns of 'dangerous’ forces who 'took over’ Likud, Israel
February-May 2017 Israel and Palestinians: 6 February 2017: Israel legalizes West Bank outposts with sweeping new legislation, as controversial law recognizing building on private Palestinian land passes final Knesset votes by 60 to 52 - 28 February 2017: Blistering Gaza 2014 war report scorches Netanyahu, Ya’alon and Gantz over tunnel failures, Netanyahu to be questioned in April by lawmakers on report - 24 May 2017: In Jerusalem Day speech Israel's president Rivlin says that Israel must act immediately to improve the quality of life in the predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, which are among the nation’s poorest
April 2018 after Netanyahu reversal African migrants remain in limbo: 4 April 2018: After Netanyahu reversal, African migrants remain in limbo
April 2019 Israeli legislative election: 9 April 2019 Israeli legislative election
23 September 2019 coalition talks as only 10 Arab joint list MKs back Gantz: 23 September 2019: Only 10 Arab joint list MKs back Gantz, as a three-member faction won’t support anyone for PM
13 January 2020 lawmakers allowing PM immunity debate to begin: 13 January 2020: Israeli lawmakers approve rules change allowing PM immunity debate to begin
17 January 2020 Blue and White party consolidates lead in latest polls: 17 January 2020: Blue and White party consolidates lead in latest polls from Channels 11, 12 and 13
21 January 2020 Gantz promises to annex Jordan Valley after election: 21 January 2020: Gantz promises to annex Jordan Valley after upcoming election
23 January 2020 Thessaloniki’s Jewish police Vital Hasson's story, who worked for the Nazis in World War II: 23 January 2020: Leader of Thessaloniki’s Jewish police Vital Hasson's story, who worked for the Nazis, hunted down refugees in World War WII Greece and sent families — and his own relatives — to Auschwitz, shows that identity doesn’t always determine destiny - 21 January 2020: Holocaust survivor travels to Poland for 75th anniversary of the Liberation of Auschwitz - January 2020 International Holocaust Remembrance Day Commemoration starts tomorrow - 24 January 2020 - at 5:00 PM in New York - 27 January 2020 Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum marking the 75th Anniversary of the Liberation of Auschwitz-Birkenau by the Soviet Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, as the event at the site will be attended by survivors, their families and invited politicians of different countries - Survivors' Stories
23 January 2020 4 Israeli ministers will let survivors take their places at Holocaust event in Jerusalem: 23 January 2020: Four of Israel’s government ministers have said they will let survivors take their places at international Holocaust event in Jerusalem
10 March 2020 Joint List-backed minority coalition the only alternative to 4th election Yair Lapid says: 10 March 2020: Joint List-backed minority coalition the only alternative to 4th election, Blue and White MK Yair Lapid says
25 March 2020 amid crises and efforts to avoid further delays Edelstein resigns and does not resign: 25 March 2020: Efforts to force speaker vote today mandated by Israel's High Court, as Edelstein tries to benefit from his resignation immediately by avoiding vote to choose new speaker, contradicting himself by saying move will only take effect in 48 hours, as Knesset legal adviser Eyal Yinon calls on Edelstein to reconvene the plenum, telling Edelstein he will still be in breach of a High Court ruling if he fails to allow the vote to go forward, as High Court gives Edelstein until 2:30 p.m. to respond to ‘contempt’ charges, as demonstrators rally outside the parliament, demanding the speaker Edelstein adhere to the High Court’s ruling, and as 'Blue and White' MK Ofer Shelah will head the Knesset’s new coronavirus crisis committee
27 March 2020 Gantz abandons opposition to Netanyahu, Putin and corruption charges, now saying it’s 'Bibi and his liars': 27 March 2020: After president Rivlin asked him to form the government in the wake of the March 2 election, Gantz chose to degrade himself and to crawl into Netanyahu's government as part of a deal with Likud, and in opposition to his main partner in leading Kahol Lavan, Yair Lapid, telling his former allies Yair Lapid and Moshe Ya’alon that he was splitting off from them because leading Israel into fourth elections not an option while virus rages, instead of saying Netanyahu and Edelstein not an option for Israel while virus rages, as Putin's blacklisted oligarch friend Vekselberg is linked to Israeli businessmen and politicians including Benny Gantz, chairman of former 'Fifth Dimension'
29 March 2020 Kahol Lavan party formally split following Gantz's decision to abandon unity amid economic and health crisis: 29 March 2020: Kahol Lavan party formally split, as the Knesset approved the departure of the Yesh Atid and Telem factions following Benny Gantz's decision to join Netanyahu
30 March 2020 as Israel's unemployment rises Netanyahu aide tests positive for virus and PM himself enters quarantine: 30 March 2020: As Israel's unemployment rate up to 22.7% amid coronavirus crisis, Covid-19 death toll hits 16 and Netanyahu aide tests positive for coronavirus standing before isolation, as Netanyahu himself enters quarantine until health officials complete investigation, contradicting earlier statement from his office determined in its master's private fight - 30 March 2020: Assaf Harofe Hospital near Rishon Lezion announced today that a 58 year-old man had died of coronavirus making him the 16th fatality in the country, as number of people who have tested positive in Israel for coronavirus has now risen to 4,347 up 482 from 3,865 cases yesterday, according to health professionels, and as Knesset urges MKs to 'act acccording to guidlines'
13 April 2020 Moshe Ya’alon calls on Gantz to quit coalition talks as PM tries to use covid-19 crisis to flee justice: 13 April 2020: Moshe Ya’alon calls on Gantz to quit coalition talks, saying 'it’s clear that your naive intention to form a national unity government met the cynical swindling of the accused who is fleeing justice', and 'if you agree to meet his demands to entrench his regime, and make him a leader above the law, you will be misusing the mission that united us' - 13 April 2020: Tax Authority head warns of huge losses to state revenues, already down by NIS 6 billion in March, if lockdown continues - 13 April 2020: 2-month phased lockdown rollback pushed by National Security Council, as limitations on industry and tech sector will be loosened first as schools see gradual return of students
16 April 2020 now Knesset's 21 days to agree on PM or new election: 16 April 2020: Rivlin gives Knesset 21 days to agree on the PM it wants, or go to new election
17 April 2020 Netanyahu no longer wants a unity government, he wants to crush the Supreme Court: 17 April 2020: Netanyahu no longer wants a unity government, he wants to crush the Supreme Court, according to 'Haaretz' - 17 April 2020: With covid-19, there can be no Jordan Valley annexation, as the extensive cooperation that takes place between Israeli and health professionals would halt if an annexation policy were advanced in the midst of this health crisis, according to EcoPeace Middle East, saying Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian public must re-evaluate their support for leaders who lead a populist agenda, and arrogance shown by some international leaders, who did not initially view the coronavirus as a legitimate threat, already cost the lives of thousands of people in their respective countries
27 April 2020 AG said convinced state attorney, justice minister trying to oust him: 27 April 2020: AG said convinced acting state attorney, justice minister trying to oust him with the help of Netanyahu
28/29 April 2020 at Memorial and Israel's Independence Day Benny Gantz and allies groving before Netanyahu: 28 April 2020: Benny Gantz’s and allies tell the High Court they believe the petitions against Benjamin Netanyahu forming the next government should be rejected, saying the special circumstances of deep political, health and economic crises necessitate forming an emergency government, neglecting that and how the political, economic etc. crises are man-made - 29 April 2020: Muted Israel's Independence Day celebrations on 5 Iyar salute medical staff fighting covid-19, and the country's most visible public display will be a controversial air force flyover of hospitals and medical centers, as in neighbouring Syria Assad's and Putin's air forces, also supported by the Iranian regime, destroyed cities, villages, schools, hospitals and healthcare facilities, killing civilians, children and healthcare workers since 2011 - 29 April 2020: Israel Defense Forces and USA Navy bands surprised Israeli Holocaust survivor Abba Naor this week to mark both Israel’s 72nd Independence Day and the 75th anniversary of the liberation of the Dachau concentration camp, playing for him a rendition of Israel’s national anthem, Hatikva
29 July 2020 Yair Lapid says Netanyahu’s incitement led to attacks on protesters: 29 July 2020: Opposition head Yair Lapid said on Wednesday that PM Netanyahu’s 'incitement' had led to the attacks on protesters by members of violent groups at a Tel Aviv protest, and that 'the violence and blood spilled yesterday in Tel Aviv is on the hands of Netanyahu and his messengers', as 'one who sows incitement will receive blood in return', as attackers were seen hitting demonstrators with glass bottles and chairs, spraying them with mace, as organizers of the protest said five people were hospitalized, including two with stab wounds to their backs, and as opposition MK Moshe Ya’alon and Gantz called on police to take swift action - 29 July 2020: Defense Minister Gantz said a red line was crossed in the violent attacks against protesters marching in Tel Aviv calling for the ouster of PM Netanyahu, adding that 'citizens exercising their right to protest were attacked by an organized group of criminals'
January - 1 February 2021 Israeli covid-19 crisis and forthcoming elections: 31 January 2021: Thousands of people on Sunday night joined the funeral procession of a prominent ultra-Orthodox rabbi in Jerusalem who died of covid-19, in defiance of the lockdown rules, hours after another burial in the capital drew a massive crowd - 31 January 2021: Ministers extend lockdown until Friday morning, keep airport closed for week, as at late-night cabinet meeting, Netanyahu and Gantz spar over rules before reaching compromise on prolonging the nationwide closure, already in its 4th week - 1 February 2021: 30% of Israeli covid-19 deaths were in January alone, according to Health Ministry data, as schools open in Bnei Brak, Jerusalem despite increased fines, and as Finance Minister Katz calls for commerce to restart as soon as lockdown ends - 1 February 2021: Israel will take military action against nuclear Iran if needed, as Defense minister Gantz also says any future war would involve Hezbollah and Hamas targeting Israeli cities, and Israel in turn hitting missile stores in civilian areas
3 March 2021 poll finds Lapid gaining, Meretz out: 3 March 2021: Poll finds Lapid gaining, Meretz out
15 April 2021 Israel is celebrating its 73rd Independence Day with a traditional Israel Air Force flyby: 15 April 2021: Israel is celebrating its 73rd Independence Day with a traditional Israel Air Force flyby across the country
14 May 2021 heavy rockets barrages target southern Israel as IDF pounds Gaza: 14 May 2021: Heavy rockets barrages target southern Israel as IDF pounds Gaza, 'Haaretz' reports live
7 June 2021 organizers cancel Jerusalem march after police refuse to let it pass through Muslim quarter: 7 June 2021: Organizers cancel Jerusalem march after police refuse to let it pass through Muslim quarter
11 June 2021 parties finalize coalition deals ahead of swearing-in: