European countries M - Y

Geography of Europe: Geography of Europe, the northwestern peninsula of the larger landmass known as Eurasia, or the larger Afro-Eurasia - Geology of Europe - Geological history of Europe
List of European countries by population and by area: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, including 50 generally recognised sovereign states - List of European countries by population, including 51 countries and 6 territories and dependencies located in Europe, broadly defined, as transcontinental countries are included if they are members of the Council of Europe - List of European countries by area, as some states are only partially located in Europe and are ranked according to the size of their European part only - Lists of countries in Europe by other - more or less distinguishing - features
European countries A - L




Malta - Geography of Malta - History of Malta - Demographics of Malta
Economy of Malta: Economy of Malta, main industries include tourism, electronics, ship building and repair, construction, food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, footwear, clothing, tobacco, aviation services, financial services, information technology services - Companies of Malta by industry
Petroleum in Malta: Petroleum in Malta - Luzzu oil field, located in the Mediterranean Sea, discovered in 2006 it will begin production in 2015
Energy in Malta: Energy in Malta, Malta produces almost all its electricity using oil, importing 100% of it
Agriculture in Malta: Agriculture in Malta - Lumi laring ta ghawdex - cultivation of oranges
Transport in Malta: Transport in Malta - Ports and harbours of Malta
Water transport in Malta: Water transport in Malta
Tourism in Malta: Tourism in Malta
Banking and banks in Malta: List of banks in Malta - Central Bank of Malta - Bank of Valletta - HSBC Bank Malta
March-November 2018 Pilatus bank case and investigative journalist: 22. März 2018: Maltas Finanzaufsicht MFSA hat die Absetzung des iranischen Chefs Nedschad der in einen Korruptionsskandal verwickelten Pilatus-Bank angeordnet, den die im Oktober ermordete maltesische Investigativjournalistin Daphne Caruana Galizia aufgedeckt hatte
November 2018 Pilatus bank closed over Iranian chairman fraud and corrupt payment charges: 5 November 2018: Maltese Pilatus bank, which was closed after its Iranian chairman and owner Ali Sadr Hasheminejad was charged in the USA in connection with money-laundering and fraud and was also accused of processing corrupt payments to Maltese officials by the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, has had its licence withdrawn by the European Central Bank
Taxation in Malta: Taxation in Malta
Politics of Malta: Politics of Malta - Constitution of Malta adopted on 21 September 1964 and amended twenty-four times, most recently in 2007
Political parties and trade unions in Malta: Political parties in Malta - Trade unions in Malta
Elections and parliament in Malta: Elections in Malta - Parliament of Malta
May 1964 Maltese constitutional referendum: May 1964 Maltese constitutional referendum, effectively a referendum on independence, as the new constitution made the country an independent Commonwealth realm
March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum: 8 March 2003 Maltese European Union membership referendum
March 2008 Maltese general election: Maltese general election 8 March 2008 - 10 December 2012: Malta faces new elections after its government collapsed over negotiations for next year's budget
General election March 2013: Maltese general election 9 March 2013 - 10 March 2013: Addressing thousands of supporters at Floriana Granaries, newly elected PM Joseph Muscat says that the day of change has just dawned upon Malta
April 2014 Maltese presidential election: Maltese presidential election 1 April 2014 - Marie Louise Coleiro Preca appointed as the ninth President of Malta on 4 April 2014
European Parliament election 2014: European Parliament election 24 May 2014
June 2017 Maltese general election: 3 June 2017 Maltese general election - 4 juin 2017: Le premier ministre Muscat annoncé gagnant, dans l'espoir de retrouver une légitimité à l'égard d'une affaire des comptes au Panama
November/December 2017: 3 novembre 2017: Malte enterre ce vendredi la journaliste et blogueuse anticorruption Daphne Caruana Galizia, dont l'assassinat à la voiture piégée le 16 octobre a provoqué une onde de choc - 4 December 2017: Eight suspects have been arrested in Malta over the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, according to Malta's PM - 5 December 2017: Three Maltese men have been charged for the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia
May 2018: 28 May 2018: The family of the murdered Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia have had little chance to mourn her death because of continuing intimidation, threats and lies, according to her son
May 2019 European Parliament election in Malta: 25 May 2019 European Parliament election in Malta
September 2019 concerns over Daphne Caruana Galizia's death inquiry: 21 September 2019: Family of murdered Maltese journalist raise concerns over public inquiry, as Daphne Caruana Galizia’s family request meeting with Maltese PM over concerns about impartiality of panel, calling for greater scrutiny into a lack of accountability for criminal actions and political corruption
October 2019 serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2019: Pieter Omtzigt, a special rapporteur for the Council of Europe, has raised serious concerns about the police investigation into the killing of the Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, saying 'individual officers may be doing their best, but the approach of the police force as a whole, and of the politicians responsible for it, does not match the prime minister’s promise to leave no stone unturned'
November 2019 Maltese businessman Yorgen Fenech arrested in Galizia case: 20 November 2019: Maltese businessman Yorgen Fenech arrested onboard his yacht as it was heading out to sea, in an operation linked to the murder of the Maltese anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, less than 24 hours after immunity offer from prosecution to an alleged middleman in exchange for information
26 November 2019 Maltese PM's aide and minister quit amid turmoil: 26 November 2019: Maltese PM’s chief of staff and tourism minister resigned in an escalation of the political turmoil surrounding the investigation into the murder of the prominent anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia in 2017
1 December 2019 Malta’s PM quits in crisis over Daphne Caruana Galizia murder: 1 December 2019: Malta’s PM quits in crisis over Daphne Caruana Galizia murder
12 January 2020 Malta gets new PM Labour leader Robert Abela: 12 January 2020: Malta gets new PM labour leader Robert Abela after Muscat departs over Daphne Caruana Galizia murde amid controversy surrounding investigation of journalist’s death
29 July 2021 Malta responsible for journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia's death, inquiry says: 29 July 2021: A public inquiry into the assassination of Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia has found the state responsible for her death, as the report said the state had failed to recognise risks to the reporter's life and take reasonable steps to avoid them, after Caruana Galizia died in a car bomb attack near her home in October 2017
26 March 2022 general elections in Malta: 26 March 2022 general elections in Malta - Results of March 2022 election, as Labour Party won 162,707 votes or 55.11% and Nationalist Party 123,233 votes or 41.74%
Social movements and protests in Malta: Protests in Malta
October 2017 protests following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017: Journalists, politicians, private citizens, backers and detractors, all were quick to condemn the as-yet unknown perpetrators who murdered Malta's most known journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia - 17 October 2017: People gathered outside the law courts in Valletta this afternoon for a protest demanding justice following the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia - 19 October 2017: Malta's journalists held a silent commemoration in Valletta today to mark their sorrow at the murder of blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia and to promise that the savage attack will not intimidate the profession - 22 October 2017: Thousands of Maltese call for justice in a protest held by a group of non-governmental organizations after journalist and anti-corruption blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia was killed last Monday
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Malta: Maltese society - Human rights in Malta
Regions, districts and local councils of Malta: Subdivisions of Malta - Regions of Malta - Districts of Malta - Local councils of Malta
List of towns with and without a local council, with and without hamlet council: List of towns in Malta with a local council, with and without hamlet council, in Gozo with a local council, with and without hamlet council
Valletta city: Valletta city, the capital city of Malta and located in the South Eastern Region, the metropolitan area around it has a population of 393,938 inhabitants
Education in Valletta: Education in Valletta
Economy of Valletta: Economy of Valletta (Wirtschaft Vallettas)
History and timeline of Valletta: History and timeline of Valletta
Since 1798 French occupation and since 19th century British rule: Since 1798 French occupation and since 19th century British rule
21st century history of Valletta: Contemporary history of Valletta
Leeuwarden and Valletta European Capital of Culture in 2018: Valletta was the European Capital of Culture in 2018 together with The Netherlands' Leeuwarden
Rabat town: Rabat town in the Northern Region of Malta, with a population of 11,497 citizens in 2014. It adjoins the ancient capital city of Mdina, and a north-western area formed part of the Roman city of Melite until its medieval retrenchment
28 September 2021 Malta's Rabat town installs first solar-powered footpath: 28 September 2021: Malta's Rabat town installs first solar-powered footpath, after the EU member state has committed to achieving 11.5% target share of energy from renewable sources by 2030, and as the country's first solar footpath is taking shape in Rabat
Demographics of Malta: Demographics of Malta
Culture of Malta: Culture of Malta - Languages of Malta - Maltese language
Women and women's rights in Malta: Women in Malta - Maltese women by occupation
Since 1947 women in Maltese general elections and politics: Women in Maltese general elections, as 15 general elections have been contested since the granting of universal suffrage in Malta in 1947, as only 73 women have contested in these elections and number of men has exceeded 1000, but the number of women contesting general elections has increased over the years - Maltese women in politics
Maltese children: Maltese children
Education in Malta: Education in Malta
Schools in Malta: Schools in Malta - List of schools in Malta
Universities in Malta: Universities in Malta - University of Malta
Health in Malta: Health in Malta
Healthcare in Malta: Healthcare in Malta - List of hospitals in Malta
Media in Malta: Media in Malta
Newspapers in Malta: Newspapers published in Malta - List of newspapers in Malta
Radio and TV in Malta: Radio in Malta - Television in Malta
Internet in Malta: Internet in Malta
Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook 'Running Commentary': Running Commentary website, Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook - Daphne Caruana Galizia's Notebook's final blog on 16 October 2017
October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia: 16 October 2017 assassination of Caruana Galizia - 16/17 October 2017: Maltese investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who led the Panama Papers investigation into corruption in Malta, exposed the island nation’s links to offshore tax havens through the leaked Panama Papers, and who filed a police report two weeks ago saying she was receiving threats, was killed Monday when a bomb exploded in her car in Mosta
November 2017: 22 November 2017: The family of the murdered Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, who was a relentless critic of corruption in the country, are taking legal action against the police force for allegedly failing to ensure the investigation into her killing is impartial and independent
April 2018: 17 April 2018: The family of the murdered anti-corruption journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia believe that three men awaiting trial for the crime were acting on orders from inside Malta, and have expressed concern that elements within the government may be protecting whoever commissioned the killing
July 2019: 16 July 2019: Three men have been formally charged over the 2017 murder of Maltese anti-corruption journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia, who was killed by a car bomb in November 2017
24 October 2020 children's book tells story of Daphne Caruana Galizia: 24 October 2020: Children's book tells story of Maltese journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, as her friend Gattaldo recounts her battles against corruption for young readers, saying 'she has left a strong legacy and here in Malta I see it', 'there is a realisation that democracy doesn’t stop with the vote'
Crime in Malta: Crime in Malta
Since classical antiquity slavery in Malta: Slavery in Malta existed and was recognised from classical antiquity until the early modern period, common in many countries around the Mediterranean Sea, as the system reached its apex under Hospitaller rule, when it took on unprecedented proportions, largely to provide galley slaves for the galleys of the Order, as well as other Christian countries
Corruption in Malta: 28 February 2017: Overview of Corruption and Anti-Corruption in Malta by Transparency International
April 2021 Malta still selling golden passports to rich stay-away ‘residents’: 23 April 2021: Malta still selling golden passports to rich stay-away ‘residents’, as undercover investigation finds evidence that cash-for-passport practices revealed in Henley & Partners leak continue
Terrorism in Malta: Terrorism in Malta
1977 Murder of Karin Grech: 28 December 1977 Murder of Karin Grech
October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia:: 16 October 2017 assassination of Daphne Caruana Galizia
October 2017 bomb detonated via mobile phone message: 19 December 2017: Bomb was ‘organic explosive’ detonated via mobile phone message, sent from a boat off the island’s coast as part of a carefully planned operation lasting several months
Organized crime in Malta: Organized crime and 'Ndrangheta in Malta
Human trafficking in Malta: Human trafficking in Malta
Law and legal history of Malta: Law of Malta - Human rights in Malta and history
Judiciary of Malta: Judiciary of Malta
Law enforcement in Malta: Law enforcement in Malta - The Malta Police Force
2017 police sergeant suspended after Facebook comments celebrating Caruana Galizia murder: 17 October 2017: Police sergeant suspended after Facebook comments celebrating Caruana Galizia murder
Foreign relations of Malta: Foreign relations of Malta
Treaties of Malta: Treaties of Malta
Immigration to Malta: Immigration to Malta - Illegal immigration in Malta - May 2007 Malta migrant shipwreck - 11 October 2013 Mediterranean Sea migrant shipwreck - 13 octobre 2013: Après le naufrage au sud de Malte qui a coûté la vie à des dizaines de migrants en majorité syriens, le Premier ministre maltais Muscat a déploré que la 'Méditerranée soit en train de devenir un cimetière' - September 2014 Malta migrant shipwreck - 17 September 2014: About 500 migrants may have been killed when people smugglers rammed their boat bound for Malta, drowning the vast majority of its passengers, including refugees from Egypt, Sudan, Syria and Palestine, the IOM says after it debriefed two Palestinian survivors - 19 September 2014: World must vigorously pursue criminal gangs who doomed hundreds of migrants in the Mediterranean, IOM's William Lacy Swing says
Malta and the European Union: Malta and the European Union
March 2003 Maltese EU membership referendum: Maltese EU membership referendum March 2003
2013: 13. Oktober 2013: Nach dem Schiffsunglück am 11. Oktober zwischen Malta und Lampedusa sagt Joseph Muscat, Malta fühle sich in der Flüchtlingsproblematik von der EU im Stich gelassen
2017: 20 October 2017: As European parliament's Antonio Tajani says there was broad agreement among the EU27 on the need for some form of international involvement 'to fully clarify an event of unprecedented gravity', Pope Francis sent a rare letter of condolence to Malta following the murder of the investigative journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia, amid calls from her sons for the island’s PM to resign and mounting pressure for an international investigation - 3 novembre 2017: La Commission européenne a demandé aux autorités maltaises de retrouver les 'barbares' qui ont tué la journaliste d'investigation Daphné Caruana Galizia mi-octobre
June 2018: 13 June 2018: EU’s justice commissioner Vera Jourová to fly to Malta to meet officers investigating the murder of Daphne Caruana Galizia after a damning report accused the authorities of seeking to delay and stall attempts to find those who wanted the journalist dead
Bilateral relations of Malta: Bilateral relations of Malta
Malta/France relations: Malta/France relations
1798-1800 French occupation of Malta: 1798-1800 French occupation of Malta
Malta/Germany relations: Malta/Germany relations
1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: 1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, after the opening of a new front in North Africa in June 1940 increased the considerable value of the strategically important island of Malta
Since January 1941 German intervention: Since January 1941 German intervention
Since 1942: Since 1940 World War II sites in Malta
2017 sociétés 'boîte aux lettres': 10 mai 2017: Des milliers d'entreprises fictives enregistrées sur l'île de Malta et liées à de grands groupes allemands sont dans le viseur du fisc allemand
Malta/Italy relations: Malta/Italy relations
1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: 1940-1942 Siege of Malta by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany during World War II, after the opening of a new front in North Africa in June 1940 increased the considerable value of the strategically important island of Malta
June–December 1940 Italian aerial bombardment of Malta: June–December 1940 Italian aerial bombardment of Malta
Since 1942: Since 1940 World War II sites in Malta
Malta/Libya relations: Malta/Libya relations
Malta/Russia relations: Malta/Russia relations
2016: 27 October 2016: Malta will not refuel Russia's 'death fleet' heading to Syria, after online petition to the Maltese government said the people of Malta did not want to be complicit in Russia's war crimes
Malta/Spain relations: Malta/Spain relations
Malta/Tunisia relations: Malte/Tunisia relations
2015: 9 July 2015: As Maltese holidaymakers strike Tunisia off their destination list following the Sousse terrorist attack in June, and British tourists decide to cut their holidays, some have declared in interviews and on social media they were determined to see their holiday through to the end to defy the terrorists
Malta/Turkey relations: Malta/Turkey relations
1565 Great Siege of Malta: 1565 Great Siege of Malta, when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller
Malta/United Kingdom relations: Malta/United Kingdom relations
1690–1967 British Mediterranean Fleet: British Mediterranean Fleet 1690–1967
1798-1800 Siege of Malta: Siege of Malta (1798–1800)
1813-1964 British Malta Colony: British Malta Colony 1813–1964
1964 Maltese referendum on a new constitution and independence: Maltese referendum on a new constitution and independence 1964
Malta/USA relations: Malta/USA relations
Environment of Malta: Environment of Malta - Natural history of Malta - Geology of Malta
Landforms of Malta: Landforms of Malta
Water in Malta: Water in Malta


Moldova - Geography of Moldova - Principality of Moldavia 1346–1859 - History of Moldova - Independence of Moldova since 1991 - History of independent Moldova - Demographics of Moldova
Economy of Moldova: Economy of Moldova - main industries include sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery, foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines, hosiery, shoes, textiles - Companies of Moldova by industry
Telecommunications in Moldova
Agriculture in Moldova: Agriculture in Moldova and food processing account for about 40% of GDP including wine, wheat, corn, barley, tobacco, sugar beet, soybeans, beef and dairy cattle
Moldovan wine: Moldovan wine
Tourism in Moldova: Tourism in Moldova
Banking and banks in Moldova: List of banks in Moldova - Since 1991 National Bank of Moldova
Economic history of Moldova and economic cycles: Economic history of Moldova
2006-2020 macroeconomic situation and development: 2006-2020 Macroeconomic situation, business and economic environment and development
Poverty in Moldova: Poverty in Moldova
Military of Moldova: Military of Moldova
Politics of Moldova: Politics of Moldova
Political parties in Moldova: Political parties in Moldova
Since May 2016 'Action and Solidarity Party': Since May 2016 'Action and Solidarity Party', a liberal pro-EU political party in Moldova, led by the former minister of Education of Moldova Maia Sandu, as the party was constituted on grounds of voluntary association of the citizens
Trade unions in Moldova: Trade unions in Moldova
Elections and politics in Moldova: Elections in Moldova
Moldovan parliamentary election 28 November 2010 - Pro-European Coalition since May 2013
Moldovan presidential election December 2011 – March 2012
November 2014 Moldovan parliamentary election: Moldovan parliamentary election 30 November 2014 - 29 November: Moldovan pro-Kremlin party leader flees to Moscow ahead of parliamentary ballot after court barred pro-Russian party over illegal funding - 30 November: Moldovans cast their ballots - 1 December: With 87.7% of the vote counted early Monday, the pro-Europe parties were ahead with about 44.4%, with 39.5% for the two pro-Russia parties
October 2016 Moldovan presidential election: 30 October 2016 Moldovan presidential election - 30 October 2016: Moldovans elect president for first time in 20 years - 31 October: Moldova presidential election heads to second round
November 2016: 14 November 2016: Igor Dodon becomes president-elect in Moldova getting alleged 52,29% of votes, while Maiya Sandu got 47,71%
December 2018: 14 December 2018: On 24 February 2019 Moldova will elect a new parliament based on a mixed electoral system adopted in July 2017 by the incumbent Democratic Party, led by oligarch Vladimir Plahotniuc, and the nominally opposition Party of Socialists controlled by President Igor Dodon, but opposed by all the other major political parties
February 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election and referendum: 24 February 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election - A two-part referendum will be held in Moldova on 24 February 2019, alongside parliamentary elections, as voters will be asked whether the number of MPs should be reduced from 101 to 61 and whether MPs should be open to recall
June 2019 Pavel Filip called early election: 9 juin 2019: Le nouveau président, Pavel Filip, a dissous le parlement sur fond de crise alors que l'ancien dirigeant pro-russe ne voulait pas un entente entre russes et européens
June 2019 - 12 November 2019 Sandu Cabinet of Moldova: June 2019 - 12 November 2019 Sandu Cabinet of Moldova, led by Maia Sandu, inaugurated on 8 June 2019 in the middle of the 2019 Moldovan constitutional crisis when the Constitutional Court declared unconstitutional her designation for this position as well as the appointment of the Government of the Republic of Moldova, however on 15 June 2019 the Constitutional Court revised and repealed its previous decisions declaring the Sandu Cabinet to have been constitutionally created, but it was ousted in a motion of no confidence in the Parliament of Moldova on 12 November that same year and subsequently replaced by a government headed by Ion Chicu
September 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election: 6 September 2019 Moldovan parliamentary election
Since 14 November 2019 Chicu Cabinet: Since 14 November 2019 Chicu Cabinet led by Ion Chicu and formed two days after the Sandu Cabinet led by Maia Sandu was ousted in a vote of no confidence
November 2020 Moldovan presidential election: 1 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election - 1 novembre 2020: Les Moldaves élisent dimanche leur président sous l’śil attentif de Moscou qui souhaite voir le chef de l’État sortant réélu face aux candidats pro-européens, sur fond d’inquiétude liée aux mouvements de contestation secouant l’espace ex-soviétique
2 November 2020 CEC data showed Sandu winning 36% against Dodon’s 32.7%: 2 November 2020: Moldova will hold a runoff presidential election after CEC data showed Sandu winning 36% against Dodon’s 32.7% with nearly all ballots counted, as Sandu was also backed by about 70% of Moldovans who voted abroad
15 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election second round: 15 November 2020 Moldovan presidential election second round, candidate from the Action and Solidarity Party, former PM Maia Sandu, won the elections
20 November 2020 Moldova's president-elect Maia Sandu says Crimea is part of Ukraine: 20 November 2020: Moldova's president-elect, former PM Maia Sandu, says Crimea is part of Ukraine, adding she has repeatedly expressed respect for the territorial integrity of neighbouring country, as Ukrainian president Zelensky has already invited Sandu to visit Ukraine
22 October 2021 Moldova in state of emergency for a montb amid soaring world energy prices: 22 October 2021: Moldova’s parliament has approved a government-requested state of emergency until 20 November as it tries to ease gas shortages amid soaring world energy prices, as country wedged between Romania and Ukraine gets gas from Russia via its pro-Russian separatist region of Transnistria and Ukraine
6 March 2022 Moldova seeks USA support over Ukraine war refugees: 6 March 2022: Moldova seeks USA support over Ukraine war refugees, as some 120,000 people have crossed into the small country since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine last week
5 April 2022 Moldova to receive aid from EU donors: 5 April 2022: Moldova to receive aid from EU donors, as EU countries pledge more than $720m in aid to Moldova to help it cope with the fallout from Russia’s war in neighbouring Ukraine
14 February 2023 Moldova’s president accuses Russia of plotting to overthrow the country’s pro-EU government: 14 February 2023: Moldova’s president has accused Russia of plotting to overthrow the country’s pro-EU government through violent actions disguised as opposition protest, as Maia Sandu said authorities had confirmed an alleged Russian plot to destabilise her country that Volodymyr Zelenskiy had revealed last week. Ukraine’s president told EU leaders that Ukraine had intercepted a plan from Russian intelligence, having uncovered a document that showed 'who, when and how was going to break the democracy of Moldova and establish control' over the country
Social movements and protests in Moldova: Protests in Moldova
1990/1991 'Bridge of Flowers': Bridge of Flowers
2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests: April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests
2013 'Pro Europe' demonstration: November 2013 'Pro Europe' demonstration in Moldova
2015 protest demanding an investigation of Moldova's state-owned savings bank: 4 May 2015: Thousands in Chisinau held a protest demanding an investigation into more than USD 1 billion that has gone missing from Moldova's state-owned savings bank and demanding the government do more to implement European reforms - 7 September 2015: Tens of thousands protest in Moldova, demand president's resignation and probe into bank fraud - 14 September: Anti-graft rally enters second week as more than 20,000 people rallied over the weekend - 5 October: Ongoing mass rallies demand action against corruption and the resignation of senior government officials - 26 November: Moldovan protesters begin hunger strike in tent city
April 2016 protests against influence of politically connected business people: 25 April 2016: Thousands of demonstrators demand government resignation and early elections, claiming the current government is under the influence of politically connected business people who dictate policy
November 2016 protests expressing discontent with the results of presidential elections: 14 November 2016: Thousands of people are protesting in the Moldovian capital Chisinau, expressing their discontent with the results of the recent presidential elections, accusing the authorities of a rigged election and demanding the third ballot, as Maiya Sandu pledges to appeal the ballot results and to consider each particular complaint


Society, demographics and human rights in Moldova: Moldovan society
Human rights in Moldova: Human rights in Moldova
Demographics, history of Moldova and history of the Jews in Bessarabia: Demographics of Moldova - Demographic history of Transnistria - History of the Jews in Bessarabia dating back hundreds of years, as in 1897 the Jewish population had grown to 225,637 of a total of 1,936,392, or 11.65%.
Cities and towns in Moldova: List of cities and towns in Moldova
Chisinau city: Chisinau city and the capital of the Republic of Moldova. The city is Moldova's main industrial and commercial center, and is located in the middle of the country, on the river Bâc, a tributary of the Dniester. According to the results of the 2014 census, the city proper had a population of 532,513 citizens, while the population of the Municipality of Chisinau (which includes the city itself and other nearby communities) was 700,00 inhabitants
Bîc river in Moldova: Bîc river in Moldova, a right tributary of the Dniester, originating in a spring in the village of Temeleu?i in west central Moldova. As it flows west and south, the upper Bâc cuts a deep canyon in the Codri Hills. It then flows through the town of Straseni into the Chisinau Sea reservoir, about 20km to the north and west of Chisinau city. The river then flows through the city along the northern edge of the center. After departing it flows further south and west through the town of Anenii Noi, and then empties into the Dnistr near the village of Gura Bîcului ('mouth of the Bîc')
History and timeline of Chisinau recorded since 1436: History and timeline of Chisinau recorded since 1436. Then, it has grown to become a significant political and cultural capital of South East Europe. In 1918 Chisinau became the capital of an independent state, the Moldavian Democratic Republic, and has been the capital of Moldova since 1991.
Since 1436 timeline of Chisinau: Timeline of Chisinau since 1436
19th century industrial age of Chisinau: History of Chisinau recorded since 1436. Then, it has grown to become a significant political and cultural capital of South East Europe. In 1918 Chi?inau became the capital of an independent state, the Moldavian Democratic Republic, and has been the capital of Moldova since 1991.
19th/20th century growing anti-Semitism in the Russian Empire and 1903 Kishinev pogrom In the late 19th century, especially due to growing anti-Semitic sentiment in the Russian Empire and better economic conditions, many Jews chose to settle in Chisinau, but 1903 Kishinev pogrom. Its population had grown to 92,000 by 1862 and to 125,787 by 1900. By the year 1900, 43% of the population of Chisinau was Jewish, one of the highest numbers in Europe
History of Chisinau 1918-1991 when the city became the capital of the Republic of Moldova: Since 1918 interwar period of Chisinau, Axis Powers 1939-1945 World War II as Chisinau was almost completely destroyed, as after the war, Bessarabia was fully integrated into the Soviet Union. Most of Bessarabia became the Moldavian SSR with Chisinau as its capital, and smaller parts of Bessarabia became parts of the Ukrainian SSR, and as between 1969 and 1971 a fight for the establishment of a Moldavian Democratic Republic brought secession from the Soviet Union and union with Romania, before Chisinau became the capital of the Republic of Moldova since 1991 following the establishment of new publications such as Glasul, Desteptarea, Tara, Sfatul Tarii, Limba Româna. The Popular Front of Moldova was formed in 1989.
21st century history of Chisinau: 21st century history of Chisinau
April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests: April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election protests in Chisinau, Cahul, Orhei, Balti, 13 cities in Romania including Bucharest, Washington, D.C., Boston, New York City, London, after the unrest began as a public protest following the announcement of preliminary election results on 6 April 2009, which showed the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova victorious, winning approximately 50% of the votes. Final results, published on 8 April, showed that the PCRM garnered 49.48% of the vote, gaining 60 parliament seats – one less than the three-fifths required for the party to control the presidential election. The opposition rejected the election results, accusing the authorities of falsification in the course of counting the votes and demanded new elections. - 8 April 2009: Romania blamed over Moldova riots, as Moldova, sandwiched between Romania and Ukraine, is the poorest country in Europe, where the average wage is just under $250 a month, as the people speak Romanian sharing many cultural links with Romania. However it was annexed by the Soviet Union in World War II and gained independence in 1991. There remains an unresolved conflict with the breakaway region of Trans-Dniester, which has run its own affairs, with Moscow's support, since the end of hostilities in a brief war in 1992, according to the BBC. The unrest was followed by May–June 2009 Moldovan presidential election, and July 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election.
3 November 2013 huge pro Europe demonstration in Chisinau: 3 November 2013 pro Europe demonstration took place in the capital Chisinau of Moldova. The demonstration was organised by three parties of the ruling coalition: Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova, Democratic Party of Moldova and Liberal Reformists Party. It's estimated that around 100,000 people participated at the demonstration, at that time being the biggest mass group or collection of groups of people, since Moldovan Declaration of Independence.
1 June 2023 second European Political Community Summit in Moldova: 1 June 2023 second European Political Community Summit, an organized meeting of the European Political Community to be held at Mimi Castle, Bulboaca 35km from Chisinau in Moldova. It is expected to be attended by 47 heads of states, governments, and European Union institutions, after the inaugural meeting of the European Political Community was held on 6 October 2022 in Prague in the Czech Republic. The inaugural meeting was attended by the heads of state or government of 44 European countries. Russia and Belarus - assaulting Ukraine since February 2022 - were not invited.
Balti city: Balti city in Moldova, the second largest city in terms of population, area and economic importance, after Chisinau. The city is one of the five Moldovan municipalities, and a major industrial, cultural and commercial centre and transportation hub in the north of the country. It is situated 127 kilometres north of the capital Chisinau, and is located on the river Raut, a tributary of the Dniester, on a hilly landscape in the Balti steppe
Raut river in Moldova: Raut river in Moldova, a right tributary of Dniester. Raut, generally navigable until 18-19th century, is navigable today only by small recreational boats. The towns Balti, Orhei and Floresti are located by the river.
History of Balti since the Middle Ages: History of Balti since the Middle Ages
Twentieth century up to 1989 history of Balti and Post-World War II period: Twentieth century up to 1989 history of Balti and Post-World War II period
Soroca city: Soroca city and municipality in Moldova, the administrative center of the Soroca District, situated on the Dniester river about 160km north of Chisinau and with a population of 22,196 citizens in 2014, as in 1919 its population was estimated at 35,000. It consisted mainly of Jews. Romanians, Germans and Russians also lived in the city. The city once had a Jewish population of around 18,000 but they are only 100 today and 20 of them are considered Jewish according to the halakha. In 2012, Soroca had an estimated 37,500 inhabitants.
Dniester river in Eastern Europe and Moldova: The Dniester river in Eastern Europe - in Ukrainian known as Dniester or Dnister, in Romanian as Nistru, in Russian as Dnestr, in Yiddish as Nester and in Lithuanian as Dniestra -, runing first through Ukraine and then through Moldova (from which it more or less separates the breakaway territory of Transnistria), finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again
Port of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky: Port of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky in the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky, Ukraine, located on the north-western shore of Black Sea at Dniester Estuary, to the south-west from Odessa. Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky Seaport is mainly a freight seaport
Tiraspol city: Tiraspol city, the proclaimed capital of Transnistria region as breakaway state in Moldova, where it is the second largest city. The city is located on the eastern bank of the Dniester River. Tiraspol is a regional hub of light industry, such as furniture and electrical goods production. Tiraspol was founded by the Russian tsarist general Alexander Suvorov in 1792, although the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying ethnic groups
Ancient history of Tiras (pol or city): History of Tyras spelled Tiras, a colony of the Greek city Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10km from the mouth of the Tiras, today Dniester River. In the 2nd century BC it fell under the dominion of indigenous kings whose names appear on its coins. It was destroyed by the Thracian Getae about 50 BC. In 56 AD the Romans restored the city and made it part of the colonial province of Lower Moesia. A series of its coins exist that feature heads of Roman emperors from Domitian to Severus Alexander. Soon after the time of the latter, the city was destroyed again, this time by the invasion of the Goths. Its government was in the hands of five archons, a senate, a popular assembly and a registrar.
Port of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky: Port of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky in the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky, Ukraine, located on the north-western shore of Black Sea at Dniester Estuary, to the south-west from Odessa. Bilhorod-Dnistrovsky Seaport is mainly a freight seaport
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi city: Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi city, municipality and port situated on the right bank of the Dniester Liman (on the Dniester estuary leading to the Black Sea) in Odessa Oblast of southwestern Ukraine, in the historical region of Budjak. It also serves as the administrative center of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion, one of seven districts of Odessa Oblast. It is a location of a big freight seaport with a population of 48,197 citizens in 2021


Culture and languages of Moldova: Culture of Moldova - Languages of Moldova - Moldovan language - Moldovans - Controversy over linguistic and ethnic identity in Moldova
Education in Moldova: Education in Moldova
Schools in Moldova: Schools in Moldova
Universities and colleges in Moldova: Universities and colleges in Moldova
Health in Moldova: Health in Moldova
Disease outbreaks in Moldova: Disease outbreaks in Moldova
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Moldova: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Moldova as part of the worldwide pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS-CoV-2
31 October 2020 76,040 covid-19 cases and 1,785 deaths in Moldova: 31 October 2020: 76,040 covid-19 cases and 1,785 deaths in Moldova
Healthcare in Moldova: Healthcare in Moldova - Medical and health organizations based in Moldova
Hospitals in Moldova: Hospitals in Moldova
Media in Moldova: Mass media in Moldova - Mass media in Moldova by city (7 cities) - Mass media of Transnistria, the breakaway territory within the borders of Moldova, featuring both state-owned or supported outlets and opposition media. Publications are in Russian, with a single newspaper in each of the other two official languages, Moldovan (Romanian), and Ukrainian
Legislative framework for Moldova's media: Legislative framework for Moldova's media, as legislation is deemed rather good, yet cases of abuses and intimidations persist. The Constitution of Moldova guarantees to all citizens 'the freedom of thought, opinion, as well as freedom of expression in public by words, images, or any other possible means'
Newspapers in Moldocva: List of newspapers in Moldova
Broadcasting and radio in Moldova: Broadcasting in Moldova - Radio in Moldova - Broadcasting companies of Moldova - Public broadcasting in Moldova
Since 1958 television in Moldova: Since 1958 television in Moldova
Telecommunications in Moldova: Telecommunications in Moldova and in Transnistria
Internet in Moldova: Internet in Moldova
Crime in Moldova and Transnistria: Crime in Moldova - Crime in Transnistria
Corruption in Moldova: Corruption in Moldova - Corruption in Moldova, Business Anti-Corruption Portal's report
Organized crime in Moldova:
2015: 7 October 2015: Criminal gangs, with suspected ties to Russia, have made several attempts to sell radioactive bomb-making material to extremists through Moldova - 26 November 2015: Moldovan police detains a total of 13 suspected members of a paramilitary group allegedly planning to attack cities in Moldova, with the aim of creating separatist republics similar to those in eastern Ukraine
Drugs in Moldova: Drugs in Moldova
Foreign relations of Moldova: Foreign relations of Moldova
Political status of Transnistria: Political status of Transnistria - Transnistria - War of Transnistria 1992 - Human rights in Transnistria - Crime in Transnistria - Foreign relations of Transnistria - Transnistrian republic recognized only by three states with limited recognition
2015: 29 November 2015 Transnistrian legislative and municipal election
Moldova/European Union relations: Moldova/European Union relations
Since 1998 EU-Moldova Partnership and Cooperation Agreement: 1 July 1998: EU-Moldova Partnership and Cooperation Agreement - European Neighbourhood Policy since 2003 - Delegation of the EU to Moldova since 2005
2014 Moldova keen to join the EU in 2019: 29 April 2014: Moldova keen to join the European Union in 2019 - 28 June 2014: EU signs association agreements with Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia
1 June 2023 second European Political Community Summit in Moldova: 1 June 2023 second European Political Community Summit, an organized meeting of the European Political Community to be held at Mimi Castle, Bulboaca 35km from Chisinau in Moldova. It is expected to be attended by 47 heads of states, governments, and European Union institutions, after the inaugural meeting of the European Political Community was held on 6 October 2022 in Prague in the Czech Republic. The inaugural meeting was attended by the heads of state or government of 44 European countries. Russia and Belarus - assaulting Ukraine since February 2022 - were not invited.
Moldova/Germany relations: Moldova/Germany relations
1941-1944 'Transnistria Governorate' Romanian-administered territory conquered by the Axis Powers: 'Transnistria Governorate' Romanian-administered territory conquered by the Axis Powers and occupied 1941-1944
1941-1944 The Holocaust in Transnistria: The Holocaust in Transnistria
Moldova/Nato relations: Moldova/Nato relations - 12 May 2014: NATO criticizes idea of bringing Transnistria closer to Russia and calls on Moscow to 'respect Moldova's territorial integrity'
Moldova/Romania relations: Moldova/Romania relations - Union of Bessarabia with Romania 1918 - 'Transnistria Governorate' Romanian-administered territory conquered by the Axis Powers and occupied 1941-1944
Moldova/Russia relations: Moldova/Russia relations - Following its victory in the Russo-Turkish War 1806–1812 the Russian empire annexed Bessarabia from the Ottoman Empire - 'Bessarabia Governorate' eastern part of Moldavia annexed by Russia 1812–1917 - Moldavian Democratic Republic 1917-1918 - Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1940 - Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic 1944-1991 - Soviet deportations from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1941-1951
1991: Independence of Moldova since 1991
2006-2014: 2006 Russian ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines - 19 April 2014: Moldovan PM Iurie Leanca expresses concern that Moldova could be Putin's next conquest
Moldova/Ukraine relations: Moldova/Ukraine relations - Euroregion Dniester - Dniester river
20th/21st centuries history of Moldova–Ukraine relations: 20th/21st centuries history of Moldova–Ukraine relations, as since 2006 Ukraine conceded several important economic privileges to Moldova
20th/21st century 'bilateral' relationship Transnistria and Ukraine: 20th/21st century 'bilateral' relationship between the 'Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic' - commonly known as Transnistria - and Ukraine. Ukraine does not officially recognize the independence of Transnistria. Nevertheless, it maintains special relations with Transnistria in the political, cultural and economic spheres.
Since 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine strained relations: Since the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine relations were strained, as Transnistrian president officially took no side in the 2022 Russian war against assaulted neigbour marked by brutal Russian war crimes
25 February 2022 Moldova braces for waves of refugees from Ukraine: 25 February 2022: As Moldova braces for waves of refugees from Ukraine, president Maia Sandu warns population that Moldova has awoken to 'a new, more violent, world', voicing deep concern about the security situation on her country’s border caused by Russia’s invasion, as Russia stationed about 1,500 to 2,000 soldiers in the breakaway Moldovan region of Transnistria
5 April 2022 Russian regime's Ukraine war also threatens food security in Western Balkans: 5 April 2022: ussia’s attack on Ukraine has sent shockwaves throughout the globe, rocking world energy markets and causing the worst refugee crisis in Europe since World War II, as the ripple effects from the war may soon be felt in the area of food security as well, and Western Balkan countries are bracing for impact
Environment of Moldova: Environment of Moldova - Natural history of Moldova - Geology of Moldova
Landforms and ecoregions of Moldova: Landforms of Moldova - Ecoregions of Moldova
Water and rivers of Moldova: Water in Moldova - Rivers of Moldova - List of rivers of Moldova
Environmental issues of Moldova: Current environmental issues of Moldova include overuse of pesticides and artificial fertilizers, groundwater contamination by lingering chemicals, poor farming methods, climate change
Natural disasters in Moldova: Natural disasters in Moldova
Earthquakes in Moldova: Earthquakes in Moldova
22 November 2014 Vrancea earthquake with a moment magnitude of 5.7, as the earthquake was felt in northern Bulgaria and the Moldovan city of Chisinau
Floods in Moldova: Floods in Moldova


Poland - Geography of Poland - History of Poland - Demographics of Poland
Economy of Poland: Economy of Poland - main industries include machine building, iron and steel, mining coal, chemicals, ship building, food processing, glass
Companies of Poland by industry: Companies of Poland by industry - List of companies of Poland
Industry in Poland: Industry in Poland
Manufacturing companies of Poland: Manufacturing companies of Poland
Mines in Poland: Mines in Poland - List of mines in Poland - Copper mines in Poland
Coal mines in Poland: Coal mines in Poland
Mining disasters in Poland: Mining disasters in Poland
2016 earthquake caused a collapse at the Rudna copper mine: 1 December 2016: Eight people are dead, five more hospitalized, after a strong earthquake caused a collapse at the Rudna copper mine in Polkowice in southwestern Poland
Oil and gas industry in Poland: Oil and gas industry in Poland
Energy in Poland: Energy in Poland
Coal-fired power stations in Poland: Coal-fired power stations in Poland - around 95% of the nation's electricity is currently produced by burning coal
Nuclear energy in Poland: Nuclear energy in Poland
Renewable energy in Poland: Renewable energy in Poland
Wind power in Poland: Wind power, a minor source of electricity in Poland
Agriculture in Poland: Agriculture in Poland, vital for European and Global market because it produces a variety of agricultural, horticultural and animal origin products. The surface area of agricultural land in Poland is 15.4 million ha, which constitutes nearly 50% of the total area of the country,as its products include fruits, apples and vegetables, wheat, grains, feed grains, vegetable oil, potatoes and rye, sugar beets and triticale, rapeseed, cattle, meat, and dairy products
Types of farming in Poland, cultivation of four major grains, mixed farming: Types of farming in Poland as the quantity and quality of agricultural land ensured self-sufficiency and made considerable quantities of various agricultural products and processed foodstuffs available for export, and as grain production dominated Polish agriculture. The highest yields came from wheat, rye, barley, oats, as other major crops include potatoes, sugar beet, fodder crops, flax, hops, tobacco, and fruits. The northern and east-central regions of the country mainly offered poorer sandy soils suitable for rye and potatoes, as the richer soils of the central and southern parts of the country, excluding those at higher elevations, are making those regions the centers of wheat, sugar beet, hops, and tobacco production. The more accessible land at higher elevations is used to cultivate oats or was left as meadow and pastureland. In 1989 almost half of Poland's arable land was used for the cultivation of the four major grains, another 13% grew tomatoes. All regions of Poland raised dairy cows, beef cattle, pigs and poultry, and cultivated fruit, usually as an integral part of mixed farming
2018 main productions of agricultural products in Poland: 2018 main productions of agricultural products in Poland by quality and quantity, including 25 agricultural products, listed by 'Wikipedia'
2014-2020th Polish agriculture and EU: As Poland is part of the European Union and therefore subject to the CAP, Poland is one of the countries with the most subsidy-efficient farms and least reliant on them for investment, shown by inquiries about dependence of EU farms on subsidy payments including the question whether or how the CAP is helping EU agriculture to meet the targets set out in the European Green Deal in the 2020th, and including legislative framework, member states’ CAP strategic plans, governance framework, and political economy issues linked to effects on farm income
Forestry and forests in Poland: Forestry in Poland - Forests of Poland - List of Polish forest complexes in alphabetical order
Water in Poland: Water in Poland
Bodies of water, including Baltic Sea, Bays of Poland: Bodies of water, including Baltic Sea, Bays of Poland, Canals in Poland, Lakes of Poland, springs and rivers
Baltic Sea: Baltic Sea, arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain, as the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea-Baltic Canal since August 1933 - passing through the Lake Lagoda and Lake Onega -, and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal - Major tributaries of the Baltic Sea - Port cities and towns of the Baltic Sea
Rivers in Poland, longest rivers: Rivers in Poland in alphabetical order - List of 28 longest rivers in Poland
Vistula river, 'Little White Vistula' and 'Black Little Vistula' and connected cities: Vistula river, the longest river in Poland and the 9th-longest river in Europe at 1,047km in length. The drainage basin, reaching into three other nations, covers 193,960 km2, of which 168,868 km2 is in Poland. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, 1,220m above sea level in the Silesian Beskids, the western part of Carpathian Mountains, where it begins with the 'Little White Vistula' and the 'Black Little Vistula'.[4] It flows through Poland's largest cities, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Plock, Wloclawek, Torun, Bydgoszcz, Swiecie, Grudziadz, Tczew and Gdansk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wislany) or directly into the Gdansk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta of six main branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Smiala Wisla, Martwa Wisla, Nogat and Szkarpawa). The river is often associated with Polish culture, history and national identity. It is the country's most important waterway and natural symbol
Major Polish cities connected by the Vistula river: MajorPolish cities connected by the Vistula river
Tributaries of the Vistula river: Tributaries of the Vistula river, listed in a range of right and left tributaries with a nearby city, from source to mouth
Narew river: Narew river primarily in north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the river Vistula. The Narew is one of Europe's few braided rivers, with twisted channels resembling braided hair. Around 57km of the river flows through western Belarus
Bug river: Bug river, which flows through three countries with a total length of 774km, and a tributary of the Narew. The Bug forms part of the border between Ukraine and Poland for 185km and between Belarus and Poland for 178km, and is the fourth longest Polish river
Sola river in southern Poland: Sola river in southern Poland, a right tributary of the Vistula originating in the Western Beskids mountain range near the border with Slovakia, made up of the confluence of several small creeks at the village of Rajcza, then running downhill northeastwards through Zywiec Basin to the towns of Zywiec and Kety, forming the border between the Silesian and the Zywiec Beskids, and after 89km the Sola empties into the Vistula River after having passed the town of Oswiecim, flowing within metres of the Auschwitz concentration camp and today the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum
Oder river: Oder river in Central Europe. It is Poland's second-longest river in total length and third-longest within its borders after the Vistula and Warta. The Oder rises in the Czech Republic and flows 742km through western Poland, later forming 187km of the border between Poland and Germany. The river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoon north of Szczecin and then into three branches Dziwna, Swina and Peene that empty into the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea
Cities connected by the Oder river: Cities connected by the Oder river
Warta river: Warta river, rising in central Poland and flowing greatly north-west into the Oder. Poland's second-longest river's - within its borders after the Vistula - drainage basin covers 54,529 square km and it is navigable from Kostrzyn nad Odra to Konin, approximately half of its length. It is connected to the Vistula by the Notec and the Bydgoszcz Canal.
Notec river: Notec river in central Poland, the largest tributary of the Warta river, as most portions of the Notec are navigable, and as several locks and dams connect the Vistula and the Warta/Oder waterways
Transport in Poland: Transport in Poland
Rail transport in Poland: Rail transport in Poland
Road transport in Poland: Road transport in Poland
Air transport in Poland: Air transport in Poland
Water transport in Poland: Water transport in Poland, as country's most important waterway is the river Vistula. The largest seaports are the Port of Szczecin and Port of Gdansk. Marine transport in Poland has two main sub-groups, riverine and seaborne. On the Baltic Sea coast, a number of large seaports exist to serve the international freight and passenger trade; these are typically deep water ports and are able to serve very large ships, including the ro-ro ferries of Unity Line, Polferries and Stena Line which operate the Poland – Scandinavia passenger lines. - Water transport in Poland
Main trading artery Vistula river in Poland, Oder river: Major Polish cities connected by the Vistula river as the Vistula river with a drainage basin reaching into three other nations together with its tributaries connects dozens of country's cities - The Oder river in southern and western Poland is navigable over a large part of its total length
Main seaports and harbors in Poland: Main seaports and harbors in Poland
Tourism in Poland: Tourism in Poland, part of the global tourism market with constantly increasing number of visitors, contributing to the country's overall economy. The most popular cities are Kraków, Warsaw, Wroclaw, Gdansk, Poznan, Szczecin, Lublin, Torun, Zakopane, the Salt Mine in Wieliczka and the historic site of Auschwitz, the NSDAP-ruled German empire's concentration camp in Oswiecim. The best recreational destinations include Poland's Masurian Lake District, Baltic Sea coast, Tatra Mountains (the highest mountain range of Carpathians), Sudetes and Bialowieza Forest.
Banking and banks of Poland: Banks of Poland
Since 1945 National Bank of Poland: Since 1945 National Bank of Poland, that controls the issuing of Poland's currency, the Polish zloty. The Bank is headquartered in Warsaw, and has branches in 16 major Polish cities. The NBP represents Poland in the European System of Central Banks, an EU organization
Stock exchanges in Poland: Stock exchanges in Poland
Poland, the euro and Law and Justice Party's nationalistic reasons: Poland and the euro in the EU since 2000/2001, as Poland does not use the euro as its currency. But under the terms of their 'Treaty of Accession with the European Union', all new Member States 'shall participate in the Economic and Monetary Union from the date of accession as a Member State with a derogation', which means that Poland is obliged to eventually replace its currency, the zloty, with the euro. 20 years after its intoduction in the EU, there is no target date for Polish euro adoption, and no fixed date for when the country will join ERM-II, as Euro adoption will require the approval of at least two-thirds of the Sejm to make a constitutional amendment changing the official currency from the zloty to the euro, but the 2020s ruling 'Law and Justice Party' opposes euro adoption for nationalistic reasons
Economic history of Poland and economic cycles: Economic history of Poland
Economic history in the period from 1989 to 2018: Economic growth in the period from 1989 to 2018, as Poland's GDP increased by 826.96%in after the abolishment of autocratic rule in Polsnd and eastern Europe
Main economic indicators between 1980 and 2020: 'Wikipedia' listed data show the main economic indicators between 1980 and 2020, showing significant decline in 2020 amid covid-19 pandemic since the beginning of the 2020s
21st century Polish property bubble: 21st century Polish property bubble, as real estate prices rose drastically from 2002 to 2008 in Poland
Since 2020 covid-19 pandemic's serious influence on the Polish economy: Since 2020 covid-19 pandemic and the isolation measures in response to it had a serious influence on the Polish economy, especially commerce, tourism and the hospitality industries
December 2021 OECD's quarterly national accounts including Poland: 4 December 2021 OECD's quarterly national accounts including Poland, quarterly growth rates of real GDP, change over previous quarter
Unemployment in Poland: Unemployment in Poland, history in the 21st century, regional distribution, reasons and consequences
Poverty and income inequality in Poland: Poverty and income inequality in Poland
Welfare in Poland: Welfare in Poland
Budget,debt and taxation in Poland: Budget and debt in Poland - Taxation in Poland
Politics of Poland: Politics of Poland - 1997 Constitution of Poland
Political parties in Poland: Political parties in Poland
Trade unions in Poland: Trade unions in Poland - History of trade unions in Poland
Since 1791 constitutions of Poland: Constitutions of Poland since 1791
21st century elections and politics in Poland: Elections in Poland - Präsidentschaftswahl in Polen 2010 - Selbstverwaltungswahlen in Polen 2010
2011 Polish parliamentary election: Polish parliamentary election 9 October 2011 - 10 October: Donald Tusk claims victory after lead in polls
10/24 May 2015 Polish presidential election: 10 May 2015 Polish presidential election - 11 May: Polish President Komorowski came second behind his opponent Duda in the first round and must now face him in a run-off - 25 May 2015: Poland elects right-wing president Duda who criticized predecessor’s apologies to Jews, as the Civic Platform party has been hurt by corruption scandals and many Poles are angry that the economic growth has only not trickled down to many Poles, with low wages and job insecurity
September 2015 Referendum in Poland: 6 September 2015 Polish referendum, asking voters whether they approve of introducing single-member constituencies for Sejm elections, maintaining state financing of political parties and introducing a presumption in favour of the taxpayer in disputes over the tax law
25 October 2015 Polish parliamentary election: 25 October 2015 Polish parliamentary election - 26 October: In Poland election Eurosceptics claim victory on anti-refugee rhetoric and welfare promises
December 2015: 24 décembre 2015: Le Sénat polonais a approuvé jeudi une loi très controversée sur le Tribunal constitutionne contre l'avis de L'UE - 30/31 December: New media law gives Polish government control of state-run television and radio, neglecting existing EU rules on media freedoms
2015/2016 Polish Constitutional Court crisis: 2015/2016 Polish Constitutional Court crisis - the ruling 'Law and Justice' party changed the court's decision-making power by prescribing a two-third majority vote and mandatory participation of at least 13 of the 15 judges on the Constitutional Tribunal, causing domestic and international protests
2016: 9 March 2016: Poland’s constitutional court has struck down a set of government reforms concerning its judges that have paralysed the country’s top court, but the government said that it would not recognise the ruling
December 2017: 7 December 2017: Poland's finance minister Morawiecki to replace Beata Szydlo as PM as administration gears up for series of elections
February 2018: 18 February 2018: Polish PM Morawiecki drew fresh criticism for paying his respects at the grave of Polish fighters who collaborated with Nazi Germany during World War II, hours after sparking outrage for claiming that Jews were involved in perpetrating the Holocaust
October 2018 Polish local elections: 21. Oktober 2018 Selbstverwaltungswahlen in Polen - 21 October 2018: Poland’s ruling Law and Justice party PiS won Sunday’s local elections with a worse-than-expected result, as a coalition led by the main opposition Civic Platform came second with 24.7% and the agrarian Polish People’s Party took 16.6%, heralding a fierce contest for European, parliamentary and presidential votes in 2019 and 2020
August 2019 Duda government invites rabbi Michael Schudrich to honor 'Holy Cross Mountains Brigade': 7 August 2019: Polish Duda government invites rabbi Michael Schudrich to event honoring accused Nazi collaborators, who says he felt 'insulted' by the invitation, blasting ceremony for Swietokrzyska Brigade and condemning ‘dangerous’ historical revisionism
8 August 2019 Marshal of the Sejm Marek Kuchcinski resigns: 8 août 2019: Le président conservateur de la chambre basse du parlement polonais Marek Kuchcinski a annoncé jeudi sa démission pour avoir utilisé des avions gouvernementaux une centaine de fois à des fins personnelles
11 August 2019: 11 August 2019: Polish president, ruling party officials honors World War II group that collaborated with Nazis
3 September 2019: 3 September 2019: Pro-European opposition coalition in Poland has announced unexpectedly that its candidate for prime minister as the country heads toward an October election will be the deputy parliamentary speaker Malgorzata Kidawa-Blonska
October 2019 Polish parliamentary election: 13 October 2019 Polish parliamentary election - 14 October 2019: Poland’s ruling nationalist Law and Justice party has won Sunday’s parliamentary election, doing better than when it swept to power four years ago, according to nearly complete results
27 January 2020 Holocaust survivors gather at the former German Auschwitz death camp: 27 January 2020: 75 years after the liberation of Auschwitz, Holocaust survivors gather at the former German Nazi death camp to honor its over 1.1 million mostly Jewish victims and to share their testimony as a stark warning amid a recent surge of anti-Semitic attacks on both sides of the Atlantic and especially fresh concerns over anti-Semitism in Europe, after war criminal Novichok-Putin, falsely accusing Poland of colluding with German Nazi dictator Hitler and contributing to the outbreak of World War II, spoke in Jerusalem on 23 January, and as Germany since 1961 refuses to rename Nazi general Erwin Rommel barracks in Augustdorf, continuing Nazi propaganda, misleading and indoctrinating young people and generations, as neo-Nazis and AfD since 2015 got stronger in Germany and elsewhere
June 2020 Polish presidential election: June 2020 Polish presidential election - 28 June 2020: Voting is under way in Poland’s presidential election, with the incumbent Duda up against a field of challengers including the liberal mayor of Warsaw, Rafal Trzaskowsk
12 July 2020 second round with Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski in presidential runoff: 29 June 2020: Duda forced into second round against liberal challenger and Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski in presidential runoff on 12 July - 11 July 2020: Ahead of election, Polish president rejects Holocaust restitution claims, as Andrzej Duda vows no reparations for assets seized from Jews during World War II
12 July 2020 Poles go to polls to vote: 12 July 2020: Poles go to polls to vote in tight presidential runoff, as liberal Warsaw mayor Rafal Trzaskowski seeks to upset conservative incumbent Duda, as first official results only expected Monday morning
13 July 2020 Andrzej Duda has won Poland’s presidential election: 13 July 2020: Andrzej Duda has won Poland’s presidential election, after results gave the incumbent 51.2% of votes with almost all the ballots counted, the national electoral commission said, as his Liberal challenger and mayor of Warsaw trailed with 48.8%
25 January 2022 Poland begins work on a new euro wall along the Belarus border: 25 January 2022: Polish contractors have begun work on a new 353 million euro wall along the Belarus border aimed at deterring refugee crossings following a crisis in the area last year, as 5.5-metre-high wall along 186km of the border has raised human rights concerns over how refugees will be able to seek asylum as well as environmental worries about the effect on wildlife along the mostly forested border
Protests in Poland: Protests in Poland - Polish trade union Solidarity
2012/2013 trade unions protest: 29 September 2012: Tens of thousands of opponents of Poland's centrist government massed in the capital for a protest called by trade unions and a catholic movement - 14 September 2013: Tens of thousands of Polish trade unionists are set to march through the capital in the finale of a four-day protest against the unpopular and increasingly fragile centre-right government
2015 protest against Polish Eurosceptic government: 13 December 2015: Thousands march against Polish Eurosceptic government over constitution spat - 20 December: Thousands of Poles have protested against the country's new government for the second time this month over constitutional row - 24 December: Poland's former president Lech Walesa warns over democracy in Poland, urging new election
2016 pro-democracy protests: 10 January 2016: Thousands on the streets of Poland across the country condemning new media law as government power grab - 11 January 2016: At various centres, Polish journalists protest at state control of public broadcasting - 23 January: Thousands of Poles marched through Warsaw to protests against their new conservative government's plan to increase its surveillance powers following moves to take more control of the judiciary and the media - 27 February: Tens of thousands of anti-government protesters rally for 'free and open Poland' - 11 March: After Polish PM is refused to publish a ruling of the country's Constitutional Tribunal, protesters in favour of the court projected passages from the ruling onto the walls of the prime minister's chancellery on Wednesday night - 12/13 March 2016: Tens of thousands of people took to the streets in the Polish capital Warsaw, in Poznan and Wroclaw against the government's collision course with the country's top court to undermine judicial independence - 7 mai 2016: Plus de 240'000 manifestants à Varsovie souhaitent que la place de la Pologne soit préservée en Europe, montrant du doigt les conservateurs au pouvoir - 5 June: Former presidents lead 50,000 marchers in Warsaw in pro-democracy protests - 13 December 2016: Thousands protest against Law and Justice party threatening to reverse democratic gains made since 1989 - 17 December 2016: Mass protests in Poland over media restrictions
2017 defense of liberties: 6 mai 2017: Plusieurs dizaines de milliers de personnes ont manifesté samedi à Varsovie pour 'défendre la liberté', menacée par le pouvoir conservateur nationaliste de Kaczynski - 18 July 2017: Demonstrations took place at the weekend to protest against a series of moves by the ruling 'Law and Justice party' to assume power over the appointments of judges and members of the country’s supreme court - 22 July 2017: Tens of thousands of protesters gathered in Warsaw and cities across Poland for candlelit vigils to protest as the senate approved a supreme court overhaul, defying the EU and critics at home who say the legislation will undermine democratic checks and balances - 23 July 2017: Protesters across Poland warn of impending dictatorship
July 2018 protest against government's power over court appointments: 27 July 2018: Thousands of protesters have rallied in central Warsaw chanting 'Shame!' after Poland's president granted the nationalist government more power over court appointments
December 2018: 8 décembre 2018: Plus d'un millier de manifestants ont traversé samedi Katowice dans le sud de la Pologne pour demander aux participants à la conférence mondiale COP-24 d'agir rapidement en faveur du climat
January 2019 protest against stabbing of mayor Pawel Adamowicz: 19 January 2019: Thousands of people from across Poland, joint by Polish and European officials, attend the funeral of Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the northern city of Gdansk, who died on Monday after being stabbed the night before at a charity event
May 2019 demonsration to support EU membership: 18 May 2019: Thousands are marching in the Polish capital to celebrate the nation’s European Union membership ahead of key European Parliament elections
30 October 2020 thousands protest against tightened abortion law: 30 October 2020: Pro-choice supporters hold biggest-ever protest against Polish government, as about 100,00o people take to the streets of Warsaw to oppose tightened abortion law
11 October 2021 more than 100,000 Poles have rallied in support of EU membership: 11 October 2021: More than 100,000 Poles have rallied in support of EU membership after a controversial court ruling raised concerns the country could eventually leave the bloc, as protest organisers said demonstrations took place in more than 100 Polish towns and cities on Sunday, and several cities abroad
Society, demographics, culture, human rights and religion in Poland: Polish society - Human rights in Poland - Religion in Poland
Voivodeships, counties and cities of Poland: Administrative divisions of Poland - 16 Voivodeships of Poland - 314 'land counties' (powiaty ziemskie) and 66 'city counties' (powiaty grodzkie) - Land counties of Poland by Voivodeship - Counties of Poland by city
Cities and towns in Poland: List of cities and towns in Poland - Cities and towns in Poland by Voivodeship - Economies by city in Poland - Port cities and towns in Poland
West Pomeranian Voivodeship: West Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Szczecin, as territory's area equals 22 892.48 km² and in 2021, it was inhabited by 1 682 003 people. It borders on Pomeranian Voivodeship to the east, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the southeast, Lubusz Voivodeship to the south, the German federal-states of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania and Brandenburg to the west, and the Baltic Sea to the north.
Pomeranian Voivodeship: Pomeranian Voivodeship in northwestern Poland with the provincial capital Gdansk. It is bordered by West Pomeranian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeships to the south, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship to the east, and the Baltic Sea to the north. It also shares a short land border with Kaliningrad oblast and city (belonging since 1945 to the Soviet Union) on the Vistula Spit. The voivodeship comprises most of Pomerelia (the easternmost part of historical Pomerania), as well as an area east of the Vistula River
Gdansk city: Gdansk city, a Polish city on the Baltic coast with a population of 464,254 inhabitants, Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area, also the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and of Kashubia - History of Gdansk
Economy of Gdansk: Economy of Gdansk
Timeline of Gdansk since early Middle Ages: Timeline of Gdansk since early Middle Ages
20th century history of Gdansk and NSDAP ruled German empire's 1938-1945 World War II: 20th century history of Gdansk and NSDAP ruled German empire's 1938-1945 World War II, as - following the annexation of Austria and the Sudetenland - Germany in October 1938 urged the Danzig territory's cession to Germany. On 1 September 1939 Nazi Germany invaded Poland, initiating World War II. On 2 September 1939 Germany officially annexed the Free City. The Nazi regime murdered the Polish postmen defending the Polish Post Office, one of the first war crimes during the war. Other Polish soldiers defending the Westerplatte stronghold surrendered after seven days of fighting. Kazimierz Rasinski was brutally tortured by Germans and murdered when he refused to reveal Polish communication codes. On 7 September NSDAP organised night parade on Adolf-Hitlerstrasse to celebrate success - With the start of the war the Nazi regime began its policy of extermination in Pomerania. Poles, Kashubians and Jews and the political opposition were sent to concentration camps, especially neighbouring Stutthof where 85,000 victims perished. Kashubian and Polish intelligentsia were killed in the Piasnica mass murder site, which is estimated to have had 60,000 victims. In the city itself hundreds of prisoners were subjected to cruel Nazi executions and experiments, which included castration of men and sterilization of women considered dangerous to the 'purity of Nordic race' and beheading by guillotine. The courts and judicial system in the annexed territories of Nazi Germany was one of the main ways to legislate an extermination policy against ethnic Poles. On 30 March 1945 the Soviet Red Army occupied Danzig.
21st century timeline of Gdansk: 21st century timeline of Gdansk
Since March 2017 Museum of the Second World War opened in Gdansk: On 23 March 2017 Museum of the Second World War opened in Gdansk
January 2019 stabbing of Gdansk's mayor Pawel Adamowicz at a charity event: 13 January 2019 stabbing of Pawel Adamowicz - 14 January 2019: Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the Polish city of Gdansk, has died after he was stabbed in the chest on stage at a charity concert - 19 January 2019: Thousands of people from across Poland, joint by Polish and European officials, attend the funeral of Pawel Adamowicz, the mayor of the northern city of Gdansk, who died on Monday after being stabbed the night before at a charity event
1–19 September 2021 Men's European Volleyball Championship co-hosted in Gdansk: 1–19 September 2021 Men's European Volleyball Championship organised by Europe's volleyball body CEV, as for the second time, the EuroVolley was held in four countries including Poland, Czech Republic, Estonia and Finland
Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship: Since 1999 Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in northeastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Olsztyn. The voivodeship has an area of 24,192 km2 and a population of 1,425,967 citizens in 2019
Olsztyn city: Olsztyn city on the Lyna River in northern Poland and the capital of the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The population of the city was estimated at 171,249 residents in 2020. Founded as Allenstein in the 14th century, Olsztyn was under the control and influence of the Teutonic Order until 1463, when it passed to the Polish Crown, what was then confirmed in the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466. For centuries the city was an important centre of trade, crafts, science and administration in the Warmia region linking Warsaw with Königsberg. Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772 Warmia was annexed by Prussia and ceased to be the property of the clergy. In the 19th century the city changed its status completely, becoming the most prominent economic hub of the southern part of the province of East Prussia. The construction of a railway and early industrialisation greatly contributed to Olsztyn's significance. Following World War II, the city returned to Poland in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement
Stebark village, the 1410 'Battle of Grunwald' and WWI's August 1914 'Battle of Tannenberg': Stebark village (German 'Tannenberg'), a village in the administrative district of Gmina Grunwald, within Ostróda County in Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. The village is chiefly known for two historic battles which took place there, the 1410 'Battle of Grunwald' and the 26–30 August 1914 'Battle of Tannenberg' in German emmpire's World War I
Lubusz voivodeship: Lubusz voivodeship in western Poland recalling the historic Lubusz Land name, although parts of the voivodeship belong to the historic regions of Silesia, Greater Poland and Lusatia. Until 1945, it mainly formed the Neumark within the Prussian Province of Brandenburg, today bordering West Pomeranian Voivodeship to the north, Greater Poland Voivodeship to the east, Lower Silesian Voivodeship to the south, and Germany (Brandenburg and Saxony) to the west.
Greater Poland Voivodeship: Greater Poland Voivodeship - also known as Wielkopolska Voivodeship - in west-central Poland, created in 1999 out of the former Poznan, Kalisz, Konin, Pila and Leszno Voivodeships. The province is named after the region called Greater Poland or Wielkopolska, as the modern province includes most of this historic region, except for some western parts. It is second in area and third in population among Poland's sixteen voivodeships, with an area of 29,826 square km and a population of close to 3.5 million inhabitants. Its capital city is Poznan, as other important cities include Kalisz, Konin, Pila, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Gniezno (an early capital of Poland) and Leszno. It is bordered by seven other voivodeships including West Pomeranian to the northwest, Pomeranian to the north, Kuyavian-Pomeranian to the north-east, Lódz to the south-east, Opole to the south, Lower Silesian to the southwest and Lubusz to the west.
Lódz city: Lódz city, the third-largest city in Poland and former industrial hub with a population of 687,702 inhabitants in 2018, located in the central part of the country approximately 120 kilometres south-west of Warsaw
Economy and infrastructure of Lódz: Economy and infrastructure of Lódz
Education in Lódz: Education in Lódz, schools and universities, including the University of Lódz, Technical University of Lódz, Medical University of Lódz, National Film School in Lódz and the Academy of Fine Arts and Design, as number of students in the higher education establishments in Lódz is still growing, educating in the first quarter of the 21st century 113,000 students from Poland and other countries
History of Lódz: History of Lódz, as the city is located in central Poland and for hundreds of years it was a non-important village. The big change arrived at the first quarter of the 19th century when it was decided on a massive industrialization program and transformation of the town to a large industrial center
Timeline of Lódz: Timeline of Lódz since 18th century
1793 Lódz becomes part of expanding Prussia: 1793 Lódz becomes part of South Prussia with a population of 190 citizens, amid the expansion of the Kingdom of Prussia, and as Poland ceased to exist as an independent state for 123 years with its territory and its native population split between the Habsburg Monarchy, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Russian Empire
1815 Lódz becomes part of Russian client state Congress Poland: 1815 Lódz becomes part of Russian client state Congress Poland 1815–1867/1915 per Congress of Vienna
Since 1824 'Ksiezy Mlyn' area of textile factories in Lódz: Since 1824 'Ksiezy Mlyn', an area in the southern central part of Lódz which consists of a group of textile factories - mainly cotton spinning mills - and associated facilities, since the first decade of the 21st century the area undergoes major renovation and contains mixed-use development of offices and housing
1861-1939 Stara Synagogue, Lódz's principal Orthodox synagogue: 1861-1939 Stara Synagogue, Lódz's principal Orthodox synagogue
1899-1939 Ezras Izrael Synagogue in Lódz: Since 1899 Ezras Izrael Synagogue in Lódz, built from donations by the Jewish merchants including those expelled from Tsarist Lithuania and Belarus area, but burned to the ground by the Nazis on 11 November 1939 before the Lódz Ghetto was set up
June 1905 Lódz insurrection by Polish workers during the Russian Revolution: June 1905 Lódz insurrection, an uprising by Polish workers in Lódz against the Russian Empire and one of the largest disturbances in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland during the Russian Revolution of 1905, as Poland was a major center of revolutionary fighting in the Russian Empire in 1905–1907, and the Lódz insurrection was a key incident in those events as common demands were the improvement of workers' living conditions and greater rights for the Polish population, but insurgents were poorly armed and overwhelmed by the tsarist regular military
November-December 1914 Battle of Lódz following German aggession since August: November-December 1914 Battle of Lódz, fought between the German empire's Ninth Army, commanded by generals Erich Ludendorff and Mackensen and the Russian First, Second, and Fifth Armies, as assaulted forces counted 110,000 killed, wounded or captured soldiers
6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of ill prepared Poland after French and British pressure not to mobilize: 6-8 September 1939 Battle of Lódz during the German invasion of Poland, fought between the armies of Poland and Nazi Germany in World War II, after reason for Poland's late and insufficient mobilization was pressure from the French and the British not to mobilize, and as since 29 August 1939, when the Poles re—started the mobilization against advice from Paris and London, it was too late - Since 1938 'Western betrayal' (and earlier) concerning the fact that France, the United Kingdom, and sometimes the USA failed to meet their legal, diplomatic, military, and moral obligations with respect to the Czechoslovak and Polish states during the prelude to and aftermath of World War II, also sometimes referring to the treatment of other Central and Eastern European states at the time, enabling World War II that lasted from 1939 to 1945, the Holocaust by Nazi Germany and in German-occupied Europe, and the August 1945 atomic bombings forcing Japanese war criminals to surrender
1940 Lódz (renamed 'Litzmannstadt') an important industrial city for the German war machine: By 1940 the city of Lódz was renamed Litzmannstadt and became an important industrial city for the German war machine, as munitions and uniforms were manufactured in the newly established 'Ghetto Litzmannstadt' by Jewish slave labor, as Jews from Poland, Germany, Benelux and Czechoslovakia as well as Roma people from Austria were brought to live and work there in appalling conditions, while most of them were taken for extermination in the Nazi death camps, until Lódz was taken by the Soviet Army on 17 January 1945, and only 877 Jews survived to the moment of liberation from emerging and perishing German empire since 1793, 1848/1871, 1914 and 1939
Since February 1940 Lódz Ghetto, camp for Polish children, deportations: Since February 1940 Lódz Ghetto, established by the German authorities for Polish Jews and Roma, the second-largest ghetto in all of German-occupied Europe after the Warsaw Ghetto, originally intended as a preliminary step upon a more extensive plan of creating the Judenfrei province of Warthegau, then the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, manufacturing war supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the Wehrmacht, as the number of people incarcerated in it was increased further by the Jews deported from the Third Reich territories
Forms of resistance in the Lódz Ghetto and within other ghettos: Forms of resistance in the Lódz Ghetto and within other ghettos - After the Germans in 1942 ordered the final liquidation of the ghettos, residents recognized the imminence of their deaths and they resisted in the forests, in the ghettos, and even in the death camps, mocked by their murderers claiming their inability to resist, as Nazi followers and protectors even today in Germany and elsewhere agree, or require understanding and dialogue with the Nazis, criticize resistance and resistance's violence that is only a response, or do not take a stand
Since 1945 University of Lódz: Since 1945 University of Lódz, founded as a continuation of educational institutions functioning in Lódz in the interwar period, including the Teacher Training Institute 1921–1928, the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences 1924–1928 and a division of the Free Polish University 1928–1939, and as a result of widespread cooperation with universities all over the world, including Université Jean Moulin Lyon, University of Texas at Austin, University of Baltimore, University of Maryland, Centria University of Applied Sciences Finland, students of the University of Lódz can graduate with dual diplomas
February 1971 Lódz textile workers' strike: February 1971 Lódz strikes, when textile workers began a strike action, in which the majority of participants were women, the only industrial action in pre-1980 Communist Poland that ended as a success
Since 2006 'Manufaktura' arts centre, shopping mall, and leisure complex: Since 2006 'Manufaktura', an arts centre, shopping mall, and leisure complex in Lódz, and a major tourist asset of the city, including the largest public square in Lódz, which acts as a venue for cultural and sports event
May 2019 effigy of late Polish Jewish communist Jakub Berman hung on gallows at former Lodz Ghetto: 2 May 2019: Effigy of late Polish Jewish communist Jakub Berman hung on gallows at former Lodz Ghetto, outside the headquarters of the city’s police station, as activist who says he is working to 'liberate Poland from American Jews occupation' shouted 'I did it, I hung a Jew'
Poznan city: Poznan city, one of the oldest cities in Poland on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region. The city is an important cultural and business centre, and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs, as among its most important heritage sites are the Renaissance Old Town, Town Hall and Gothic Cathedral. Poznan is the fifth-largest Polish city with a population of 529,410 citizens in 2021, while the 'Metropolia Poznan', comprising Poznan County and several other communities, is inhabited by over 1.1 million people. It is one of four historical capitals of medieval Poland and the ancient capital of the Greater Poland region, currently the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. In the 21st century Poznan is a center of trade, technology, education, tourism and sports. It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and Adam Mickiewicz University, the third largest Polish university. The city serves as the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous Catholic archdioceses in the country. The city also hosts the Poznan International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's other renowned landmarks include the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Fara Church and the Imperial Castle.
Economy, culture, education and science of/in Poznan city: Economy, culture, education and science of/in Poznan city
Since 968 timeline and history of Poznan city: Timeline of Poznan city since 968, as the town in 1253 gains Magdeburg rights - History of Poznan city
1918–1919 Greater Poland uprising against German rule, reconstituted Second Polish Republic: 1918–1919 Greater Poland uprising against German rule. The uprising had a significant effect on the Treaty of Versailles, which granted a reconstituted Second Polish Republic the area won by the Polish insurrectionists. The region had been part of the Kingdom of Poland and then Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth before the 1793 Second Partition of Poland when it was annexed by the German Kingdom of Prussia. It had also, following the 1806 Greater Poland uprising, been part of the Duchy of Warsaw 1807–1815, a French puppet state during the Napoleonic Wars.
Since 1921 Poznan International Fair: Since 1921 Poznan International Fair, the biggest industrial fair in Poland, located in the centre of the city opposite the main railway station Poznan Glówny, in the centre of Poland and in the centre of Europe
Since 1939 Poznanskie Slowiki - Poznan Nightingales: Since 1939 Poznanskie Slowiki - Poznan Nightingales -, a leading Polish choir founded when the Germans expelled the priest of Poznan Cathedral Gieburowski, and when the choirboy Stefan Stuligrosz then aged 19 took up running of choir in Gieburowski's name. After the war the choir was recognised and in 1950 became the Boys' and Men's Choir of the Poznan Philharmonic. The choir toured the USA in 1963 and many countries worldwide thereafter
September/October 1939 – 1944 'Konzentrationslager Posen' Nazi German death camp: September/October 1939 – 1944 'Konzentrationslager Posen' Nazi German death camp set up in German-occupied Poland during World War II. The prisoners were mostly Poles from the Wielkopolska region. Many were representatives of the region's intelligentsia, often people who had been engaged in social and political life, as well as known Polish patriots and veterans of the Wielkopolska Uprising 1918–1919 and Silesian Uprisings. In the early stages of the camp's existence prisoners were generally executed within a week of arrival. In October 1939 an early experiment in execution by gas chamber was carried out by an SS chemist Dr. August Becker, whereby around 400 patients and staff from psychiatric hospitals in Poznan were gassed at Bunker No. 17. The extermination of mentally ill was conducted by SS-Sturmbannführer Herbert Lange of the Gestapo in occupied Poznan. Lange served with Einsatzgruppe VI during Operation Tannenberg. He and his men were responsible also for the murder of 2,750 patients at Koscian, about 1,100 patients at Owinska, as well as 1,558 patients and 300 civilian Poles at Dzialdowo. Prisoners in the following period included political and military activists in the Polish Underground State, as in April 1944 Fort VII became a Telefunken factory producing radio equipment for submarines and aircraft
1956 Poznan protests, the Poznan June: 1956 Poznan protests, the Poznan June, the first of several massive protests against the government of the Polish People's Republic, as demonstrations by workers demanding better working conditions began on 28 June 1956 at Poznan's Cegielski Factories but were met with violent repression. About 100,000 people gathered in the city centre near the local Ministry of Public Security building, when 400 tanks and 10,000 soldiers of the Polish military and the Internal Security Corps were ordered to suppress the demonstration, firing at the protesting civilians, causing dozens of victims and over a hundred injured people, including a 13-year-old boy. The Poznan protests were an important milestone on the way to the Polish October and the installation of a less Soviet-controlled government.
December 2008 UN Climate Change Conference at Poznan International Fair Congress Centre: 2008 United Nations Climate Change Conference at Poznan International Fair Congress Centre between 1 December and 12 December 2008, as representatives from over 180 countries attended along with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations - Since 1997 United Nations climate change conferences
7-21 October 2022 Poznan 16th International Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition: 7-21 October 2022 Poznan 16th International Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition
Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship: Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in mid-northern Poland, on the boundary between the two historic regions from which it takes its name, Kuyavia and Pomerania. Its two chief cities, serving as the province's joint capitals, are Bydgoszcz and Torun.
Masovian Voivodeship: Masovian Voivodeship, the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish voivodeships with 5,411,446 inhabitants in 2019. Its principal cities are Warsaw with 1.783 million inhabitants in the centre of the Warsaw metropolitan area, Radom city with 212,230 inhabitants in the south, Plock city with 119,709 inhabitants in the west, Siedlce city with 77,990 citizens in the east, and Ostroleka with 52,071 citizens in the north. The capital of the voivodeship is the national capital Warsaw.
Masovian Voivodeship includes 42 powiats and 88 cities and towns: As Masovian Voivodeship is divided into 42 powiats (counties), 5 miasto na prawach powiatu (city counties) and 37 powiat ziemski (land counties) - further subdivided into 314 gminas, which include 85 'urban gminas' -, the voivodeship contains 88 cities and towns, listed by 'Wikipedia' in descending order of population and according to official figures for 2019
Warsaw city: Warsaw city, the capital and largest city of Poland, its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents in the 2020s
Economy of Warwaw: Economy of Warsaw
Timeline and history of Warsaw: Timeline of Warsaw - History of Warsaw
Since the Middle Ages city of Warsaw: Since the Middle Ages the city of Warsaw evolved from a cluster of villages to the capital of a major European power, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
November 1794 Battle of Praga and Russian victory: November 1794 Battle of Praga, or the Second Battle of Warsaw, a Russian assault of Praga, the easternmost suburb of Warsaw, during the Kosciuszko Uprising, followed by a massacre of the civilian population of Praga
November Uprising 1830–1831 against the Russian Empire: November Uprising 1830–1831, an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire, that began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw
January Uprising 1863-1864 against the Russian Empire: January Uprising 1863-1864, an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire
Polish Revolution of 1905: Polish Revolution of 1905 against the Russian Empire, as in 1905 and 1906 close to 7,000 strikes and other work stoppages occurred involving 1,3 million Poles, protesters demanded both improved conditions for workers and more political freedom for the Poles, and Russian empire contributed by trying to incite some anti-Jewish pogroms
Since 1914/1915 German bombing and invasion of Warsaw: After aerial bombing of the city in 1914 with airships, the German army entered Warsaw on 1 August 1915
Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw: Since 1 September 1939 Germann bombing of Warsaw in World War II refers to the aerial bombing campaign of Warsaw by the German Luftwaffe during the siege of Warsaw in the invasion of Poland in 1939, it also may refer to German bombing raids during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944, as during the course of the war approximately 84% of the city was destroyed due to German mass bombings, heavy artillery fire and a planned demolition campaign
Since September 1939 German siege of Warsaw, occupation and destruction: by September 1939 Siege of Warsaw by the invading German Army - April-May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of Jewish resistance against Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka - August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising - German planned destruction of Warsaw
History of Warsaw since 1945: History of Warsaw since 1945, after the bombing, the revolts, the fighting, and the demolition had ended and most of Warsaw was in ruins
13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Middle East Conference: 13/14 February 2019 Warsaw Conference, hosted by Poland and the USA the issues of the event include 'terrorism and extremism, missile development and proliferation, maritime trade and security, and threats posed by proxy groups across the region' of Middle East and especially 'Iran’s influence and terrorism in the region' - 14 February 2019: '60 foreign ministers and representatives of dozen of governments, an Israeli PM and the foreign ministers of leading Arab countries stood together and spoke with unusual force, clarity and unity against the common threat of the Iranian regime', Israel's Netanyahu says in Warsaw - 14 February 2019: Israel's Netanyahu on Thursday called on Arab states to continue normalizing relations with Israel, as the Iranian regime, vowing to revenge, once again tries to blame Israel and the USA for an attack reportedly claimed by Jaish ul-Adl
April 2019: 23 April 2019: On the 76th anniversary of World War II uprising and destruction, foreign and Polish Jews gather in former Warsaw Ghetto for first seder since in 1943 the Jews imprisoned there began a bloody last stand against the Nazis, the largest single violent act of defiance by Jews during the Holocaust
June 2019 Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum: 22 June 2019: After the victims of German war crimes were forced to suffer the same fate, Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum
19 April 2020 anniversary of Warsaw Ghetto Uprising amid covid-19: 19 avril 2020: Une multitude d'hommages intimes, sur place ou depuis les lieux de confinement, ainsi que des initiatives en ligne ont remplacé dimanche les cérémonies anniversaires habituelles aux héros du soulèvement du ghetto de Varsovie de 1943, remodelées à cause de la pandémie covid-19
26 March 2022 'free world' opposes Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Joe Biden in Warsaw: 26 mars 2022: Président Joe Biden prononcera samedi en Pologne un discours au 'monde libre', qui s'oppose à l'invasion de l'Ukraine par la Russie, et 'armée ukrainienne assure avoir détruit des chars et avions russes autour de Donetsk et Louhansk alors que Moscou affirme désormais concentrer son opération militaire à l'est de l'Ukraine, selon France24 'heure par heure'
26 March 2022 'free world' opposes Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Joe Biden in Warsaw: 26 March 2022: At Miday USA's FM Blinken and Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin meet with Ukrainian counterparts to discuss current issues, cooperation in political and defense directions, ahead of speech on Putin''s war against Ukraine, according to France24 'heure par heure'
26 March 2022 'free world' opposes Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, Joe Biden in Warsaw: 26 March 2022: At Miday USA's FM Blinken and Defence Secretary Lloyd Austin meet with Ukrainian counterparts to discuss current issues, cooperation in political and defense directions, ahead of speech on Putin''s war against Ukraine, according to France24 'heure par heure'
19 avril 2023 á Varsovie, enfants et petits-enfants des juifs du ghetto sur les traces de leur histoire familiale: 19 avril 2023: À Varsovie, enfants et petits-enfants des juifs du ghetto sur les traces de leur histoire familiale. Des descendants des 400 000 juifs du ghetto de Varsovie, presque tous assassinés par l'Allemagne nazie, viennent à la rencontre de leur tragique histoire familiale, et s’interrogent aussi sur la lutte contre l’antisémitisme d’aujourd’hui.
Radom city: Radom city in east-central Poland, located approximately 100km south of the capital. It is situated on the Mleczna River in the Masovian Voivodeship, having previously been the seat of a separate Radom Voivodeship since 1975. Radom is the 14th largest city in Poland and the second-largest in its province with a population of 209,296 citizens as of 2020.
History of Radom city: History of Radom city
November Polish uprising 1830–1831 against the Russian Empire: November Uprising 1830–1831, an armed rebellion in the heartland of partitioned Poland against the Russian Empire, that began on 29 November 1830 in Warsaw
March-May 1848 Greater Poland uprising: March-May 1848 Greater Poland uprising of 1848, an unsuccessful insurrection of Poles against Prussian forces, during the Spring of Nations period. While the main fighting was concentrated in the Greater Poland region, fights also occurred in other part of the Prussian Partition of Poland, and protests were held in Polish inhabited regions of Silesia
January Polish uprising 1863-1864 against the Russian Empire: January Uprising 1863-1864, an insurrection instigated principally in the Russian Partition of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth against its occupation by the Russian Empire
Polish Revolution of 1905: Polish Revolution of 1905 against the Russian Empire, as in 1905 and 1906 close to 7,000 strikes and other work stoppages occurred involving 1,3 million Poles, protesters demanded both improved conditions for workers and more political freedom for the Poles, and Russian empire contributed by trying to incite some anti-Jewish pogroms
19th century, 20th century history of Radom city and World War I: 19th century, 20th century history of Radom city: When so-called 'Central Powers' including Austro-Hungarian and German empires began World War I in July/August 1914, Radom was a big, rapidly developing town, one of the most significant industrial centres in the whole country. However, the years 1914–1918 severely deteriorated the town's economy. In 1915, upon their withdrawal from Poland, Russians plundered Radom from machines and natural resources, while the impoverishment of the local community during the war contributed to a serious crisis in trade, crafts and services, especially since the town was no longer able to sell its products on the Russian market. As a result of World War I, in the period of the 'Second Polish Republic' since 1918, Radom became part of Kielce Voivodeship. Re-established Poland maintained moderate economic development, with cultural hubs of Poland including Warsaw, Kraków, Poznan, Wilno, Lwów becoming major European cities.
20th century history of Radom city and World War II: 20th century history of Radom city and World War II, as on 1 September 1939 - the first day of the German empire's invasion of Poland - the German air force brutally raided the city. Radom became the capital of one of the occupiers' districts of the 'General Government'. In 1941, a ghetto was established in Radom housing about 34,000 Jews. Most of the ghetto's inhabitants died in the extermination camp in Treblinka. Radom was liberated by the Red Army on 16 January 1945.
1941-1944 'Radom Ghetto' set up by German NSDAP regime: Since March 1941 'Radom Ghetto', a Nazi ghetto set up in the city of Radom during occupation of Poland for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of Polish Jews. It was closed off from the outside officially in April 1941. A year and a half later, the liquidation of the ghetto began in August 1942, and ended in July 1944, with approximately 30,000–32,000 victims - men, women and children - deported aboard Holocaust trains to their deaths at the Treblinka extermination camp. Only a few hundred Jews from Radom survived German empire's war. Among Polish rescuers of Jews, Radom mental hospital's Dr. Jerzy Borysowicz as well as his medical staff in total secrecy organized that the Jews, including children, were receiving daily help. Borysowicz also treated Mordechai Anielewicz, leader of the Jewish Combat Organization instrumental in engineering the 'Warsaw Ghetto Uprising' in April-May 1943. Most of Jerzy Borysowicz' patients however, did not survive the Holocaust. In January 1945, the occupiers sent the last transport of prisoners from Radom to Auschwitz, but it only reached Czestochowa, while the remaining prisoners were massacred in Firlej. On 16 January 1945 the city was captured by the Soviet Red Army and then restored to Poland.
21st century history of Radom: 20th/21st century history of Radom, as in 1984, city limits were greatly expanded by including several settlements as new districts, and as Radom was one of the main centres of the strike action taken by Polish health care workers in 2007
Timeline of Radom since 1155: Timeline of Radom since high Middle Ages, as in 1155 Radom was first mentioned in a 'bull'
1505-1938 modern timeline of Radom: 1505-1938 modern timeline of Radom, as in 1935 Radom–Warsaw railway opened, significantly shortening rail distance between Warsaw and Kraków, and as in 1938 90,059 inhabitants lived in the city
1863-1864 uprising in Radom and following events: 1863-1864 mementos of the uprising also in Radom in January 1863 until automn 1864 and the following events, including the years before its outbreak. The 1863-64 uprising was the biggest national Polish rebellious bid for independence. Representatives of all social classes joined the ranks including craftsmen, young people, even nobility and gentry. It met with wide support from international public opinion. It was a guerrilla war in which there were about 1200 battles and skirmishes. Despite initial successes, the uprising ended in failure - as since 1848 in France, Belgium, German states, Austria and whole Europe - because there was no sufficient information, discussion and therefore cooperation in the revolutionary 'party', work together between the democratic progressive opposition factions, especially without modern media later in European and global history. Tens of thousands of insurgents were killed, nearly 1000 were executed, about 38,000 were sentenced to penal servitude or sent down to Siberia, and about 10,000 emigrated. One of the positive effects of the uprising was the affranchisement of peasants which was carried out more radically than anywhere else in this part of Europe
1939-1945 timeline of Radom in Word War II: 1939-1945 timeline of Radom in Word War II, see '20th century history of Radom city and World War II' described in the text above
Since 1945 contemporary timeline of Radom: Since 1945 contemporary timeline of Radom
In 2007 Radom was one of the main centres of the strike action taken by Polish health care workers: In 2007 Radom was one of the main centres of the strike action taken by Polish health care workers after in January 1999 the 'Law on the Universal Health Insurance' had come into force, replacing the system of general tax financing based on budgetary rules for resource allocation with a system of financing from health contributions, based on social health insurance rules
Since 2007 Radom Chamber Orchestra: Since January 2007 Radom Chamber Orchestra, known in Polish as Radomska Orkiestra Kameralna, established as a municipal cultural organisation in 2007 by the Radom city authorities, and made up today of sixteen musicians
2021–2022 Belarus–EU border refugee and migrant crisis involving West Asia's war regions: 2021–2022 Belarus–EU border crisis, a migrant crisis consisting of an influx of several tens of thousands of immigrants, primarily from West Asia's war regions, with smaller groups hailing from elsewhere in Asia and from parts of Africa to Lithuania, Latvia, and Poland via those countries' borders with Belarus. The crisis was triggered by the severe deterioration in Belarus–EU relations, following the 2020 Belarusian regime polls, in connection the 2020–2021 Belarusian protests and more
Since February 2022 Ukrainian refugee crisis in Europe espially involving Poland: 2022 Ukrainian refugee crisis, an ongoing refugee crisis in Europe since late February 2022 after Russian Putin regime's invasion of Ukraine. Almost 4.8 million refugees have since left Ukraine (as of 15 April 2022), while an estimated 7.1 million people have been displaced within the country (as of 1 April 2022). In total, more than ten million people – approximately one-quarter of the country's total population – had left their homes in Ukraine by 20 March. 90% of Ukrainian refugees are women and children.
Lublin Voivodeship: Lublin Voivodeship located in southeastern Poland, that was created in January 1999 out of the former Lublin, Chelm, Zamosc, Biala Podlaska and (partially) Tarnobrzeg and Siedlce Voivodeships. The region is named after its largest city and regional capital Lublin, and its territory is made of four historical lands.
Lublin city: Lublin city, the ninth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest city of historical 'Lesser Poland'. In the 21st century it is the capital and the center of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 338,586 citizens in 2020, the largest Polish city east of the Vistula River and about 170km to the southeast of Warsaw by road. Since 1385 the city developped within the Polish-Lithuanian Union of Krewo, and thrived as a centre of trade and commerce due to its strategic location on the route between Vilnius and Kraków. Its inhabitants had the privilege of free trade in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Lublin Parliament session of 1569 led to the creation of a real union between the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, thus creating the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Lublin witnessed the early stages of Reformation in the 16th century. Jews established a widely respected yeshiva, Jewish hospital, synagogue, cemetery, and education centre and built the Grodzka Gate, the Jewish Gate, in the historic district. Jews were a vital part of the city's life until the Holocaust, during which they were relocated by Nazi Germany to the infamous Lublin Ghetto and ultimately murdered.
Economy and infrastructure of Lublin: Economy and infrastructure of Lublin, as large car factory Fabryka Samochodów Ciezarowych acquired by the South Korean Daewoo in the 1990s related to the Asian financial crisis practically collapsed. Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company to keep its prime market. With the decline of Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy has been reoriented toward service industries, and currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
History of Lublin city in the 19th, 20th and 21st century: History of Lublin city in the 19th and early 20th century, during NSDAP-ruled German empire's WWII until 1945 and in the post-war period
Timeline of Lublin since 501 AD, creation of settlements: Timeline of Lublin since 501 AD with the creation of 'Czwartek', considered the oldest early medieval settlement of Lublin. Archaeological excavations have revealed the remains of 20 residential half-dugouts and several cavities of an economic nature.
Early 20th century timeline of Lublin: Early 20th century timeline of Lublin, as in 1909 its population was 65,870 citizens and in July 1918 the Catholic University of Lublin was established
20th century timeline of Lublin, Nazi Germany's World War II and liberation by the Soviet army: 20th century timeline of Lublin, as on 4/% part of the Polish gold reserve was evacuated from Warsaw to Lublin by the Polish government during the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II, as on 7/8 September the Polish gold reserve was evacuated further east to Luck (today in Ukraine assaulted by Russia's Putin regime), as an 9 November 1939 the Germans carried out mass arrests of hundreds of Poles, including teachers, judges, lawyers, engineers and priests, as part of the 'Intelligenzaktion', as on 11 November the Germans carried out arrests of 14 lecturers of the Catholic University of Lublin, as on 17 November the Germans arrested around 60 of its students, as well as many local priests and lecturers of the local theological seminary, as on 23/24 December - Christmas eve - the Germans carried out an execution of 21 well-known and respected citizens of the region in Lublin, as on 25 December the German police carried out an execution of 10 Poles at the local Lemszczyzna brick factory, including local lawyers, professors, school principals and starosts of Lublin and Lubartów counties, as in 1940 the Germans committed many massacres, as in March 1941 Lublin Ghetto established by the occupiers and as in October the Majdanek concentration camp established by the occupiers, before in July 1944 the city captured by the Soviet Army.
1941-44 Majdanek Nazi concentration and extermination camp operated by the SS: Majdanek (or Lublin) Nazi concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. It had seven gas chambers, two wooden gallows, and some 227 structures in all. Although initially intended for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to murder people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Polish Jews within their own occupied homeland. The camp, which operated from 1 October 1941 to 22 July 1944, was captured nearly intact. The rapid advance of the Soviet Red Army during Operation Bagration prevented the SS from destroying most of the camp's infrastructure, and Deputy Camp Commandant Anton Thernes failed to remove most incriminating evidence of war crimes.
Since October 1964 Maria Sklodowska-Curie Monument in Lublin: Since October 1964 Maria Sklodowska-Curie Monument in Lublin dedicated to Polish physicist and chemist Marie Curie 1867–1934 depicted in a long robe and holding a book in her right hand. The pedestal inscriptions read 'To Maria Sklodowska-Curie, from the University Bearing Her Name, and from Society' and 'On the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of the University 1944–1964' - In December 1903 Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, and Henri Becquerel received the Nobel Prize in Physics, 'in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena', as Marie Curie continued her revolutionary work until her death in 1934, 11 years ahead of the first deployment of nuclear weapons during Axis powers' World War II by the USA to end Japanese empire's brutal war against the USA and Asian countries, to save hundred of thousands soldiers lifes in 1945, following received but ignored warnings
Since July 2020 'Lublin Triangle' of Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine: Since July 2020 Lublin Triangle, a regional alliance of three European countries – Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine – for the purposes of strengthening mutual military, cultural, economic and political cooperation and supporting Ukraine's integration into the European Union and NATO
Zamosc city: Zamosc, a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship 60 km from the border with Ukraine, with a population was 65,149 in 2014
Since 1580 history of Zamosc: Since 1580 history of Zamosc, when the city was founded by Jan Zamoyski on the trade route linking western and northern Europe with the Black Sea, modelled on Italian trading cities and built during the Baroque period by the architect Bernardo Morando Zamosc remains a perfect example of a Renaissance town of the late 16th century
SSince 19th century history of Jews in Zamosc: Since 1588 history of Jews in Zamosc, when the first Jewish settlers were mainly the Sephardi Jews coming from Italy, the Catholic Monarchy of Spain, Portugal and Turkey, in the 17th century the newcomers were recruited among the Ashkenazi Jews, and before Germany's World War II more than 12,500 Jews lived in Zamosc, accounting for 43% of its population, today only 3 Jews are living in Zamosc
5 March 1871 Róza Luksemburg born in Zamosc city: 5 mars 1871 théoricienne marxiste Róza Luksemburg née à Zamosc dans l'Empire russe et actuelle Pologne, morte assassinée le 15 janvier 1919 à Berlin en Allemagne
1939-1945 during Germany's World War II occupation of Zamosc (Zamojszczyzna): 1939-1945 during Germany's World War II Zamosc was seized by the German army and occupation forces, creating an extermination camp in the Zamosc Rotunda where more than 8,000 people were killed, including displaced residents of the Zamosc region (Zamojszczyzna) and Soviet prisoners of war
1942-1943 German 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna: 1942-1943 'ethnic cleansing' of Zamojszczyzna by NSDAP and SS ruled Germany
1942-1944 Zamosc uprising: 1942-1944 Zamosc uprising, comprising World War II partisan operations against Germany's Generalplan-Ost forced expulsion of Poles from the Zamosc region and the region's colonization by German settlers, one of Poland's largest resistance operations of World War II
March 2018 commemoration of Rosa Luxemburg and denial: 14. März 2018: Die in Zamosc an Rosa Luxemburg erinnernde Gedenktafel wurde auf Grundlage einer behördlichen Entscheidung entfernt und in ein Museum verbracht, der polnischen Regierungspolitik folgend und zum Schaden des Ansehens der Stadt - Commemoration of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebnecht since 15 January 1919 and July 1919 Versailles peace conference, agreements and then 'Treaty of Versailles' following WWI, not preventing World War II including the Holocaust
Silesia historical region: Silesia, a historical region of Central Europe that lies mostly within Poland, with small parts in Czechia and Germany, as its population is estimated at around 8,000,000 inhabitants in the 21st century. Silesia is split into two main subregions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east. Silesia has a diverse culture, including architecture, costumes, cuisine, traditions, and the Silesian language in Upper Silesia
History of Central European 'Silesia', in the 21st century including areas of 9 countries: History of Silesia, as in the second half of the 2nd millennium B.C. - late Bronze Age -, Silesia belonged to the Lusatian culture. About 500 BC Scyths arrived, and later Celts in the South and Southwest. During the 1st century BC Silingi and other Germanic people settled in Silesia. For this period we have written reports of antique authors who included the area. Slavs arrived in this territory around the 6th century. The first known states in Silesia were those of Greater Moravia and Bohemia. In the 10th century, Mieszko I incorporated Silesia into Civitas Schinesghe, a Polish state. It remained part of Poland until the Fragmentation of Poland - Great Moravia, the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, possibly including territories which are today part of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine.
Lower Silesia: Lower Silesia, the northwestern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, as in the Middle Ages Lower Silesia was part of Piast-ruled Poland. It was one of the leading regions of Poland, and its capital Wroclaw was one of the main cities of the Polish Kingdom. Lower Silesia emerged as a distinctive region during the fragmentation of Poland, in 1172, when the Duchies of Opole and Racibórz, considered Upper Silesia since, were formed of the eastern part of the Duchy of Silesia, and the remaining, western part was since considered Lower Silesia. During the Ostsiedlung, German settlers were invited to settle in the sparsely populated region, which until then had a Polish majority. As a result, the region became largely Germanised in the following centuries. In the late Middle Ages the region fell under the overlordship of the Bohemian Crown, however large parts remained under the rule of local Polish dukes of the Piast dynasty, some up to the 16th and 17th century.
Cities in Silesia: List of cities in Silesia with a population greater than 20,000 inhabitants in 2015
Wroclaw city: Wroclaw city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia, located on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Central Europe, roughly 350 kilometres from the Baltic Sea to the north and 40 kilometres from the Sudeten Mountains to the south, as the official population of Wroclaw in 2020 was 643,782, with a further 1.25 million residing in the metropolitan area
History of Wroclaw: History of Wroclaw that has long been the largest and culturally dominant city in Silesia, and is today the capital of Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship, after the history of the city started at a crossroads in Lower Silesia, becoming one of the centres of the Duchy and then Kingdom of Poland, and briefly, in the first half of the 13th century, the centre of half of the divided Kingdom of Poland, as its historical affiliations since AD 800 include Duchy of Poland 985–1025, Kingdom of Poland 1025–1038, Duchy of Bohemia 1038–1054, Kingdom of Poland 1054–ca. 1325, Duchy of Silesia 1202–1335, Kingdom of Bohemia 1335–1469, Kingdom of Hungary 1469–1490, Kingdom of Bohemia 1490–1526/1742, Habsburg Monarchy 1526–1742, Kingdom of Prussia 1742–1871, German Empire 1871–1918, Weimar Germany 1918–1933, NSDAP ruled Germany 1933–1945, People's Republic of Poland 1945–1989 and Republic of Poland 1989–present
Education in Wroclaw: Education in Wroclaw, the city is the third largest educational centre of Poland, with 135,000 students in 30 colleges which employ some 7,400 staff
Education in Wroclaw: Education in Wroclaw, the city is the third largest educational centre of Poland, with 135,000 students in 30 colleges which employ some 7,400 staff
Since 1948 Karol Lipinski Academy of Music: Since 1948 Karol Lipinski Academy of Music, a university level school of music in Wroclaw
October 2017 'Karol Szymanowski Music School Orchestra in Wroclaw' performed Vivaldi's Concerto No. 10 in B minor: 1 October 2017: Karol Szymanowski Music School Orchestra in Wroclaw performed Antonio Vivaldi's Concerto No. 10 in B minor for 4 violins, op. 3, composed in the 'Ospedale della Pietà' in Venice
Timeline of Wroclaw: Timeline of Wroclaw
Since 1872 New Synagogue in Breslau: Since 1872 New Synagogue in Breslau, now Wroclaw, and one of the largest synagogues in the German Empire and a centre of Reform Judaism in Breslau, burnt down during the Kristallnacht pogrom which swept across Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938
Since 1918/1945 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology: Since 1918/1945 Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
1944-1945 (6 May) Battle of Breslau: 1944-1945 Battle of Breslau, a three-month-long siege of the city of Breslau in Lower Silesia - after in August 1944 Adolf Hitler declared the city of Breslau to be a fortress (Festung), ordering that it must be defended at all costs - lasting to the end of World War II in Europe, after from 13 February 1945 to 6 May 1945 German troops in Breslau were besieged by the Soviet forces which encircled the city as part of the Lower Silesian Offensive Operation, and as the German garrison's surrender on 6 May was followed by the surrender of all German forces two days after the battle
Since 1945 liberated Wroclaw and reconstruction: Since 1945 liberated Wroclaw and reconstruction
After 13 May 1945 Boleslaw Drobner becomes mayor: Polish Boleslaw Drobner becomes mayor, after he led a delegation to Zagan on 13 May 1945
Since 1950 Wroclaw Medical University: Since 1950 Wroclaw Medical University, that has 22 international agreements of cooperation signed with other universities abroad, and as there is a wide exchange of students and teaching staff within the framework of the Socrates and Erasmus programmes of the EU, especially with France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Spain, the Netherlands and England
Since 1951 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences: Since November 1951 Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (former Agricultural University and Agricultural Academy in Wroclaw), a state university established as an independent university and one of the best specialist universities in Poland, conducting training and research in the field of food, environmental and veterinary sciences
Since 1965 Museum of Architecture in Wroclaw: Since 1965 Museum of Architecture in Wroclaw, the only architecture museum in Poland, located in a 15th-century post-Bernardine set of buildings, including the St Bernardine of Sienna Church and a monastic quadrangle with a garden, as the Museum of Architecture was a founder-member of the International Confederation of Architectural Museums, and as its permanent exhibitions on display are 'Relics of Wroclaw's Mediaeval Architecture', 'Architectural Craft from the Twelfth to the Twentieth Century'
Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship: Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship, one of the 16 Polish voivodeships situated in southeastern Poland, in the historical region of Lesser Poland, and takes its name from the Swietokrzyskie mountain range. Its capital and largest city is Kielce.
Kielce city: Kielce city in southern Poland with 193,415 inhabitants. It has been the capital of the Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship since 1999 and used to be the capital of its predecessor, Kielce Voivodeship 1919–1939, 1945–1998. The city is in the middle of the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, on the banks of the Silnica River, in the northern part of the historical Polish province of Lesser Poland, as Kielce has a history back over 900 years. Kielce - once an important centre of limestone mining - and its vicinity later became famous for natural resources like copper, lead and iron
Pinczów County in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship: Pinczów County in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship, south-central Poland. Its administrative seat and largest town is Pinczów, which lies 40km south of the regional capital Kielce. The only other town in the county is Dzialoszyce, lying 23km south-west of Pinczów
Bronocice village in Gmina Dzialoszyce district within Pinczów County: Bronocice village in Gmina Dzialoszyce district within Pinczów County. It lies approximately 4km south of Dzialoszyce, 26km south-west of Pinczów and 64 km south of the regional capital Kielce. In 1976 the Bronocice pot was discovered. Dating to approximately 3635–3370 BC, the pot bears the earliest known image of a wheeled vehicle
'Bronocice pot' - Nutzung des Rades zum Transport nördlich des Schwarzen Meeres vor 4000 v.Chr.: Bronocice pot with one of the earliest known depictions of what may be a wheeled vehicle discovered in the village of Bronocice near the Nidzica River in Poland. Attributed to the Funnelbeaker archaeological culture, radiocarbon tests dated the pot to the mid-fourth millennium BC. Today it is housed at the Archaeological Museum of the city of Kraków in southern Poland - Die ältesten Hinweise für die Nutzung des Rades zum Transport finden sich in Form von Miniaturrädern aus Ton nördlich des Schwarzen Meeres bereits vor 4000 v. Chr. Die Hinweise verdichten sich ab Mitte des 4. Jahrtausends über ganz Europa in Form von Wagenmodellen. Weitere mittelbare Hinweise auf die Anwendung als Wagenrad fanden sich z. B. in Form von Einritzungen auf einem Gefäß der Trichterbecherkultur in Bronocice bei Powiat Pinczowski in Polen
Pinczów town and Gmina Pinczó: Gmina Pinczó, an urban-rural gmina in Pinczów County, as its seat is the town of Pinczów 40km south of the regional capital Kielce. The gmina covers an area of 212.75 square kilometres, and as of 2006 its total population is 22,147 inhabitants. Gmina Pinczów also contains the villages and settlements of Aleksandrów, Bogucice Drugie, Bogucice Pierwsze, Borków, Brzescie, Bugaj, Byczów, Chrabków, Chruscice, Chwalowice, Gacki, Grochowiska, Kopernia, Kowala, Kozubów, Krzyzanowice Dolne, Krzyzanowice Srednie, Leszcze, Marzecin, Mlodzawy Duze, Mlodzawy Male, Mozgawa, Nowa Zagosc, Orkanów, Pasturka, Podleze, Sadek, Skowronno Dolne, Skowronno Górne, Skrzypiów, Stara Zagosc, Szarbków, Szczypiec, Uników, Winiary, Wlochy, Wola Zagojska Dolna, Wola Zagojska Górna, Zagórzyce, Zakrzów and Zawarza
Dzialoszyce town in Swietokrzyskie along important merchant route: Dzialoszyce town in Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship with 1,117 inhabitants in 2004 - located on the Nidzica river, a tributary to the Vistula - was in the Middle Ages placed along a merchant route from Kraków to Wislica. The earliest mention of Dzialoszyce in historical records comes from 1220. In 1409 King Wladyslaw II Jagiello gave it a city charter according to Magdeburg rights, and in the 1920th the town had a Jewish community consisting of 5618 people, or 83.6% of its total population. The vast majority of the Jewish population was exterminated in the Holocaust by German Nazis during their occupation of Poland since 1939. After the war, Jewish survivors from Dzialoszyce submitted contributions to a Memorial Book. In subsequent years the town's population did not recover, and today it is less than one-fifth of what it was before the war.
Opole Voivodeship: Opole Voivodeship, the smallest and least populated voivodeship of Poland. The province's name derives from that of the region's capital and largest city, Opole. It is part of Upper Silesia. A relatively large German minority, with representatives in the Sejm, lives in the voivodeship, and the German language is co-official in 28 communes. Opole Voivodeship is bordered by Lower Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Greater Poland and Lódz Voivodeships to the north, Silesian Voivodeship to the east, and the Czech Republic (Olomouc Region and Moravian-Silesian Region) to the south. Opole Province's geographic location, economic potential, and its population's level of education make it an attractive business partner for other Polish regions (especially Lower Silesian and Silesian Voivodeships) and for foreign investors. Formed in 1997, the Praded/Pradziad Euroregion with its headquarter in Prudnik has facilitated economic, cultural and tourist exchanges between the border areas of Poland and the Czech Republic.
Upper Silesia: Upper Silesia, the southeastern part of the historical and geographical region of Silesia, located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic. Since the 9th century, Upper Silesia has been part of (chronologically) Greater Moravia, the Duchy of Bohemia, the Piast Kingdom of Poland, again of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown and the Holy Roman Empire, as well as of the Habsburg monarchy from 1526. In 1742 the greater part of Upper Silesia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia, and in 1871 it became part of the German Empire. After the First World War the region was divided between Poland (East Upper Silesia) and Germany (West Upper Silesia). After the Second World War, West Upper Silesia also became Polish as the result of the Potsdam Conference.
Cities in Silesia: List of cities in Silesia with a population greater than 20,000 inhabitants in 2015
Upper Silesian metropolitan area, Kraków metropolitan area, Czestochowa metropolitan area: Upper Silesian metropolitan area is a metropolitan area in southern Poland and northeast Czechia, centered on the cities of Katowice and Ostrava in Silesia and has around 5 million inhabitans. Located in the three administrative units, mainly Silesian Voivodeship, a small western part of Lesser Poland Voivodeship and a small east part of Moravian-Silesian Region. The polycentric metropolitan area lies within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, as Silesian metropolitan area (5.3 million people) with nearby Kraków metropolitan area (1.3 million people) and Czestochowa metropolitan area (0.4 million people) create a great metropolitan area covering 7 million people.
Katowice city: Katowice city, the capital of the Silesian Voivodeship in southern Poland, and the central city of the Upper Silesian metropolitan area. It is the 11th-most populous city in Poland, while its urban area is the most populous in the country and one of the most populous in the EU. As of December 31, 2020 estimate, Katowice has a population of 290,553 citizens, and is a central part of the Metropolis GZM, with a population of 2.3 million, and a part of a larger Upper Silesian metropolitan area that extends into the Czech Republic and has a population of 5-5.3 million people. Katowice is a center of commerce, business, transportation, and culture in southern Poland, with numerous public companies headquartered in the city or in its suburbs, important cultural institutions such as Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra, award-winning music festivals such as Off Festival and Tauron New Music, and transportation infrastructure such as Katowice Korfanty Airport. In 2015, Katowice joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network and was named a UNESCO City of Music.
Since 19th century Katowice's population: Katowice's population grew very fast between 1845 and 1960, fueled by the expansion of heavy industry and administrative functions. In the 60s, 70s and 80s, the city grew by another 100,000 people, reaching a height of 368,621 in 1988. Since then, the collapse of heavy industry, emigration, and suburbanization reversed the population development. Katowice lost approx. 75,000 people (20%) since the fall of communism in Poland, as - during the German empires second world war since September 1939 - the Nazi occupant committed severe crimes against the local Roma and Jewish communities, and most of them were eventually killed or transported by cattle wagons to concentration camps such as Auschwitz for complete extermination.
Tworków village: Tworków village in the administrative district of Gmina Krzyzanowice within Racibórz County in the Silesian Voivodeship, close to the Czech border. It lies approximately 3km west of Krzyzanowice, 10km south of Racibórz, and 62km south-west of the regional capital Katowice, ande has a population of 3,000 inhabitants in the 21st century
Geschichte Tworków seit dem 13. Jahrhundert: Im Mittelalter wurde Tworków vermutlich in der ersten Hälfte des 13. Jahrhunderts gegründet und als Angerdorf angelegt. 1258 übertrug es der böhmische König einem böhmischen Adligen. Daraus ergibt sich, dass Tworkau/Tvorkov damals zur mährischen Provinz Troppau und nach der Gründung des Herzogtums Troppau 1318 zu diesem gehörte. Auf der Pariser Friedenskonferenz 1919 beanspruchte die Tschechoslowakei das Gebiet, wie auch Polen. 1936 erfolgte die Umbenennung des Amtsbezirks Tworkau in Amtsbezirk Tunskirch. Am 2. November 1920 wurde Franciczek Adamik in Torkowa (Tworków) geboren, der später bis zum Beginn des 2. Weltkriegs in Schlesien als Schneider arbeitete. Er wurde als Zwangsarbeiter nach Deutschland verschleppt. Später gelang ihm die Flucht nach Sanok und er arbeitete wieder als Schneider, und begann in dieser Zeit einen geheimen Transport von Menschen über die Grenze nach Ungarn zu organisieren. 1940 entkam er bei einer Razzia und versteckte sich in Krakau, wurde jedoch wieder aufgespürt und zur Zwangsarbeit verurteilt. Noch einmal gelang ihm die Flucht und er verband sich 1942 mit der 'Armia Krajowa' und beteiligte sich an der Organisierung der Flucht von Juden aus dem Krakauer Ghetto. 1945 im Januar wurde er von der Gestapo verhaftet und in das Konzentrationslager Groß-Rosen, dann nach Nordhausen und Dora gebracht, bis zu seiner Befreiung durch die Allierten. Im Konzentrationslager wurde Franciszek Adamik gezwungen an Leichenverbrennungen teilzunehmen. 1964 begann er Bilder aus dieser Zeit zu malen und erklärt wie er 'das Gemalte als Gefangener sah. Wenn man nur einmal eine Gaskammer in Funktion gesehen hat, vergißt man es nie.' 1993 konnten seine Bilder auch im Rahmen einer Veranstaltungsreihe 'Aufstand im Ghetto - Warschau 1943' in Osnabrück und Georgsmarienhütte von April bis Mai 1993 gezeigt werden.
Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland: Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland with a population of 3,404,863 citizens in 2019. It stretches far north, to Radom, and Siedlce, also including such cities, as Stalowa Wola, Lublin, Kielce, Czestochowa, and Sosnowiec. The province is bounded on the north by the Swietokrzyskie Mountains, on the west by Jura Krakowsko-Czestochowska - a broad range of hills stretching from Kraków to Czestochowa - and on the south by the Tatra, Pieniny and Beskidy Mountains. Politically it is bordered by Silesian Voivodeship to the west, Swietokrzyskie Voivodeship to the north, Subcarpathian Voivodeship to the east, and Slovakia - Prešov Region and Žilina Regions - to the south.
Kraków city: Kraków city, the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland, situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, and dating back to the 7th century
Vistula river: Vistula river, the longest river in Poland and the 9th-longest in Europe, as the river is often associated with Polish culture, history and national identity. It is the country's most important waterway, also trading route and natural symbol, and the term 'Vistula Land' can be synonymous with Poland
History of Kraków: History of Kraków, as first written record of the city's name dates back to 965, when Kraków was described as a notable commercial centre controlled first by Moravia 876–879, but captured by a Bohemian duke Boleslaus I in 955. The first acclaimed ruler of Poland, Mieszko I, took Kraków from the Bohemians and incorporated it into the holdings of the Piast dynasty towards the end of his reign. In 1038, Kraków became the seat of the Polish governmen and became a leading centre of trade, but the city was sacked and burned during the Mongol invasion of 1241. It was rebuilt practically identical, incorporated in 1257 by the high duke Boleslaw V who like Wroclaw introduced city rights modelled on the Magdeburg law allowing for tax benefits and new trade privileges for the citizens. In 1259, the city was again ravaged by the Mongols. A third attack in 1287 was repelled thanks in part to the newly built fortifications. During 15th and 16th centuries many works of Polish Renaissance art and architecture were created, including ancient synagogues in Kraków's Jewish quarter located in the north-eastern part of Kazimierz, such as the Old Synagogue, then various artists came to work and live in Kraków and Johann Haller established a printing press in the city.
Economy of Kraków: Economy of Kraków
Timeline of Kraków: Timeline of Kraków
Since 15th-century Old Synagogue: Since 15th-century Old Synagogue situated in the Kazimierz district of Kraków, the oldest synagogue building still standing in Poland and one of the most precious landmarks of Jewish architecture in Europe, that remained one of the most important synagogues in the city until the German invasion of Poland in 1939, renovated from 1956 to 1959 and currently operates as a museum
Since 1473 early printing in Cracow and Poland: Since 1473 early printing in Cracow and Poland
1815-1846 'Free City of Cracow': 1815-1846 'Free City of Cracow', an overwhelmingly Polish-speaking city-state as 14% of its population were Jews as the city of Kraków itself had a Jewish population reaching nearly 40%
February 1846 Kraków Uprising for national independence: February 1846 Kraków Uprising, an attempt to incite a fight for national independence and directed at the powers that partitioned Poland, in particular the nearby Austrian Empire, but ended with Austrian victory
1846-1918 'Grand Duchy of Kraków' part of the 'Empire of Austria': 1846-1918 Grand Duchy of Kraków, created after the incorporation of the Free City of Cracow into Austria in November 1846, as from 1846 to 1918 'Grand Duke of Kraków' was part of the official titulary of the 'Emperor of Austria'
1918-1939 Second Polish Republic: 1918-1939 Second Polish Republic
1939–1945 Kraków 'capital' of Nazi Germany's 'General Governorate': November 1939 – 19 January 1945 'General Governorate for the occupied Polish Region', a German zone of occupation established after the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany in 1939 at the onset of World War II
Since 1940/1941 German politician and lawyer Hans Frank and Kraków Ghetto: Since 1940/1941 Kraków Ghetto was one of five major metropolitan Jewish Ghettos created by Nazi Germany in the new General Government territory during the German occupation of Poland in World War II, established for the purpose of exploitation, terror, and persecution of local Polish Jews, as well as the staging area for separating the 'able workers' from those who would later be deemed unworthy of life, as the Ghetto was liquidated between June 1942 and March 1943, with most of its inhabitants sent to their deaths at Belzec extermination camp as well as Plaszów slave-labor camp, and Auschwitz concentration camp
1939-1942 Kraków Ghetto establishment and mass murder called liquidation: In April 1940, German politician and lawyer Hans Frank, who served as head of the General Government, began the removal of Jews from the city of Kraków with the reasoning that the area '...will be cleansed and it will be possible to establish pure German neighborhoods...' within Kraków - 1939-1941/1942 Kraków Ghetto Jewish Council until in 1942 Nazi ghetto officials made David Gutter, the last chairman of the Kraków Ghetto
1942-1943 Kraków Jewish underground resistance: 1942-1943 Kraków Jewish underground resistance, stemmed from youth groups including Akiva, Iskra and Hahalutz Halochem, or the Fighting Organization of the Jewish youth, originally focused on providing support for education and welfare organizations within the ghetto and eventually establishing a magazine, and also focused on working with the Polish Underground and the Communist Partia Robotnicza, and ultimately focusing on more classical armed resistance actions
January 1945 Soviet army takes the city: January 1945 Soviet army takes the city, German occupation ends
Since 1954 Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks in Kraków: Since 1954 Tadeusz Sendzimir Steelworks, the second largest steel plant in Poland, in 2005 purchased by the Mittal Steel Company and now owned by Arcelor-Mittal, the largest steelmaker in the world
Since 1988 Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków: Since 1988 Jewish Culture Festival in Kraków
Subcarpathian Voivodeship: Subcarpathian Voivodeship in the southeastern corner of Poland. Its administrative capital and largest city is Rzeszów. In the WWI and WWII interwar period, it was part of the Lwów Voivodeship. The voivodeship was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Rzeszów, Przemysl, Krosno and Tarnów and Tarnobrzeg Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local-government reforms adopted in 1998. The name derives from the region's location near the Carpathian Mountains.
Przemysl County: Przemysl County in Subcarpathian Voivodeship, on the border with Ukraine, as a result of the Polish local government reforms passed in 1998. Its administrative seat is the city of Przemysl, constituting a separate city county. As of 2019 Przemysl County's total population is 74,234 citizens
L'attitude des Polonais vis-à-vis des Juifs et le 10 novembre 1941: Durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale de l'empire allemand et malgré le comportement parfois hostile de la population, comme dans nombre d'autres pays occupés, la Pologne est le pays qui compte le plus grand nombre de Juste parmi les nations, titre décerné par le musée de Yad Vashem, grâce notamment aux actions du colonel Henryk Wolinski, du lieutenant-colonel Henryk Iwanski ou de l'enseignante Krystyna Adolnhowa. Le gouvernement polonais en exil fut le premier à diffuser - en novembre 1942 - des informations sur les camps d’extermination nazis à la suite des rapports de Jan Karski et de Witold Pilecki, membres d’Armia Krajowa. Le gouvernement polonais en exil est aussi le seul gouvernement à avoir mis en place une cellule de résistance dont l’objectif unique a été d’aider les Juifs en Pologne occupée, après le 10 novembre 1941 Hans Frank avait instauré la peine capitale pour des Polonais assistant les Juifs
Przemysl city: Przemysl city in southeastern Poland with 60,442 inhabitants in 2020. In 1999, it became part of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship as Przemysl owes its long and rich history to the advantages of its geographic location. The city lies in an area connecting mountains and lowlands known as the Przemysl Gate, with open lines of transportation, and fertile soil. It also lies on the navigable San River. Important trade routes that connect Central Europe from Przemysl ensure the city's importance. The Old Town of Przemysl is listed as a Historic Monument of Poland
21st century politics of Krosno/Przemysl constituency: Politics of Krosno/Przemysl constituency with members of Sejm elected from Krosno/Przemysl constituency
History of Przemysl since early Middle Ages until WWI 1914-1918: History of Przemysl, as city is the second-oldest city (after Kraków) in southern Poland, dating back to at least the 8th century, when it was the site of a fortified gord belonging to the Lendians, a West Slavic tribe. In the 9th century, the fortified settlement and the surrounding region became part of Great Moravia, since 1340 in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, as since 1772 - as a consequence of the First Partition of Poland - Przemysl became part of the Austrian Empire, seeking expansion to increase the number of subjects as empires did since the Middle Ages
1914-1918 - 1939 history of Przemysl since Central Powers' World War I: History of Przemysl since Central Powers' World War I 1914-1918, inter-war years, World War II 1939-1945, beginning for the city of Przemysl with the Septemer 1939 NSDAP rulen German empire's 'Battle of Przemysl'
1939-1945 history of Przemysl during and since Axis Powers' World War II: Sepmter 1939 'Battle of Przemysl' and efence of the city during the German Invasion of Poland, as the Polish Army garrison of the former Austrian fortress of Przemysl managed to halt the advance of the invading 'Wehrmacht' for three days. The city was forced to surrender on 14 September, not exactly knowing what is to come, but beginning with 1939 Przemysl massacres carried out by the German soldiers and police against hundreds of Jews who lived in the city. In total over 500 Jews were murdered in and around the city and the vast majority of the city's Jewish population was deported across the San River into the portion of Poland that was occupied by the Soviet Union.
History of Przemysl in the postwar period until today: History of Przemysl in the postwar period, as due to the murder of Jews in the Nazi Holocaust and the postwar expulsion of Ukrainians' the city's population fell to 24,000
25 March 2022 USA president in Przemysl to witness refugee crisis caused by Putin's war against Ukraine: 25 March 2022: Just 60 miles from Ukraine, USA president Joe Biden saluted Poland on Friday for welcoming more than 2 million refugees who have fled Russia’s invasion. Then he met with humanitarian experts on the ground about what will be needed to mitigate the growing suffering. Biden said he had hoped to get even closer to the border but was prevented because of security concerns. Still, he said he wanted to visit Poland to underscore that the assistance it is providing is of 'enormous consequence' as Europe experiences the biggest refugee crisis since World War II - 25 March 2022: After Brussels summits USA's Biden heads to Poland to witness refugee crisis, as Russian commander reportedly killed by own troops, as Russia admits 1,351 soldiers dead and 3,825 wounded, as video appears showing Russian shelling of civilians receiving humanitarian aid in Kharkiv, 'The Guardian' reports with live updates on the 30th day of Putin's war crimes
Medyka village, population, history: Medyka village/town in Przemysl County, on the border with Ukraine. It is the seat of the municipality called Gmina Medyka. It lies approximately 13 kilometres east of Przemysl and 72 km east of the regional capital Rzeszów. In 2006 the village had a population of approximately 2,800 citizens. - Shehyni village of Yavoriv Raion in Lviv Oblast of western Ukraine, hosting the administration of Shehyni rural hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. Located at the border with Poland, known as the site of the Medyka-Shehyni border checkpoint, and situated 14km east of the city of Przemysl, it was first mentioned in 1515 in a royal charter under the name of Szechinie. For most of its existence the village belonged to the Land of Przemysl, the so-called key of estates including Medyka, Pozdziacz, Torki and Buców, centred on the manor in Medyka, all based on a local variant of Magdeburg law, dubbed Ruthenian law. Initially the peasants settled there were tasked with taking care of the royal stables in Medyka, with time their duty towards the owner of Medyka manor was modified to simple serfdom, with yearly rent paid in grain.
Early 20th century synagogue 'Synagoga w Medyce' in Medyka town, history: Since early 20th century synagogue 'Synagoga w Medyce'in Medyka town and history until 1939-1944 when it was devastated by NSDAP ruled German empire's invaders during empire's World War II
Mai/June 1935 'Anglo-German Naval Agreement': Mai/juin 1935 'traité naval germano-britannique' (Anglo-German Naval Agreement), un traité bilatéral signé le 18 juin 1935 - 18 juin 1815 'Battle of Waterloo' - par le Royaume-Uni et le Troisième Reich, entre Joachim von Ribbentrop pour les Allemands et Samuel Hoare pour les Britanniques. Sans concerter leurs alliés de la 'Première Guerre mondiale 1914-1918', ils autorisent le Troisième Reich à disposer d'une flotte de guerre au tonnage limité de façon permanente à 35% de celui de la Royal Navy, et Hitler aussitôt entreprit un vaste programme de construction navale. - French reaction to the '1935 Naval Pact' and impact
Participation de l'URSS en faveur des républicains en Espagne 1930-1939, mais l'expansion du fascisme: Participation de l'Union soviétique en faveur des républicains en Espagne 1930-1939, notamment par l'intermédiaire du Komintern, au nom de la lutte contre le fascisme. Plusieurs généraux républicains, membres du PCE, comme Juan Modesto ou Enrique Líster, ne sont pas sortis du rang, mais avaient été formés en URSS où ils avaient trouvé refuge au début des années 1930 - Bilan, victimes, réfugiés et exilés, après la Seconde Guerre mondiale a débuté avec la guerre civile qui oppose en effet de 1936 à 1939 républicains et nationalistes en Espagne, en Europe et au monde, et qui fait environ 400 000 morts. Dès 1936, les Européens y voient un conflit à portée universelle, elle marque l'expansion du fascisme.
September 1938 Munich Conference, without Soviet participation, German annexation of part of Czechoslovakia: At September 1938 Munich Conference Hitler's fierce anti-Soviet rhetoric was one of the reasons that Britain and France decided that Soviet participation in the 1938 Munich Conference on Czechoslovakia would be both dangerous and useless. In the Munich Agreement that followed the conference agreed to a German annexation of part of Czechoslovakia in late 1938, but in early 1939 it had been completely dissolved. The policy of appeasement toward Germany was conducted by the governments of British PM Neville Chamberlain and French PM Édouard Daladier. The policy immediately raised the question of whether the Soviet Union could avoid being next on Hitler's list. The Soviet leadership believed that the West wanted to encourage German aggression in the East and to stay neutral in a war initiated by NSDAP ruled German empire in the hope that Germany and the Soviet Union would wear each other out and put an end to both regimes. - The October/November 1917 'Decree on Peace', written by Vladimir Lenin, and passed by the emerging 'Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' deputies, proposing an immediate withdrawal of Russia from World War I, was never withdrawn
23 August 1939 'Treaty of Non-Aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics': 23 août 1939 traité de non-agression entre l'Allemagne et l'Union soviétique, qui proclamait un renoncement au conflit entre les deux pays ainsi qu'une position de neutralité dans le cas où l'un des deux pays signataires était attaqué par une tierce partie. Chaque signataire promit de ne pas rassembler de forces qui seraient 'directement ou indirectement dirigées contre l'autre partie'.
History of Medyka town: History of Medyka town, as during the invasion of Poland in September 1939 the Polish 23rd Observation Escadrille was stationed in Medyka, and as German empire's invaders came later in their beginning World War II 1939-1945. Meanwhile the village was occupied by the Soviet Union - ahead of NSDAP ruled German empire's invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, planned and prepared by the German High Command since July 1940 - under which it was annexed to the newly formed Drohobych Oblast of the Ukrainian SSR. From 1941, it was occupied by Nazi Germany, and from 1944 again by the not defeated Soviet Union. It was eventually restored to Poland in 1948 during a revision of borders.
26 February 2022 'for Ukraine's refugees, Europe opens doors that were shut to others': 26 February 2022: 'For Ukraine's refugees, Europe opens doors that were shut to others', as 'New York Times' Lara Jakes reports, and as Washington's 'Al Jazeera' correspondent Kimberly Halkett came in late March 2022 to the small European village to report on the 2022 Ukrainian refugee crisis
March 2022 Medyka welcomes refugees escaping Russian regime's war crimes in Ukraine: 16 March 2022: Polish border town Medyka - a primary crossing point for refugees - welcomes refugees from Ukraine, but will itself need help, as mayor of Medyka says ‘these refugees have lost almost everything. We need to help them. Even if that means we’ll have to learn to live with less’


Demographics, demographic history and ethnic groups in Poland: Demographics of Poland - Demographic history of Poland
Ethnic groups in Poland: Ethnic groups in Poland - Ethnic minorities in Poland
Jews and history of the Jews in Poland: History of the Jews in Poland - History of the Jews in 20th-century Poland - 1921 there were 2,845,364 Jews living in the Second Polish Republic, by late 1938 that number has grown to approximately 3,310,000 mainly through migration from Ukraine and the Soviet Russia, from amongst the 6 million Polish citizens who perished during the German occupation of Poland in World War II, roughly half (or 3 million) were Polish Jews murdered at the Nazi-Germany's extermination camps of Auschwitz, Treblinka, Majdanek, Belzec, Sobibór, and Chelmno, others died of starvation and maltreatment in the ghettos, only about 50,000–120,000 Polish Jews survived the war on native soil
2014/2015: 25 October 2014: With the newly built Museum of the History of Polish Jews, Poland, on whose soil Nazi Germany carried out the darkest acts of the Holocaust, is starting to re-connect with its other role in Jewish history as a home for 1,000 years to one of the world's biggest Jewish communities - 23 May 2015: Polish regulation to compensate 20,000 Holocaust survivors in a new pension program providing monthly payments of $130 to Polish-born Jews and non-Jews who suffered hardships under the Nazis in World War II
April 2018: 28 April 2018: In Krakow, Jews celebrate their community’s 'revival’ amid rising xenophobia
August 2019: 8 August 2019: Poland’s chief rabbi Michael Schudrich criticized the Duda government’s decision to honor World War II ultra-nationalist fighters and called his invitation to the event a 'personal insult'
Romani people in Poland and Polska Roma: Romani people in Poland - Polska Roma are the largest and one of the oldest ethnolinguistic sub group of Romani people living in Poland - Bergitka Roma
Belarusian minority in Poland: Belarusian minority in Poland
German minority in Poland: German minority in Poland
Silesians: Silesians are the inhabitants of Silesia, a region divided by the current boundaries of Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic, and are considered to belong to a Polish ethnographic group, speaking a dialect of Polish
Ukrainians in Poland: Ukrainians in Poland
May 2016 around one million Ukrainians work in Poland: 22 May 2016: As around one million Ukrainians work in Poland, Ukrainian Workers' Trade Union to be set up in Warsaw
Vietnamese people in Poland: Vietnamese people in Poland, forming one of the ethnic minorities in Poland, the third-largest Vietnamese community in the European Union, after Vietnamese people in France and Germany
Immigration to Poland and 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Immigration to Poland - 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis - 14 November 2015: Poland's new government will no longer accept migrants under European Union quotas after Friday's terror attacks in Paris - 2 December 2015: Detain refugees arriving in Europe for 18 months, Poland's European council president Tusk says
Languages and culture of Poland: Culture of Poland - Languages of Poland - Polish language
Music of Poland: Music of Poland
Women in Poland: Women in Poland
Women's rights in Poland: Women's rights in Poland
Education in Poland: Education in Poland - History of education in Poland
Schools in Poland: Schools in Poland
Universities and colleges in Poland: Universities and colleges in Poland - List of universities in Poland - Timeline of Polish science and technology
Museums in Poland: Museums in Poland
National Museum of Poland: 'National Museum of Poland' is the common name for several of the country's largest and most notable museums
World War II museums in Poland: World War II museums in Poland
Museum of World War II in Gdansk: Museum of World War II in Gdansk - Homepage of the 'Museum of the Second World War' - Educational projects of the 'Museum of the Second World War'
2016/2017: 21 December 2016: Minister of Culture and National Heritage refuses to comply with the Provincial Administrative Court’s decision suspending the merger of museums - 24 January 2017: Fate of Polish WWII museum unclear amid battle over history, as Director Pawel Machcewicz says 'it’s very unusual for the creation of a historical exhibit to encounter such huge pressure from the government'
POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews: POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews on the site of the former Warsaw Ghetto 1940-1943 - Jewish Historical Institute, a research foundation in Warsaw primarily dealing with the history of Jews in Poland - Ringelblum Archive
June 2019 Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum: 22 June 2019: After the victims of German war crimes were forced to suffer the same fate, Holocaust historians divided over Warsaw ghetto museum
9 January 2020 Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel over snub: 9 January 2020: Polish president pulls out of Holocaust event in Israel to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz over snub, after being told he would not be allowed to speak at the event, but Russian regime’s war criminal Vladimir Putin
22 January 2023 lost photos from Warsaw Ghetto Uprising reveal horror of Jews’ last stand: 22 January 2023: Lost photos from Warsaw Ghetto Uprising taken by Polish firefighter who risked life to record how Jews fought the Nazis despite impossible odds reveal horror of their last stand. Holocaust historians say the imperfect pictures, discovered last month in a Polish attic decades after their creator died, are nonetheless priceless. They are the only known photographs from inside the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising not to be taken by Germans. The photographs will form part of an exhibition devoted to the 80th anniversary of the uprising in 2023, to be held in April at Warsaw’s POLIN museum of Jewish history
18 April 2023 - 8 January 2024 exhibition 'Around Us a Sea of Fire. The Fate of Jewish Civilians During the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising': 18 April 2023 - 8 January 2024 the 'Museum of the History of Polish Jews' in cooperation with the Holocaust Research Center organizes an exhibition 'Around Us a Sea of Fire. The Fate of Jewish Civilians During the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising' to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
Commemorative events 16-20 April 2023 on the 80th anniversary of the outbreak of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Program of commemorative events 16-20 April 2023 on the 80th anniversary of the outbreak of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, including a visit to the Monument to the Ghetto Heroes 9/11 Zamenhofa Street, further including a meeting with Hena Kuczer (Krystyna Budnicka), who was 11 years old at the time of the Uprising, and is today one of the last living survivors from the Warsaw ghetto (during the meeting, she will talk about her experiences as a civilian in hiding in the ghetto during the Uprising), further including a 'Remembering Together' concert of the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra in Tel Aviv, also including a 'Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Campaign' in schools, libraries and institutions of culture, and a further 'Remembering Together' concert of the Sinfonia Varsovia orchestra performing a premiere of the piano concerto titled For Josima with Hania Rani as a soloist, inspired by the music written and performed in the Warsaw ghetto by teenage pianist and composer Josima Feldschuh, and a Concertino for Piano and Orchestra composed by Wladyslaw Szpilman in the ghetto
19 avril 2023 á Varsovie, enfants et petits-enfants des juifs du ghetto sur les traces de leur histoire familiale: 19 avril 2023: À Varsovie, enfants et petits-enfants des juifs du ghetto sur les traces de leur histoire familiale. Des descendants des 400 000 juifs du ghetto de Varsovie, presque tous assassinés par l'Allemagne nazie, viennent à la rencontre de leur tragique histoire familiale, et s’interrogent aussi sur la lutte contre l’antisémitisme d’aujourd’hui.
Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum: Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum, a memorial and museum in Oswiecim, which includes the German concentration camps Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II-Birkenau and is devoted to the memory of the murders in both camps during World War II
Warsaw Uprising Museum: Warsaw Uprising Museum, dedicated to the Warsaw Uprising of 1944
Health in Poland: Health in Poland
Medical outbreaks and man-made disasters in Poland: Medical outbreaks in Poland - Disasters and man-made disasters in Poland
Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Poland: Since March 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Poland
22 April 2020 covid-19 infections surpassed 10,000 in Poland: 22 April 2020: Showing highest number in post-soviet central Europe, confirmed covid-19 infections surpassed 10,000 in Poland and some 16-17% of the infections were medical workers, now slowly easing restrictions on public life ahead of a presidential election set for May 10, as Poland has reported 404 deaths
Healthcare in Poland: Healthcare in Poland - Medical and health organisations based in Poland
Hospitals in Poland: Hospitals in Poland - List of hospitals in Poland
Since 1977 Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw: Since 1977 Children's Memorial Health Institute in Warsaw - 1878-1942 Bersohn and Bauman Children's Hospital in Warsaw, between 1905 and 1912 Janusz Korczak worked in the hospital as a pediatrician
Coal and environment of Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Media of Poland: Media of Poland - Lists of Polish media - Media in Poland by city
Newspapers in Poland: List of newspapers in Poland
Broadcasting in Poland: Broadcasting in Poland
2016 protests against state control of public broadcasting: 10 January 2016: Thousands on the streets of Poland across the country condemning new media law as government power grab - 11 January 2016: At various centres, Polish journalists protest at state control of public broadcasting
Internet in Poland: Internet in Poland
April 2018: 29 April 2018: Facebook removes Polish nationalist pages for anti-Semitic content
May 2019: 17 mai 2019: Facebook a fermé en Pologne 27 pages diffusant des fausses nouvelles ou des contenus haineux, à l'approche des élections européennes, a annoncé l'ONG de cybermilitantisme Avaaz
Cinema of Poland: Cinema of Poland
Lists of Polish films by decade: Lists of Polish films by decade
September 2019 Wanda Jakubowska’s film 'The Last Stage’: 13 September 2019: Seventy years after its Tel Aviv premiere, Wanda Jakubowska’s Polish film 'The Last Stage’ is being shown in Israel once again, one of first feature films about the Holocaust, the first to be filmed at Auschwitz
History of religion in Poland: History of religion in Poland - Religion in Poland - History of the Jews in Poland - Christianity in Poland - History of Christianity in Poland - Islam in Poland - Buddhism in Poland - Hinduism in Poland
Secularism and freedom of religion in Poland: Secularism in Poland - Freedom of religion according to the constitution of Poland
April 2019 anti-Semitic Easter ritual: 23 April 2019: 'The Catholic Church will never tolerate manifestations of contempt towards members of any nation, including the Jewish people', Polish bishop Rafal Markowski announced, after residents, among them children, hanged, beat and burned an effigy of Judas, represented by a stereotypical Jew, in southeast Poland's town of Pruchnik on Good Friday, a tradition practised since 18th century and today in some other villages
18 December 2020 Jewish woman wins case against Polish church over land stolen after Holocaust: 18 December 2020: Poland’s Supreme Court ruled this week in favor of an Australian Jewish woman locked in battle with the Polish church over her family’s ancestral plot of land near Krakow, which she said was stolen by neighbors and handed over to the parish illegally after the Holocaust, as court’s Chamber of Extraordinary Control and Public Rights upheld a six-year-old ruling in favor of Ann Drillich, who has been battling Polish religious authorities for years
Roman Catholic church sex abuse cases in Poland: Roman Catholic chruch sex abuse cases in Poland
May 2013: 16 May 2013: Two French journalists invited to an interview with a Polish priest, who is being investigated for alleged child abuse, were briefly held against their will by the priest
May 2019: 17 May 2019: Poland has raised jail terms for convicted paedophiles to a maximum of 30 years after a groundbreaking documentary on child sexual abuse among Polish priests prompted public outrage
Crime in Poland: Crime in Poland
Since 1939 German invasion and World War II crimes in Poland: Since 1939 German invasion, occupation and World War II crimes in Poland
Corruption in Poland: Corruption in Poland - surveys of Polish citizens reveal that corruption is perceived to be a major problem - Police corruption in Poland
Since 2002 Lew Rywin affair: Rywin affair was a corruption scandal in Poland, which began in late 2002 when Lew Rywin called in at the office of Adam Michnik, editor of Poland's largest daily newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza, offering in exchange for a bribe of 17.5 million USD to arrange for a change in a draft law aimed at limiting the print media's influence on radio and television
2002-2004 Orlengate: 2002-2004 Orlengate
2006/2007: Oleksy tapes
Racism and antisemitism in Poland: Racism in Poland, existing in a variety of forms over the course of its history as the Polish people themselves have been the victims of anti-Polish racism under the German Empire and during World War II - Antisemitism in Poland
Since 1918: Antisemitism in Poland since the re-recreation of the independent Polish state in 1918
1939-1945: 10 February 2017: Drawing on Polish, Jewish and German records from the war and postwar periods, historian Jan Grabowski was able to document Poland's local population’s involvement in turning over and murdering the Jews who sought their help, but also the heroism of Poles who tried to rescue their Jewish neighbors and sometimes paid for it with their lives
1944-1946 anti-Jewish violence in Poland: Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–1946
November 2015 burning of an effigy of a Jewish citizen: 19 November 2015: A Polish demonstration against taking in Muslim refugees ended with the burning of an effigy of an ultra-Orthodox Jew holding the flag of the European Union
November 2017 anti-Semitic chants calling for a 'Jew free' Poland: 13 November 2017: Anti-Semitic chants calling for a 'Jew free' Poland were among the racist epithets shouted by tens of thousands of far-right nationalists who marched Saturday in Warsaw to mark 99 years of the country’s independence, while counter-protesters rallied against fascism
January 2018 new bill against blaming Poles for crimes of the Holocaust: 27 January 2018: Amid escalating tensions between Israel and Poland over a new bill passed in the lower house of Poland’s parliament, which would outlaw blaming Poles for crimes of the Holocaust, the World Holocaust Remembrance Center Yad Vashem said that 'while the term 'Polish death camps' is a historical misrepresentation', new Polish legislation may 'blur historical truths' on the help Germans received from Poles in Holocaust - 28 January 2018: Chairman of guides organization leading Holocaust tours asks for clarification regarding the legislation, which criminalizes holding Poles responsible for Nazi crimes
April 2019 anti-Semitic effigy hanged and burned in Polish Pruchnik as part of an Easter ritual: 22 April 2019: 'Disturbed by this ghastly revival of medieval anti-Semitism', the World Jewish Congress expressed its 'disgust and outrage' following reports that an effigy made to look like a stereotypical Jew was hanged and burned in the Polish town of Pruchnik as part of an Easter ritual, as residents including children beat and burned the effigy representing Judas, the discipline of Christ who betrayed him according to the New Testament, given a brimmed hat and sidelocks, making it resemble an ultra-Orthodox Jew, along with a long nose, a trope used by Nazi Germany and by anti-Semites worldwide to demonize and dehumanize Jews
19 December 2020 Polish society shunned Jewish survivors returning from death camps according to Polish historian Krzyzanowski: 19 December 2020: Polish society shunned Jewish survivors returning from death camps, as in study Polish historian Lukasz Krzyzanowski delves into postwar Radom, where Jews found new residents living in their stolen homes, and little empathy from the public
Hooliganism and riots in Poland: Football hooliganism in Poland - 11 November 2013: Polish independence day march in Warsaw marred by rioting young nationalists
Human trafficking in Poland: Human trafficking in Poland
Law and legal history of Poland: Law of Poland - Legal history of Poland - Constitutions of Poland - 1997 Constitution of Poland
1946-1948 Supreme National Tribunal: The Supreme National Tribunal was a war crime tribunal active in Poland from 1946 to 1948
1947 Auschwitz trial in Kraków: 1947 Auschwitz trial in Kraków, when Polish authorities (the Supreme National Tribunal) tried 40 former staff of the Auschwitz concentration camps built and operated by the German empire
Since 1982/1986 Constitutional Tribunal: Constitutional Tribunal since 1982/1986, the constitutional court established to resolve disputes on the constitutionality of the activities of state institutions, its main task is to supervise the compliance of statutory law with the Constitution of the Republic of Poland
Since 2015 Polish Constitutional Court crisis: Since 2015 Polish Constitutional Court crisis - National Council of the Judiciary, responsible for nominating judges and reviewing ethical complaints against sitting jurists - 12 July 2017: New law undermines the independence of the judiciary, rights group says
Judiciary and courts of Poland: Judiciary of Poland - Regional Courts
April 2019 anti-Semitic Easter ritual: 24 April 2019: The attorney general in the Polish province of Jaroslaw has reportedly opened a criminal investigation into an anti-Semitic ritual enacted over the Easter holiday that involved an effigy of Judas represented by a stereotypical Jew being hanged, beaten and set alight, known as 'Judgment over Judas' dating back to the 18th century and continued to be regularly performed until the Second World War and the Holocaust, then´largely abandoned with only a couple of villages continuing it, Pruchnik in south-eastern Poland
Supreme Court of Poland: Supreme Court of Poland, the court of last resort of appeal against judgements in the lower courts, supervises the adjudication in district, regional, and appeal courts in the areas of civil, criminal, family and labour law, and in military courts (circuit and garrison courts)
July 2018 supreme court's Malgorzata Gersdorf: 4 July 2018: Polish supreme court's Malgorzata Gersdorf has turned up for work in defiance of a retirement law which has been pushed through by the government but criticised by the EU for undermining judicial independence
18 December 2020 Jewish woman wins case against Polish church over land stolen after Holocaust: 18 December 2020: Poland’s Supreme Court ruled this week in favor of an Australian Jewish woman locked in battle with the Polish church over her family’s ancestral plot of land near Krakow, which she said was stolen by neighbors and handed over to the parish illegally after the Holocaust, as court’s Chamber of Extraordinary Control and Public Rights upheld a six-year-old ruling in favor of Ann Drillich, who has been battling Polish religious authorities for years
Law enforcement in Poland: Law enforcement in Poland
Foreign relations of Poland: Foreign relations of Poland
Treaties of Poland: Treaties of Poland
Poland's membership international organisations: Poland's membership international organisations
Poland/United Nations relations, membership since 1945: Poland's ambassadors to the United Nations
2013 UN Climate Change Conference in Warsaw: 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Warsaw from 11 to 22 November - 11 November 2013: Poland, a top EU polluter, hosts UN climate summit aiming to map out the main points of an ambitious global agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions to be signed 2015 - 14 November: November 'Coal summit' in Warsaw stokes trouble at UN climate talks - 20 November 2013: Polish environment minister sacked as he chairs UN climate talks - 21 November: The second-last day of the global climate change conference in Warsaw has seen 800 NGO delegates walk out of the talks over a lack of progress - 24 November 2013: At the UN climate talks in Warsaw, rich and poor nations agree to commit to the reduction of greenhouse gases, waiting for a final deal in Paris in 2015
Since 1991 Poland member of the Council of Europe: Council of Europe
Poland and the European Union, since 2004 membership: Poland and the European Union
2003/2004 Polish EU membership referendum: 2003 Polish European Union membership referendum, accession approved by 77.6% of voters - 2004 Accession of Poland to the European Union
Since 2015 reactions to the Polish Constitutional Court crisis: Since 2015 EU and international reaction to the Polish Constitutional Court crisis
2016 EU inquiry: 13 January 2016: European commission launches unprecedented inquiry in response to controversial Polish legislation that puts more power into the hands of the government
March 2017: 13 March 2017: Poland's government has accused the EU of 'cheating' and announced a 'negative' policy towards Brussels after losing a diplomatic campaign to oust its own former PM Tusk as European council president - 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom
July 2017 efforts to reverse curbs on judicial freedom: 23 July 2017: EU will hit Poland with deadline to reverse curbs on judicial freedom
November 2018 Warsaw's mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz banned radical Polish nationalists from marching: 8 November 2018: Warsaw's mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz banned radical Polish nationalists from marching on the 100th anniversary of Poland’s independence due to security concerns, followed by plans for an inclusive event Sunday that could be embraced by all citizens - 13 November 2018: Poland’s centennial celebration was stained by fear and hatred, as behind president and ordinary citizens thousands of nationalists carried horrifying symbols
19 October 2021 Polish PM escalates war of words with EU over rule of law: 19 October 2021: Poland’s PM Mateusz Morawiecki has clashed with the European Commission and MEPs after accusing EU institutions of seeking to turn the country into a province, in an escalation of the battle between Warsaw and Brussels over the rule of law
Bilateral relations of Poland: Bilateral relations of Poland
Poland/Austria relations: Poland/Austria relations
Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale: Since 1769 Austrian occupation of Spiš and Podhale
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Austrian Partition: Since 1772 Austrian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Poland/Belarus relations: Poland/Belarus relations
Polish minority in Belarus: The Polish minority in Belarus numbers officially about 300,000 in 2009, forming the second largest ethnic minority in the country after the Russians, at around 3% of the total population
Belarusian minority in Poland: The Belarusian minority in Poland is composed of 47,000 people in 2011, most of them living in the Podlaskie Voivodeship
20 September 2021 Poland accused Russia and Belarus of orchestrating a wave of illegal immigration: 20 September 2021: Poland accused Russia and Belarus of orchestrating a wave of illegal immigration at its land border, a day after four migrants were found dead at its Belarusian frontier, as thousands have been trying to cross from Belarus into EU members Latvia, Lithuania and Poland in recent weeks, and as EU suspects the influx of people mostly from the Middle East is being orchestrated by Belarusian autocratic Lukashenko in retaliation for sanctions on his regime
Poland/Brazil relations: Poland/Brazil relations
Polish Brazilians: Polish Brazilians, referring to Brazilians of full or partial Polish ancestry, arriving in Brazil in the late 19th century, and today 1,800,000–3 million people
1978 Poland's extradition request for war criminal Wagner rejected: Late 1930s—1945 Austrian member of the SS Gustav Franz Wagner, a starter deputy commander of the Sobibór extermination camp in German-occupied Poland, where more than 200,000 Jews were gassed during Operation Reinhard, known as 'The Beast' due to his brutality, sentenced to death in absentia after the war, but escaped with Franz Stangl to Brazil where he lived undisturbed until he was exposed by Simon Wiesenthal and arrested on 30 May 1978, but extradition requests from Israel, Austria, and Poland were rejected by Brazil's Attorney General Henrique Fonseca de Araújo, father of the current Brazilian chancellor Ernesto Araújo who was appointed by President Jair Bolsonaro in January 2019, the BBC interviewed Wagner in 1979
Brazilian-Polish trade relationsBrazilian-Polish trade relations, as Brazil is Poland's main trading partner in Latin-America
Poland/Czech Republic relations: Poland/Czech Republic relations
Poland/Denmark relations: Poland/Denmark relations
Poland/France relations: Poland/France relations
Poland/Germany relations: Poland/Germany relations
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Prussian Partition: Since 1772 Prussian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Aftermath of the First World War: Aftermath of the First World War
1939-1945 German invasion of Poland 1939 and World War II: German invasion of Poland 1939, the beginning of World War II - War crimes in occupied Poland during World War II, called 'Schmutzstrecke' by German war criminals as for instance quartermaster-general Eduard Wagner - 'Germanisation' under Nazi Germany
1939-1945 World War II and the Holocaust in Poland: The Holocaust in Poland - Warsaw Ghetto - 18 October 2014: Polish lawyer Raphael Lemkin, who in 1943 coined 'Genocide' in 1943 spent his life trying to stop it
19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 19 April 1943 – 16 May 1943 - Ringelblum Archive, a collection of documents from the World War II Warsaw Ghetto, collected and preserved by the group 'Oyneg Shabbos', which included historians, writers, rabbis and social workers, dedicated to chronicling life in the Ghetto during the Nazi occupation and started in September 1939 and ended in January 1943 - Ghetto uprisings
1939-1945 Polish resistance movement against German assault and occupation: 1939-1945 Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance in all of Nazi-occupied Europe
August-October 1944 Warsaw Uprising: Warsaw Uprising 1 August – 2 October 1944
2013: 20 January 2013: For first time, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising diaries unveiled - 28 March 2013: German ZDF television drama about the Second World War has sparked outrage in Poland for trying to spread responsibility for the Holocaust - 1 April 2013: Cutting-edge 3D film 'Warszawa 1935' revives a Warsaw lost to war - 8 April: Thousands from across the globe marched solemnly at the former Nazi Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp to honour the six million Jews killed in the Holocaust during World War II
2017: 25 October 2017: Polish bill governing compensation denies compensation for most Holocaust survivors, families
Poland/Israel relations: Poland/Israel relations - History of the Jews in Poland - Poland was a centre of Jewish culture thanks to a long period of statutory religious tolerance and social autonomy ending with the Partitions of Poland which began in 1772
1939-1945 German war crimes and the Holocaust in occupied Poland during World War II: German war crimes in occupied Poland during World War II 1939-1945 - Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland - The Holocaust in occupied Poland 1939-1945 - Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
October 1940 to May 1943 Warsaw Ghetto: 1940-1943 Warsaw Ghetto, the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II, the death toll among the Jewish inhabitants of the Ghetto, between starvation, disease, deportations to extermination camps, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, and the subsequent razing of the ghetto, is estimated to be at least 300,000
1944–1946: Anti-Jewish violence in Poland, 1944–46 - Kielce Pogrom against the Jewish community July 1946
2013: 2 October 2013: Hundreds of Polish and Israeli high-school students paid homage to the victims of the former Nazi death camp of Treblinka in a memorial event seeking to connect Israeli youths with today's Poland and expose Polish youths to Jewish history
2018: 1 February 2018: Israel condemns passing of Polish Holocaust law, as politicians and Yad Vashem voice outrage - 1 February 2018: Yad Vashem criticized the Polish Senate’s approval of a contentious Polish Holocaust bill that would outlaw blaming the Polish state or nation for crimes of the Holocaust committed in Poland and vowed to continue supporting research into the 'Polish population’s attitudes toward Jews during the Holocaust' - 8 February 2018: Holocaust survivors entered the Polish embassy compound in Tel Aviv protesting the Polish complicity bill - 10 February 2018: Adviser Andrzej Zybertowicz to Poland's president says that Israel's reaction to a law criminalizing some statements about Poland's actions during World War II stems from a 'feeling of shame at the passivity of the Jews during the Holocaust', in a new version of victim blaming - 18 February 2018: Netanyahu slams Holocaust remark by Polish PM in Munich, who said - questioned by journalist Ronen Bergman who told of his mother's narrow escape from the Gestapo in Poland after learning that neighbours were planning to denounce them - that the Holocaust had involved 'Jewish perpetrators' as well as Polish, as the audience at the Munich Security Conference stayed quiet, according to Haaretz correspondent Noa Landau
February 2019: 15 February 2019: Poland moves to end spat with Israel over PM comments, blames media manipulation, as PM Netanyahu denied suggestions of going along with historical revisionism, stating 'Here I am saying Poles cooperated with the Nazis. I know the history and I don’t whitewash it'
September 2019 Polish president blames Israel for anti-Semitic incidents: 27 September 2019: Polish president's blaming Israel for anti-Semitic incidents in his own country reportedly provoked a shocked and angry response by several participants at meeting with Jewish leaders in New York
14 January 2020 Polish Jewish community backs president’s decision to skip Holocaust event in Jerusalem: 14 January 2020: Calling Russian Putin regime's attempt to blame Poles for cooperation with Hitler 'a provocation', Poland’s largest Jewish communal group expressed its support for Polish president Duda’s decision to withdraw from Holocaust memorial event in Jerusalem on 23 January after being left off speakers’ list and as representatives of France, Germany (!), Russia, the UK, the USA would all speak at the memorial
22 January 2020 Auschwitz Museum's Piotr Cywinski slams holding of World Holocaust Forum in Jerusalem: 22 January 2020: Director of Auschwitz Museum Piotr Cywinski slams holding of World Holocaust Forum in Jerusalem accusing organizers of trying to replace annual ceremony in Poland, as Jerusalem event co-organized by people in Israel influenced by Moscow-born Moshe Kantor, who is said to be close to Russian regime's war criminal Vladimir Putin, allied with Hezbollah terrorists, Iranian and Syrian regime
Poland/Lebanon relations: 10 May 2005: Relations between Lebanon and Poland
2015: 1 December 2015: 'Is the life of a Beirut citizen worth less than the life of a Paris resident', Polish expert Margarita Sytnik says discussing terrorist threats
Poland/Lithuania relations: Poland/Lithuania relations - Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1795 - Third Partition of Poland - Polish–Lithuanian War 1919-1920 - Polish–Lithuanian relations during World War II
Poland/Russia relations: Poland/Russia relations
18th century three partitions of Poland: Towards the end of the 18th century three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years, and conducted by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Commonwealth lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures
1772-1795: 1772 First Partition of Poland - 1793 Second Partition of Poland - 1795 Third Partition of Poland
Since 1772 Russian Partition: Since 1772 Russian Partition
1795–1918 History of Poland: History of Poland 1795–1918 - 1815–1867/1915 Congress Poland or Russian Poland, created by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, until 1832 a state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire, in 1867 made an official part of the Russian Empire, and in 1915 replaced by the Central Powers during World War I with the proposed puppet state 'Regency Kingdom of Poland'
Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath: Since 1914-1918 Central Powers (including Germany, Austria-Hungary) First World War and aftermath
1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union: 1939-1947 Poles in the Soviet Union
1939-2020 'Deported. Exiled. Saved. History and Memory of Polish Jews in the Soviet Union (1939–1959)': 29 December 2020: Herman 'Likwornik would have been one of about 230,000 Polish Jews who survived the Holocaust by reaching the Soviet Union ..., the largest group of Polish Jews to survive the Holocaust, yet historians have paid scant attention to their ordeals', co-editor Katharina Friedla of an upcoming book about this group of survivors called 'Deported. Exiled. Saved. History and Memory of Polish Jews in the Soviet Union (1939–1959)', says
2013 Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to EU: 17 December 2013: Russia moves nuclear-capable missiles closer to European Union
2014/2015 USA's commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine: 23 April 2014: USA is deploying 600 troops to Poland and the Baltics to highlight its commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine - 29 April: The Visegrad Group foreign ministers of Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary condemn Russia's aggression against Ukraine
2016 Polish FM says Eastern Ukraine witnesses Russian aggression against another state and not a civil war: 16 February 2016: Eastern Ukraine witnesses Russian aggression against another state and not a civil war, Polish FM Witold Waszczykowski told the Munich Security Conference
2017 rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea held near the Russian Embassy: 1 March 2017: Rally of solidarity with the political prisoners in Crimea was held near the Russian Embassy in Warsaw
Poland/Syria relations:
2014/2015: 2014/2015 European and international refugee and migrant crisis - 12 July 2015: 158 Syrian Christians who landed in Warsaw on Friday night are happy that they can start anew, but some fear for the families they left behind - 14 November 2015: Poland's new government will no longer accept migrants under European Union quotas after Friday's terror attacks in Paris
Poland/Ukraine relations: Poland/Ukraine relations - Ukrainians in Poland - History of the Ukrainian minority in Poland - Poles in Ukraine
1943-1944: 1943-1944 Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia carried out in Nazi German-occupied Poland by the UPA
2013: 11 July 2013: Poland unveils Volyn WWII massacre memorial
2014: 29 April 2014: Poland opens consulate general in Donetsk - 22 September: Poland ready to export weapons to Ukraine - 28 November: Poland ratifies Association Agreement between Ukraine and EU - 23 December: Ukraine will be a member of NATO and the EU if the country meets alliance standards and if Ukrainian citizens wish so, Polish Defense Minister Tomasz Siemoniak says
2016: 22 May 2016: As around one million Ukrainians work in Poland, Ukrainian Workers' Trade Union to be set up in Warsaw
Poland/United Kingdom relations: Poland/United Kingdom relations
18th century, 19th and the beginning 20th century: Poland/United Kingdom relations in the 18th, 19th and the beginning 20th century
Since March/August 1939 Anglo-Polish agreement and military alliance: April/August 1939 Anglo-Polish agreement and military alliance for mutual assistance in case of military invasion from Germany
Since 1939 Polish government-in-exile: Polish government-in-exile, since 1940 in London - Since 1946 Federation of Poles in Great Britain
Since 1945, since 2004 Polish migration to the United Kingdom: Polish migration to the United Kingdom is the temporary or permanent settlement of Polish people, arriving in the UK after the 2004 enlargement of the EU and making them the largest foreign-born group in the country, as of 2015 the number of UK residents born in Poland was estimated at 831,000 and there is a wider population of British Poles, including the descendants of over 200,000 immigrants who settled in the UK after World War II
Poland/USA relations: Poland/USA relations
2014: 24 January 2014: Poland to look into new allegations about secret CIA jail - 23 April 2014: USA is deploying 600 troops to Poland and the Baltics to highlight its commitment to NATO allies amid tensions with Russia over Ukraine
2015: 22 April 2015: Poland to build missile defense with USA - 13 June 2015: USA is hampering Poland’s investigation into a secret CIA prison by snubbing repeated requests for vital documents, including a Senate report detailing CIA prison locations and practices, Polish prosecutor says
April 2019: 22 April 2019: USA ambassador to Poland Georgette Mosbacher on Friday wished Jews a happy Passover in Polish, and also wished Poles a happy Easter on Sunday, but lawmaker in ruling party calls her blessings to Jewish community a ‘provocation', while organizer of yearly Independence Day march that government leaders joined last year decries 'pagans and traitorous Jews', saying 'Christ died and was resurrected also for you, pagans and traitorous Jews'
May 2019: 12 May 2019: Thousands of Polish nationalists marched to the USA Embassy in Warsaw Saturday, protesting that the USA is putting pressure on Poland to compensate Jews whose families lost property during the Holocaust
Poland/Vietnam relations: Poland/Vietnam relations since 1950
Vietnamese people in Poland: Vietnamese people in Poland, estimated to be between 30,000-40,000 forming the largest non European migrant community in Poland
Environment of Poland: Environment of Poland - Natural history of Poland
Protected areas of Poland: Protected areas of Poland - Biosphere reserves of Poland - Landscape parks in Poland
Environmental issues and environmentalism in Poland: Environmentalism in Poland
Coal and the environment in Poland: Coal and the environment in Poland
Water in Poland: Water in Poland
Natural disasters in Poland: Natural disasters in Poland - Weather events in Poland
Floods in Poland: Floods in Poland - 2010 Central European floods - 2013 European floods
Storms in Poland: 15 July 2012: One person killed and at least 10 others injured during a series of freak tornadoes in northern and western Poland
Cold waves in Poland: 9 January 2017: Ten people have died in Poland as bitterly cold weather swept across Europe, bringing the toll number of hypothermia deaths in the country to 65 since November


Portugal - Geography of Portugal - History of Portugal - Portuguese Empire (from the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999) - Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1974 - Demographics of Portugal
Economy of Portugal: Economy of Portugal - main industries include textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, dairy products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, building materials - Economic history of Portugal - Companies of Portugal by industry 21th century
Mining and mines in Portugal: Mining in Portugal - Mines in Portugal - Since 1988 Neves-Corvo mine, a zinc-copper mine in Castro Verde Municipality - Minas da Panasqueira, a set of mining operations between Cabeço do Piăo and the village of Panasqueira
Energy in Portugal: Energy in Portugal
Fossil fuels in Portugal: Fossil fuels in Portugal - Oil and gas companies of Portugal
Electricity sector in Portugal: Electricity sector in Portugal, in 2014 electricity was generated by 30% hydroelectricity, 27% natural gas, 22% wind, 20% coal and 1% solar - List of power stations in Portugal
Hydroelectric power stations in Portugal: List of hydroelectric power stations in Portugal
Wind power in Portugal: Wind power in Portugal
Agriculture in Portugal: Agriculture in Portugal - products include cereals, grapes and wine, fruits, oranges, cherries, horticulture and floriculture products, beet sugar, sunflower oil, cork, tobacco, fish
Portuguese wine: Portuguese wine
Forestry in Portugal: Forestry in Portugal - Forests of Portugal
Fishing in Portugal: Fishing in Portugal
Water in Portugal: Water in Portugal
Rivers of Portugal: List of rivers of Portugal
Transport in Portugal: Transport in Portugal
Water transport in Portugal: Water transport in Portugal - Ports and harbours of Portugal - Port of Lisbon - Shipping companies of Portugal
Rail transport in Portugal: Rail transport in Portugal
Road transport in Portugal: Road transport in Portugal
Banking in Portugal: Banking in Portugal
Banco Espírito Santo - 3 August 2014: Portugal's central bank announced a plan to rescue the troubled lender Banco Espirito Santo forming a 'good bank' which will receive a $6.6 bn cash injection from Portugal's bailout fund
2015: 25 July 2015: Former head of collapsed Portugese bank BES Salgado put under house arrest
Economic history of Portugal and economic cycles: Since 20th century economic history of Portugal
2010–14 Portuguese financial and economic crisis (ongoing): European sovereign debt crisis (2010-present) - 2010–14 Portuguese financial crisis
2011-2014 Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal: 2011-2014 Economic Adjustment Programme for Portugal
2012/2013: 16. Mai 2011: EU und IWF Milliardenkredit für Portugal - 23. März 2012: Allein in 2011 haben 150.000 Portugiesen ihr Land verlassen - in den letzten fünf Jahren waren es 500.000 Emigranten - 16. August 2012: Bruttoinlandprodukt im Vergleich mit dem Vorquartal um 1,2% niedriger - schwache Inlandnachfrage - Arbeitslosenquote mit Rekord von 15,0% - 8 November 2013: IMF approves a nearly two-billion-euro loan installment for Portugal
Portuguese military: Since 12th century Portuguese Armed Forces - Military history of Portugal
Wars and battles involving Portugal: List of wars involving Portugal - Battles involving Portugal - Naval battles involving Portugal
Military coups in Portugal: Military coups in Portugal
28 May 1926 military coup d'état: 28 May 1926 coup d'état, military coup ending the Portuguese First Republic and initiating the National Dictatorship, that would last until the Carnation Revolution in 1974
Since 1941 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side: Since 1941 Portuguese volunteers fighting the Soviet Union on the Axis side
Politics of Portugal: Politics of Portugal - Constitutions of Portugal since 1911, preceded by constitutions of 1822, following the Liberal Revolution of 1820, and 1838 after the Liberal Wars - 1976 Constitution of Portugal
Political parties in Portugal: Political parties in Portugal
Trade unions in Portugal: Trade unions in Portugal
1961-1974 Portuguese Colonial War in Africa: Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1974 against the emerging movements of independence in Portugal's African colonies
April 1974 Carnation Revolution and third republic: April 1974 Carnation Revolution initiated by military officers who opposed the regime, but soon coupled with an unanticipated and popular campaign of civil resistance, lead to the fall of the fascist 'Estado Novo' and the withdrawal of Portugal from its African colonies - Processo Revolucionário Em Curso - Portuguese transition to democracy - Third Portuguese Republic since 1974
Elections in Portugal since the 1974 'Carnation Revolution': Elections in Portugal since the 'Carnation Revolution' of 1974
April 1975 Portuguese Constituent Assembly election: 25 April 1975 Portuguese Constituent Assembly election
Portuguese legislative election 2011: Portuguese legislative election 2011 - 5. Juni 2011: Niederlage der sozialistischen Partei - 18 June 2011: Prime Minister unveils new 11-member cabinet - 28. Juni 2011: Vorstellung des Sparprogramms der neuen Regierung - 18. Juli 2011: Neues Haushaltsloch - Ankündigung weiterer Sparschritte
2012: 3 October 2012: Portugal outlines tax increases replacing previous plan that had to be abandoned in the face of widespread opposition and anti-austerity protests - 15 October: Government unveils harsh austerity budget
2013: 6 April 2013: Portugal's centre-right government condemned the constitutional court's rejection of the tough 2013 budget, saying that the decision makes it difficult to make budget cuts promised to creditors - 3 May: Portugal is planning to cut 30,000 civil service jobs and to raise the retirement age by one year to 66 - 26 septembre: La Cour constitutionnelle portugaise rejette la simplification des licenciement
June 2015: 2 June 2015: The Portuguese Parliament recently enacted Law 30/2015, aiming to comply with the recommendations addressed to Portugal on corruption by GRECO, UN and OECD, making amendments to several laws
October 2015 Portuguese legislative election: 4 October 2015 Portuguese legislative election - 5 October 2015: Centre-right and pro-austerity coalition retains power but could lose majority, as opposition Socialists of former Lisbon mayor Antonio Costa took 32.4% the vote
November 2015: 11 November 2015: Opposition alliance toppled the country's minority conservative government in a parliamentary vote on Tuesday
January 2016 Portuguese presidential election: 24 January 2016 Portuguese presidential election - 24 January: In Portugal’s presidential election Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa gains 52.4% of the vote to capture the mostly ceremonial post
October 2017 Portuguese local elections: 1 October 2017 Portuguese local elections
October 2017: 19 October 2017: Portugal’s interior minister de Sousa has been replaced amid criticism over the government’s handling of a series of deadly forest fires that have killed more than 100 people in four months
March/April 2019 prison becomes museum of resistance: 31 March 2019: On 27 April 2019, the 45th anniversary of the Peniche fortress prison’s closing, used to hold dissidents under Portugal’s dictatorship, and following the Carnation revolution, the fortress will reopen as the National Museum of Resistance and Freedom
May 2019 European Parliament election in Portugal: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Portugal
September 2019 Madeiran regional election: 22 September 2019 Madeiran regional election
October 2019 Portuguese legislative election: 6 October 2019 Portuguese legislative election - Opinion polling for the 2019 Portuguese legislative election
7 October 2019 socialists won general election: 7 October 2019: Taking 36.65% of the vote, followed by the center-right Social Democrats with 27.9%, PM Antonio Costa’s Socialists won general election marked by low turnout after presiding over a period of solid economic growth following years of austerity
27 October 2019: 27 octobre 2019: Le nouveau gouvernement socialiste portugais, qui a prêté serment samedi, prévoit d'augmenter le salaire minimum de 25% et veut aussi fermer les deux dernières centrales à charbon d'ici à la fin de son mandat de quatre ans
28 September 2020 Portugal records surge in racist violence: 28 September 2020: Portugal records surge in racist violence as neo-fascim linked movement rises and campaigners call for urgent institutional response after attacks and death threats targeting MPs, academics and activists
January 2021 Portuguese presidential election: 24 January 2021 Portuguese presidential election - Candidates of the 2021 Portuguese presidential election, including Ana Gomes (former Socialist Party MEP), André Ventura (CHEGA), Joăo Ferreira (PCP), Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (president since 2016), Marisa Matias (Left Bloc BE MEP) - Opinion polling for the 2021 Portuguese presidential election
24 January 2021 Portuguese going to poll amid global and local crises: 24 janvier 2021: En dépit d’une situation critique sur le plan sanitaire, les Portugais ont commencé à voter dimanche pour une élection présidentielle qui doit sceller la reconduction du candidat sortant, le conservateur modéré Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
September/October 2021 Portuguese local elections: September/October 2021 Portuguese local elections and main parties - Opinion polling for the 2021 Portuguese local elections
26 de Setembro 2021 resultados território nacional: 26 de Setembro 2021 resultados território nacional, PS 34,22%, 1.711.725 votos (2021 Portuguese local elections)
30 January 2022 early Portuguese legislative elections: 30 January 2022 early Portuguese legislative elections to elect members of the Assembly of the Republic as all 230 seats to the Assembly of the Republic will be at stake, after in October 2021 the budget proposed by the Socialist minority government was rejected by the Assembly - Opinion polling for the 2022 Portuguese legislative election - Portuguese politician Catarina Soares Martins, the national coordinator of the Left Bloc since 2012 and a member of the Assembly since 2009, professionally trained as a linguist and active in theater
31 January 2022 Portugal’s ruling Socialists won an outright parliamentary majority: 31 January 2022: Portugal’s ruling Socialists won an outright parliamentary majority in Sunday’s snap general election, securing a strong new mandate for PM Antonio Costa, as the result boosted by a higher than expected turnout despite the covid-19 pandemic
11 August 2022 young adults take Portugal climate crisis to court amid European heatwaves and wildfires: 11 August 2022: Following 2022 European heatwaves and wildfires, young adults take Portugal climate crisis to court, as Cláudia Agostinho, her siblings and cousins will have case heard at European court of human rights
Social movements, trade unions and protests in Portugal: Protests in Portugal
2011: 2011 Portuguese protests - 24 novembre 2011: Le portugal va tourner au ralenti avec une grève générale contre l'austerité
2012: NZZ 22. März 2012: Generalstreik, zu dem der grösste Gewerkschaftsverband CGTP aufgerufen hat, gegen Sparmassnahmen unter dem Diktat von EU und IMF - 16 September: More than 100.000 people took to the streets of Lisbon and other cities to protest against fresh austerity measures - NZZ 22. September: Nach den jüngsten landesweiten Protesten will die portugiesische Regierung besonders umstrittene neue Sparmassnahmen nicht umsetzen - 29 September: Thousands in new rally against Portuguese austerity - 13 October 2012: Thousands protest in Spain, Portugal against austerity cuts
2013: 17 February 2013: Thousands of protesters rallied in Portugal against austerity measures imposed on the country by its international creditors - 2 February 2013: Hundreds of thousands of Portuguese demonstrate in Lisbon and other cities demanding an end to austerity measures dictated by an international bailout and for the centre-right government to resign - 27 juin 2013: Une grève générale de 24 heures à l'appel des deux principaux syndicats du pays contre la politique d'austérité draconienne paralyse le Portugal - 19 octobre: Des dizaines de milliers de manifestants se sont mobilisés au Portugal et en Italie contre les nouvelles mesures d'austérité annoncées par leur gouvernement respectif - 26 October: Thousands of demonstrators protested in Portugal against salary cuts and public sector reforms - 1 novembre: Plusieurs milliers de Portugais manifestent devant le Parlement pour protester contre les coupes sévères dans les dépenses publiques prévues par le budget 2014 - 21 novembre: Des milliers de policiers, gendarmes et autres fonctionnaires des forces de l'ordre manifestent contre l'austérité
2014: 25 April: Protests over EU-imposed austerity have overshadowed the 40th anniversary of democracy in Portugal
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Portugal: Portuguese society - Human rights in Portugal
Regions, districts and municipalities in Portugal: Subdivisions and administrative divisions of Portugal - Regions of Portugal - 2 Autonomous Regions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira - 18 Districts of Portugal - 308 Municipalities of Portugal - 3,091 Freguesia
Cities and towns in Portugal: List of cities in Portugal - List of towns in Portugal - List of Portuguese municipalities by population - Metropolitan areas Lisbon and Porto
Lisbon: Lisbon, the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 and with a population of around 3 million people in its urban area - Economy of Lisbon - Civil parishes and bairros of Lisbon
Timeline of Lisbon: Timeline of Lisbon since 205 BCE, Roman municipio in Lusitania province
Since 1139 Kingdom of Portugal: Since 1139 Kingdom of Portugal and since 1256 Lisbon capital
April 1506 Lisbon massacre of Jews: April 1506 Lisbon massacre, in which a crowd of Catholics persecuted, tortured, killed, and burnt at the stake hundreds of people who were accused of being Jews and, thus, guilty of deicide and heresy, thirty years before the establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal and nine years after the Jews were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism in 1497
November 1755 Lisbon earthquake: 1 November 1755 Lisbon earthquake
Since 1974 'Third Portuguese Republic': Since 1974 Lisbon the capital of the 'Third Portuguese Republic'
October 2017 local elections: 1 October 2017 Portuguese local elections
January 2019 police brutality: 31 January 2019: Police brutality reveals Portugal's urban reality, as viral video of police violence, showing officers beating, pushing and dragging anyone who came into their path, brings national attention to the long-ghettoised community in 'Bairro da Jamaica' neighbourhood on the southern outskirts of greater Lisbon
Demographics of Portugal: Demographics of Portugal - Ethnic groups in Portugal
Afro-Portuguese: Afro-Portuguese are descendants or migrants issuing from the former Portuguese African colonies Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Săo Tomé and Príncipe, Cape Verde and Mozambique, even if residual numbers originate in other Sub-Saharan African countries
Angolans in Portugal: Angolans in Portugal form the country's second-largest group of African migrants, after Cape Verdeans
Brazilians in Portugal: Brazilians in Portugal, represent approximately 25% of the foreign population in Portugal and 106,961 people
Cape Verdeans in Portugal: Cape Verdeans in Portugal, in 2008 Portugal’s National Statistics Institute estimated that there were 68,145 Cape Verdeans who legally resided in Portugal
Indians in Portugal: Indians in Portugal, including recent immigrants and people who trace their ancestry back to India, together number around 70,000
History of the Jews in Portugal: History of the Jews in Portugal, reaching back over two thousand years and directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities that originated in the Iberian Peninsula
Since 15th century persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal: Since 15th century persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal, as on 5 December 1496 King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims - Since 1536 Portuguese Inquisition, formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of King John III, after Manuel I had asked for the installation of the Inquisition, but it was only after his death that Pope Paul III acquiesced, in the period after the Medieval Inquisition, it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition
Sephardi Jews in modern Spain and Portugal: Sephardi Jews in modern Spain and Portugal
2016: 31 December 2016: The UK’s decision to leave the EU has fuelled an 80-fold increase in the number of British Sephardic Jews seeking Portuguese citizenship under a recent law intended to make amends for their ancestors’ expulsion from the Iberian peninsula more than 500 years ago, forced to convert to Catholicism or burned at the stake
6 October 2019 recently naturalized Sephardic Jews vote: 6 October 2019: Thousands of Israelis, recently naturalized Jews of Sephardic descent who recently received Portuguese citizenship, were eligible to vote in Sunday’s Portuguese national elections for the first time
Immigration to Portugal: Immigration to Portugal
2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014-2016 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
2016: 22 février 2016: Portugal propose aux pays européens subissant 'une forte pression migratoire' d'accueillir jusqu'à 10'000 réfugiés, tout en voyant une opportunité pour repeupler ses régions de l'intérieur
Culture of Portugal: Culture of Portugal
Women and women's rights in Portugal: Women in Portugal
Children and youth in Portugal: Childhood in Portugal - Youth in Portugal
Education in Portugal: Education in Portugal
Schools in Portugal: List of schools in Portugal
Colleges and universities in Portugal: List of universities and colleges in Portugal
Health in Portugal: Health in Portugal
Health disasters in Portugal: Health disasters in Portugal
2014 Portugal legionellosis outbreak: 2014 Portugal legionellosis outbreak was an outbreak caused by Legionella bacteria in multiple cities of Portugal's Lisboa district
Healthcare in Portugal: Healthcare in Portugal - Hospitals in Portugal
Access to healthcare for migrants in Portugal and payments: Access to healthcare for migrants in Portugal and payments
Portuguese media: Portuguese media - Media in Portugal by city
Censorship in Portugal: Censorship was a fundamental element of Portuguese national culture throughout the country's history up until the Carnation Revolution in 1974, as from its earliest history Portugal was subject to laws limiting freedom of expression
Newspapers in Portugal: Newspapers in Portugal
Broadcasting in Portugal: Broadcasting in Portugal
Internet in Portugal: Internet in Portugal
Crime in Portugal: Crime in Portugal
Racism in Portugal: Racism in Portugal
From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets
January 2019 police brutality: 31 January 2019: Police brutality reveals Portugal's urban reality, as viral video of police violence, showing officers beating, pushing and dragging anyone who came into their path, brings national attention to the long-ghettoised community in 'Bairro da Jamaica' neighbourhood on the southern outskirts of greater Lisbon
28 June 2021 white Portuguese man sentenced to 22 years for murder of black actor: 28 June 2021: A Portuguese court has sentenced a white man who shot dead a black actor in a busy street last year to more than two decades in jail, in a case that has put racism and the country’s colonial past in the spotlight, after Bruno Candé of Guinean origin was shot several times by a white Portuguese man, Evaristo Marinho, at Avenida de Moscavide about six miles from Lisbon’s city centre, in July 2020
Antisemitism in Portugal: Antisemitism in Portugal
Since 15th century persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal: Since 15th century persecution of Jews and Muslims by Manuel I of Portugal, as on 5 December 1496 King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims
April 1506 Lisbon massacre of Jews: April 1506 Lisbon massacre, in which a crowd of Catholics persecuted, tortured, killed, and burnt at the stake hundreds of people who were accused of being Jews and, thus, guilty of deicide and heresy, thirty years before the establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal and nine years after the Jews were forced to convert to Roman Catholicism in 1497
1536-1821 Portuguese and Goa inquisition: Since 1536 Portuguese Inquisition, formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of King John III, after Manuel I had asked for the installation of the Inquisition, but it was only after his death that Pope Paul III acquiesced, in the period after the Medieval Inquisition, it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition - Since 1560 Goa Inquisition, a colonial era Portuguese institution between the 16th- and 19th-century to stop and punish heresy against Christianity in Asia
History of the conversos since 15th century: History of the conversos since 15th century
Corruption in Portugal: Corruption in Portugal
Since 2004 'Apito Dourado' affair: Since 2004 'Apito Dourado' affair is a sports corruption scandal in Portuguese football, involving suspects of corrupting or attempting to corrupt referees
Since 2009 'Face Oculta' scandal: Since 2009 'Face Oculta' Portuguese nationwide political corruption, money-laundering and corporate tax evasion scandal
2013 political corruption in Portugal: 2013 Transparency International’s Global Corruption Barometer reveals that political parties, Parliament, the judiciary and the military are the most corrupt institutions in Portugal
January 2018: January 2018: Companies face an overall moderate risk of corruption when doing business in Portugal, and corruption and abuse of power are most prevalent in the areas of urban planning and public procurement, according to Business Anti-Corruption Portal
Police corruption in Portugal: Police corruption in Portugal
Terrorism in Portugal: Terrorism in Portugal
Human trafficking in Portugal: Human trafficking in Portugal
Law and legal history in Portugal: Law of Portugal - Legal history of Portugal - Constitutions of Portugal since 1911, preceded by constitutions of 1822, following the Liberal Revolution of 1820, and 1838 after the Liberal Wars
Since 1982 Constitutional Court: Constitutional Court Portugal since 1982
Judiciary and courts of Portugal: Judiciary of Portugal - Courts in Portugal
Since 1833 Supreme Court of Justice: Supreme Court of Justice of Portugal since 1833, the highest court of law in Portugal without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court
Law enforcement agencies of Portugal and Polícia de Segurança Pública: Law enforcement in Portugal - Law enforcement agencies of Portugal - Polícia de Segurança Pública
2015: 20 May 2015: Outrage in Portugal over police beating of man in front of his children
Foreign relations of Portugal: Foreign relations of Portugal
Wars and battles involving Portugal: List of wars involving Portugal - Battles involving Portugal - Naval battles involving Portugal
1415-2002 Portuguese Empire: From the capture of Ceuta in 1415 to the handover of Macau in 1999 Portuguese Empire 1415-2002
Portugal/Africa relations: Portugal/Africa relations
From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French Atlantic slave trade and slavery in their empires: From the 15th through to the 19th centuries Portuguese, Spanish, British, Dutch and French slavery in their empires and Atlantic slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean bringing millions of enslaved Africans from the central and western parts of Africa to the Americas to be sold at markets - Since 16th century Iberian Slave Trade, Portugal and Spain under the same monarch until 1640, were the pioneers of the transatlantic slave trade - Atlantic slave trade - more than half of the slave trade took place during the 18th century with the British, Portuguese and French being the main carriers - Portuguese Colonial War 1961-1975
2001 Durban conference acknowledgement of the slave trade and slavery as crime against humanity: 3 October 2001: The August/September 2001 anti-racism conference in Durban says that slave trade and slavery was and is 'a crime against humanity'
September 2018 Lisbon museum plan: 17 September 2018: Lisbon museum plan stirs debate over Portugal's colonial past, as critics say 'Museum of the Discoveries' would glorify slavery and other historical abuses
Portugal and the United Nations: Portugal and the United Nations
10 November 1975 Portugal and UN General Assembly's anti-Semitism marking the 37th anniversary of Nazi Germany's November 1938 'Kristallnacht': On 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions) UN General Assembly adopted resolution 3379, that 'determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination', with the support of the Arab- and Muslim-majority countries, many African countries, the Soviet bloc, and a few others including Portugal after its Socialist Party PS won the April 1975 election for the Constituent Assembly - Throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s UN documents systematically denied the existence of the Jews, Israel ancient history, the Holocaust, and the notion that Jews deserve the same rights granted to other groups, as most infamous example of this trend was the passage of UN General Assembly's resolution 3379, which equated Zionism with racism on 10 November 1975, the first postwar 'ideology' to ever be condemned in the United Nations' history, as many observers noted that the resolution was passed on the 37th anniversary of November 1938 'Kristallnacht' in Nazi Germany, the pogrom historians agree marked the beginning of the Holocaust
Since 1986 Portugal and the European Union: Portugal and the European Union, membership since 1986/1993
March 2021 Council of Europe calls on Portugal to do more to confront its colonial past and its role in the slave trade: 25 March 2021: Europe’s top human rights body has called on Portugal to do more to confront its colonial past and its role in the transatlantic slave trade in order to help fight racism and discrimination in the country today, as the comments by the Council of Europe come amid an escalating debate in Portugal over how to remember its history as the country prepares to unveil its first memorial to victims of slavery
Treaties of Portugal: Treaties of Portugal
Since 1536 Portuguese Inquisition: Portuguese Inquisition formally established in 1536 at the request of its king, in the period after the Papal Medieval Inquisition it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition
Bilateral relations of Portugal: Bilateral relations of Portugal
Portugal/Afghanistan: Portugal/Afghanistan
21 May 2022 National Institute of Music of Afghanistan, women’s orchestra Zohra in exile in Portugal: 21 May 2022: National Institute of Music of Afghanistan and women’s orchestra Zohra in exile in Portugal after in the summer of 2021, with the return of the Taliban, they had to leave their instruments behind and flee, as Emirate of Qatar prepares its territory hit by heatwaves for Worl Cup 2022 amid ongoing catastrophic covid-19 pandemic
Portugal/Angola relations: Portugal/Angola relations
1482-1975 colonial history of Angola: The colonial history of Angola is considered to run from the appearance of the Portuguese under Diogo Căo in 1482, settlement since Novais's establishment of Săo Paulo de Loanda (Luanda) in 1575, the Portuguese government formally incorporated Angola as a colony in 1655
Slavery in Angola: Slavery in Angola existed since the late 15th century when Portugal established contacts with the peoples living in what is the Northwest of the present country, and founded several trade posts on the coast
1575–1975 Portuguese Angola: 1575–1975 Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa
1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola: 1641-1648 Reconquest of Angola was Portugal's campaign to regain its colony in Angola from the Dutch
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, most notably in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless, as under the Salazar regime chibalo was used in Mozambique to grow cotton
1961-1974 War of Liberation and Angolan War of Indepencence: Angolan War of Indepencence 1961-1974 - 1961-1974 'Portuguese Colonial War', in the former colonies 'War of Liberation', was fought between Portugal's military and the emerging nationalist movements in Portugal's African colonies, the Portuguese regime in Portugal itself was overthrown by a military coup in 1974 and the change in government brought the conflict to an end
Since 2009: In 2009 the Central Bank of Angola was victim in a fraud case of about $160 million that were transferred to overseas accounts, revealed by the Portuguese newspaper Diário de Notícias in 2011 several supects were sentenced up to eight years in prison and there are still investigations going on in Portugal and Angola
2011: 16 November 2011: Portugal seeks Angola investment - PM Coelho visit
2014: 28 July 2014: It was announced that the Angolan state takes over the majority of Banco Espirito Angola, as its Angolan partners inject fresh capital of about US$3 billion into the Angolan bank
Portugal/Benin relations:
Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to 'Porto Novo' for Portuguese and European slave trade: Benin's Ajashe/Hogbonu in the 16th century renamed to Porto Novo by the Portuguese, meaning 'New Port', and originally developed as a port for the slave trade
1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port: 1830 Contonou founded as a slaving port
Portugal/Bolivia relations: Portugal/Bolivia relations - 3 July 2013: Snowden drama ensnares an angry Bolivia after France and Portugal were reportedly acting under US pressure to rescind permission for President Evo Morales' plane to traverse their airspace
Portugal/Brazil relations: Portugal/Brazil relations, beginning in 1532 with the establishment of Săo Vicente, the first Portuguese permanent settlement in the Americas - Portuguese colonization of the Americas since 1494 - Territorial evolution of colonial Brazil
1500–1815 Colonial Brazil and slavery: 1500–1815 Colonial Brazil, slaves especially those brought from Africa, provided most of the work force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery, the economic exploitation was based first on brazilwood extraction in the 16th century, sugar production in the 16th–18th centuries, finally on gold and diamond mining in the 18th century - Slavery in Brazil
During the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries resistance of slaves: Resistance of slaves during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries - Quilombo settlements founded by people of African origin, mostly escaped slaves, later these escaped African slaves in some cases would help provide shelter and homes to other minorities of marginalised Portuguese, Brazilian aboriginals, Jews and Arabs, and/or other non-black, non-slave Brazilians
1815-1825 'United Kingdom' of Portugal and Brazil: 1815-1825 United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Since 1822 Independence of Brazil: Since 1822 Independence of Brazil, comprising a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824
1822-1825 War of Independence of Brazil: 1822-1825 War of Independence of Brazil between the newly independent Empire of Brazil and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, which had just undergone the Liberal Revolution of 1820
January 1835 Malê slave rebellion: January 1835 Malê revolt, slave rebellion in Brazil following the Haitian Revolution 1791-1804
Portugal/China relations: Portugal/China relations - Portuguese colony Macau 1537–1999 - Slavery in Portuguese Macau and the coast of China
Portugal/Equatorial Guinea relations:
1472-1778 Portuguese and Dutch slave trade: Since 1472 the Portuguese developed Bioko island for sugarcane crops, in 1642 the Dutch East India Company established trade bases centralizing from there its slave trade in the Gulf of Guinea, but in 1648 the Portuguese appeared again on the island, replacing the Dutch Company with one of their own, also dedicated to slave trading - Spanish immigration to Equatorial Guinea - 1778 Treaty of El Pardo of two colonial powers aiming at resolving long-standing territorial disputes linked to 1761–1763 Spanish–Portuguese War and 1776–1777 Spanish–Portuguese War - 'Río Muni' was ceded by Portugal to Spain in 1778 in the Treaty of El Pardo, as the Spanish hoped to collect slaves to work in their other overseas possessions
Portugal/Germany relations: Portugal/Germany relations
1914-1915 German campaign in southern Portuguese Angola: October 1914 – July 1915 German campaign in Angola, the campaign in southern Portuguese Angola took place before a formal state of war had been declared, the German empire didn't declare war on Portugal until 9 March 1916 - October-December 1914 Germans raided the Portuguese fort at Cuangar and attack the town and commune of Naulila
1894-1916 German Kionga Triangle in Portuguese Mozambique: 1894 the German empire established an outpost south of the Rovuma River designated as the border between the German and Portuguese colonies, naming the area Kionga Triangle - on 9 March 1916 during World War I Germany declared war on Portugal and the Portuguese military seized the disputed area in April 1916
November 1917 Battle of Ngomano: November 1917 Battle of Ngomano fought between the German Empire and Portugal during the East African Campaign of World War I
April 1918 Battle of the Lys: April 1918 Battle of the Lys, also known as the Fourth Battle of Flanders, and casualties, including British, French, Portuguese and German
1941-1945 Portuguese wolfram export to Germany: After the invasion of the Soviet Union and as Nazi Germany became dependent on Portugal and Spain for its wolfram supplies in producing war munitions, Portuguese Salazar's 'Estado Novo' set up an export quota system in 1942 supplying equal division of products to belligerents, Salazar's regime survived the horrors of war significantly wealthier
Portugal/Guinea-Bissau relations: Portugal/Guinea-Bissau relations
1474-1974 'Portuguese Guinea' West African colony of Portugal: 1474-1974 'Portuguese Guinea', a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau
Since the 15the century Portuguese slave trade: Since the 15the century Portuguese era of the slave trade
1963-1974 Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence: Guinea Bissau War of Indepencence 1963-1974
2012: 22 October 2012: Guinea-Bissau accuses Portugal of backing a coup bid after a gun battle that claimed at least seven lives
Portugal/Hungary relations:
Since 2015 'Football Leaks': Since 2015 'Football Leaks', initially a website created by Rui Pinto, the largest leak in the history of sports revealing 'murky' financial transactions in the world of European professional football and exposes the tax tricks employed by some of the continent's biggest stars, refers to the series of investigations published in December 2016 and November 2018 by media partners of the European Investigative Collaborations
March 2019: 5 March 2019: Portuguese Rui Pinto, who was detained in Hungary on a European arrest warrant issued by Portuguese authorities and linked to the Football Leaks website, is set to be extradited to Portugal after spending time under house arrest in Hungary, a court said on Tuesday, a move his lawyers oppose as they defend him as a 'whistleblower' and not a criminal
Portugal/India relations: Portugal/India relations - Indians in Portugal, including recent immigrants and people who trace their ancestry back to India, together number around 70,000
Portuguese India 1505–1961: Portuguese India 1505–1961 - Slavery in India under European colonial powers - Portuguese Conquest of Goa 1510
1560-1812 Goa Inquisition: Goa Inquisition 1560-1812
1961: 22 Indians killed by Portugal in the liberation of Goa 1961 ending 456 years of Portuguese colonial rule
Portugal/Israel relations: Portugal/Israel relations
Jewish Portuguese history: History of the Jews in Portugal, reaching back over two thousand years and directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities that originated in the Iberian Peninsula - Jewish Portuguese history
Since 1536 Portuguese Inquisition: Portuguese Inquisition formally established in 1536 at the request of its king, in the period after the Papal Medieval Inquisition it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition
Portugal/Luxembourg relations: Portugal/Luxembourg relations
Espírito Santo Financial Group - 18 July 2014: Espirito Santo International, Holding company of Portugal's second-largest bank, files for creditor protection saying it can't meet its obligations
Portugal/Mozambique relations: Portugal/Mozambique relations
1498–1975 'Portuguese Mozambique' colony: 1498–1975 'Portuguese Mozambique' colony and overseas province of the Portuguese Empire
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, most notably in Portuguese Angola and Portuguese Mozambique, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless, as under the Salazar regime chibalo was used in Mozambique to grow cotton
1890-1972 Mozambique 'royal companies': 1891-1972 Mozambique royal company operating in Portuguese Mozambique, that had the concession of the lands in the Portuguese colony corresponding to the present provinces of Manica and Sofala in central Mozambique - 1890-1920 Niassa royal company in the Portuguese colony of Mozambique, then known as Portuguese East Africa, that had the concession of the lands that include the present provinces of Cabo Delgado and Niassa
Since 1890 royal companies and chibalo forced labour system: The power of the royal companies was based on the chibalo system, a forced labor policy, which forced the Mozambicans to work on plantations, cotton fields and on public works projects, additionally Mozambicans were forced to pay hut taxes that kept them in debt. The chibalo system enabled the Niassa Company to establish plantations and to force peasants to work for them and prevent them from growing their own crops for sale
1964-1974 Mozambican War of Indepencence: Mozambican War of Indepencence 1964-1974 - September 1974 Lusaka Accord between the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique FRELIMO and the Portuguese government installed after the Carnation Revolution in Lisbon
Portugal/South Africa relations: Portugal/South Africa relations - October 2007: Political relations between Portugal and South Africa from the end of the second World War until 1974 - 1 June 2015: South Africa beach service to be held in Cape Town, near recently discovered wreck site of Portuguese ship that went down with 212 slaves on board in 1794
Portugal/East Timor relations: Portugal/East Timor relations
1702–1975 'Portuguese Timor' Portuguese colony: 1702–1975 'Portuguese Timor' Portuguese colony, during most of this period Portugal shared the island of Timor with the Dutch East Indies
Debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia: Since 1869 Chibalo, debt bondage, forced labour and slavery in Portuguese colonies in Africa and Asia, after in 1869 the Portuguese officially abolished slavery, but in effect it continued nonetheless
1974-2002 end of Portuguese and foreign rule in East Timor: 1974-2002 End of Portuguese and foreign rule in East Timor, following the 1974 Carnation Revolution and the beginning of the decolonisation process for Portuguese territories in Asia and Africa, and following the end of Indonesian occupation in 1999 and a UN administered transition period, East Timor became formally independent in 2002
Portugal/Vatican relations: Portugal/Vatican relations
Since 1536: Portuguese Inquisition formally established in 1536 at the request of its king, in the period after the Papal Medieval Inquisition it was one of three different manifestations of the wider Christian Inquisition along with the Spanish Inquisition and Roman Inquisition
2015: 10 July 2015: Visiting Latin America Pope Francis apologises in Bolivia for the sins and crimes of the Catholic Church against the indigenous peoples during the colonial conquest of the Americas since 1492, also saying that a 'new colonialism' is now threatening them, represented in "corporations, loan agencies, certain 'free trade' treaties, and the imposition of measures of 'austerity'"
Environment of Portugal: Environment of Portugal - Natural history of Portugal - Geology of the Iberian Peninsula - Geology of Portugal - Climate of Portugal
Ecoregions in Portugal: List of ecoregions in Portugal
Forests in Portugal: Forests of Portugal
Water in Portugal: Water in Portugal
Rivers of Portugal: List of rivers of Portugal
Environmental issues and environmentalism in Portugal: Environmental issues in Portugal include soil erosion, air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions, water pollution, especially in coastal areas - Environmentalism in Portugal
Natural disasters in Portugal: Natural disasters in Portugal - Natural disasters in the Azores
Heatwaves and wildfires in Portugal: Wildfires in Portugal
2012/2013: 4 September 2012: Portugal seeks EU help to fight forest fires - 30 August 2013: Wildfires in Portugal have claimed five lives, officials say
2016: 2016 Portugal wildfires are a series of wildfires that burned across mainland Portugal and the Madeira archipelago in the north Atlantic Ocean during August - 10 août 2016: Les incendies qui font rage sur l'île portugaise de Madère ont fait trois morts dans la nuit et un millier de personnes ont dû être évacuées
June 2017: June 2017 Portugal Wildfires - 18 June 2017: At least 57 people have been killed by huge forest fires in central Portugal, with many dying in their cars as they tried to flee the flames
October 2017: October 2017 Iberian wildfires - Octubre 2017 Incendios al noroeste de la península ibérica - 16 October 2017: 6 people killed in Spain, Portugal as wildfires fanned by hurricane Ophelia
July-August 2018 heatwave and wildfires in Portugal: 2018 heat wave in Portugal and Spain - 4 August 2018: More than 740 firefighters battled a forest fire in southern Portugal on Saturday as temperatures climbed to near record highs in the Iberian Peninsula amid a Europe-wide heatwave that has brought drought and wildfires from Greece to Sweden - 6 août 2018: Plus de 1150 pompiers luttent contre l'incendie dans le sud du pays
July 2019 wildfires in Portugal: 21 July 2019: About 1,800 firefighters have been struggling to contain wildfires in central Portugal that have injured 20 people, including eight firefighters
11 August 2022 young adults take Portugal climate crisis to court amid European heatwaves and wildfires: 11 August 2022: Following 2022 European heatwaves and wildfires, young adults take Portugal climate crisis to court, as Cláudia Agostinho, her siblings and cousins will have case heard at European court of human rights
Floods and landslides in Portugal: Landslides in Portugal
2010: February 2010 Madeira floods and mudslides
Earthquakes in Portugal: Earthquakes in Portugal
1755: November 1755 Lisbon earthquake
1969: February 1969 Portugal earthquake
1980: January 1980 Azores Islands earthquake


Romania - Geography of Romania - History of Romania - Demographics of Romania
Economy of Romania: Economy of Romania - main industries include electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining - Companies of Romania - Companies of Romania by industry
Industry of Romania: Industry in Romania - Construction industry of Romania - Automotive industry in Romania
Arms industry in Romania: Arms industry in Romania
Mining industry of Romania: Mining industry of Romania
Coal mines in Romania: Coal mines in Romania - Coal mining disasters in Romania
Energy in Romania: Energy in Romania - Energy infrastructure in Romania - Energy policy of Romania
Fossil fuels and petrochemical industry in Romania: Fossil fuels in Romania - Romania has the largest oil reserves in Central and Eastern Europe (except Russia) and the second largest natural gas reserves (except Russia) - Petrochemical industry in Romania - Oil fields in Romania - Oil shale mines in Romania - Oil pipelines in Romania - Natural gas pipelines in Romania
Electric power in Romania: Electric power in Romania with 62.42% non-renewable energy sources - Power companies of Romania
Hydroelectricity, solar and wind power in Romania: Hydroelectricity in Romania, 27.36% of total electric power and the second most important source of electricity generation after the fossil fuels - Wind power in Romania - Solar power in Romania
Nuclear power in Romania: Nuclear power in Romania, in 2007 nuclear power generation was an estimated 21,158 million kilowatts, or 23.1% of total electric power, nuclear waste is stored on site at reprocessing facilities
Agriculture in Romania: Agriculture in Romania employs about 29% of the population and contributes about 8.1% of GDP - products include wheat, vegetables, dairy products, pork, poultry, apples, fruits and wine - Rice production in Romania - Romanian wine - Agricultural universities and colleges in Romania
1864, 1921, 1945 and 1991 land reforms: In 1864, 1921, 1945 and 1991 four major land reforms have taken place in Romania
Forestry and forests in Romania: Forestry in Romania - Forests of Romania
Water in Romania: Water in Romania - Bodies of water of Romania - Black Sea - Black Sea region - Since 1992 Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
2004-2009 Case concerning maritime delimitation in the Black Sea: 2004-2009 Case concerning maritime delimitation in the Black Sea of the International Court of Justice, establishing a maritime boundary including the continental shelf and exclusive economic zones for Romania and Ukraine
Rivers of Romania: Rivers of Romania - Alphabetic lists of rivers of Romania - Longest rivers of Romania - Rivers of Romania by county - Rivers of Romania by subbasin
Danube: Danube is Europe's second-longest river after the Volga River, located in Central and Eastern Europe - The greater part of the Danube Delta lies in Romania's Tulcea County, while its northern part, on the left bank of the Chilia arm, is situated in Ukraine's Odessa Oblast - List of tributaries of the Danube - Since 1994 International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River
Water supply and sanitation in Romania: Water supply and sanitation in Romania
Transport in RomaniaTransport in Romania - Rail transport in Romania - Road transport in Romania and roads in Romania
Water transport in Romania: Water transport in Romania - Ports and harbours of Romania - List of ports in Romania by region
List of rivers of Romania and drainage areas: List of rivers of Romania which entirely or partially flow through Romania, listed by 'Wikipedia' by the length of the rivers on Romanian territory, but also including the drainage area
Tourism in Romania: Tourism in Romania - Visitor attractions in Romania
Foreign trade of Romania: Foreign trade of Romania
Banking in Romania: Banking and list of banks in Romania
Economic history and economic cycles in Romania: Economic history of Romania - Social class in Romania - 1980s austerity policy in Romania
2002-2007 Romanian property bubble: 2002-2007 Romanian property bubble
Since 2007 Great Recession in Europe: Great Recession in Europe since 2007 and Romania
2007-2017 growth and economic cycles in Romania: Growth and economic cycles in Romania 2007-2017
Labor in Romania: Labor in Romania - Labor disputes in Romania - Welfare in Romania
Wealth in Romania: Wealth in Romania
Taxation in Romania: Taxation in Romania
Budget of Romania: Budget of Romania 2013
2014: 26 June 2014: Romania’s budget deficit reaches EUR 1.1 bln in five months - 29 July 2014: Romanian Government revises budget upwards, adds EUR 305 mln to expenditures
Politics of Romania: Politics of Romania - 1866, 1923, 1838, 1948, 1952, 1965 and 1991 Constitutions of Romania - 1991 Constitution of Romania
Political parties in Romania: Political parties in Romania
Trade unions in Romania: Trade unions in Romania
Elections and politics in Romania: Elections in Romania
2015: 9 June 2015: Romanian parliament blocks investigation into forgery, money-laundering, tax evasion and conflict of interest in connection with PM Victor Ponta - 13 July 2015: Romanian prosecutors charged PM Victor Ponta as part of a corruption probe, piling more pressure on the embattled politician to resign - 22 July: Romania’s president has signed into law legislation that punishes Holocaust denial and the promotion of the fascist Legionnaires’ Movement with prison sentences of up to three years - 18 September: Victor Ponta indicted on charges of forgery, money laundering as part of corruption sweep, mainly concerning his time as a lawyer prior to taking office - 29 September: Thousands protest as Romanian PM Ponta withstands no-confidence vote - 4 November: Romanian PM and government resign after protests - 16 November: Prime minister-designate Dacian Ciolos has named a government, tapping European Union experts as well as private and non-profit sectors leaders to steer the country until elections next year
May 2019 European Parliament election in Romania: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Romania
24 November 2019 Romanian presidential election runoff: 10 November 2019 Romanian presidential election second round
Social movements and protests in Romania: Protests in Romania
2012–14 Romanian social unrest: 2012–14 Romanian protests against shale gas - 2012–14 Romanian social unrest
2015: 2015 Romanian protests - 2 November 2015: Thousands of people marched through Bucharest to commemorate the victims after a Romanian club fire death toll was raising to 30, which also left nearly 200 injured during a rock concert that featured the use of fireworks indoors - 4 November: Tens of thousands of Romanians are marching against government corruption, angry that licences are given for businesses which do not pass necessary health and safety tests - 6 November: Massive anti-corruption rallies continued in Bucharest's University square for the third night, calling for the reform of the political class and public administration which are widely seen as corrupt - 9 November: Anti-corruption protests continue in Romania, calling for change amid the political class, as fire death toll rises
2017 Romanian protests: 2017 Romanian protests - in January 2017, days after the PSD government was sworn in, massive protests took place throughout Romania against the government ordinance bills that were proposed by the Ministry of Justice regarding the pardoning of certain committed crimes, and the amendment of the Penal Code, especially regarding the abuse of power - 2 February 2017: Protesters have clashed with police in Bucharest after hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets in cities across Romania in anger at the government’s decriminalising of a string of corruption offences - 4 février 2017: La crise se poursuit, les manifestations aussi - 6 February 2017: An estimated half a million Romanians have continued to protest against the government, with many calling on it to quit even after it scrapped the corruption legislation that sparked a week of public outrage - 12 February 2017: Among the of placards of mass anti-government protests in Romania many read 'Hands off DNA', Romania’s national anti-corruption directorate founded in 2003 and at the forefront of the country’s fight against official misconduct - 13 February 2017: Tens of thousands gathered in Bucharest to call for the government to stand down, despite resignation of justice minister
August 2018 Romanian protests: August 2018 Romanian protests - 11 August 2018: Tens of thousands of people took part in in Friday's protest in Bucharest and several other Romanian cities against corruption and low wages, as more than 400 people were injured by police using tear gas, pepper spray and water cannons, as several police officers were also hurt, as president Iohannis 'firmly condemn(ed) riot police's brutal intervention, strongly disproportionate to the actions of the majority of people', and as video footage posted on social media show police beating non-violent protesters holding their hands up - 12 August 2018: Tens of thousands of demonstrators gathered in the Romanian capital Bucharest returning to the streets without fear in a huge anti-corruption protest on Saturday, 24 hours after more than 450 people were hurt, many needing treatment, and about 30 arrested - 12 août 2018: Des milliers de Roumains se sont rassemblés pour le troisième soir consécutif à Bucarest et dans d'autres villes de Roumanie et ont demandé la démission de Viorica Sancila et dénoncé la corruption au sein du gouvernement social-démocrate
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Romania: Romanian society - Human rights in Romania
Cities, towns and metropolitan areas in Romania: List of cities and towns in Romania - Metropolitan areas in Romania
20th/21st centuries timeline of Bucharest: 20th century and 21st centuries timeline of Bucharest
Transylvania region in central Romania and history since 2nd century BC: Transylvania historical region in central Romania, bordering to the east and south the Carpathian Mountains, and to the west the Apuseni Mountains, as broader definitions of Transylvania also encompass the western and north-western Romanian regions Crisana, Maramures and occasionally Banat. Transylvania is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history, and is well known for the cities of Cluj-Napoca, Brasov, Sibiu, Târgu Mures, Alba Iulia, Sighisoara. - Since 2nd century BC documented history of Transylvania, as in the 20th century in August 1940 during Axis Powers World War II, the northern half of Transylvania 'Northern Transylvania' was annexed to Hungary by the second Second Vienna Award, leaving Southern Transylvania to Romania. On 19 March 1944, following the occupation of Hungary by the Nazi German army through Operation Margarethe, Northern Transylvania came under German military occupation. After King Michael's Coup, Romania left the Axis and joined the Allies, and fought together with the Soviet Union's Red Army against Nazi Germany, regaining Northern Transylvania. In the 21st century 'Transylvania proper' is included within the Romanian counties of Alba, Bistrisa-Nasaud, Brasov, Cluj, Covasna, Harghita, Hunedoara, Mures, Salaj and Sibiu, including several regions
Sibiu city in Transylvania: Sibiu city in Transylvania, a historical region of Romania. Located some 275km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt. Now the capital of the Sibiu County, between 1692 and 1791 and 1849–65 Sibiu was also the capital of the Principality of Transylvania, as in the 21st century the city is a well-known tourist destination for both domestic and foreign visitors. Known for its culture, history, gastronomy and diverse architecture, which includes the iconic houses with eyes that gave Sibiu its nickname, the city has garnered significant attention since the beginning of the 21st century. In 2004, its historical center began the process of becoming a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Sibiu was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2007.
Demographics, ethnic groups and minorities of Romania: Demographics of Romania - Ethnic groups in Romania - Minorities of Romania
Immigration to Romania: Immigration to Romania
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Culture of Romania: Culture of Romania
Universities in Romania: List of universities in Romania
Health in Romania: Health in Romania
Disease outbreaks in Romania; Disease outbreaks in Romania
Healthcare in Romania: Healthcare in Romania
Medical and health organizations based in Romania: Medical and health organizations based in Romania - Medical education in Romania
Hospitals in Romania: List of hospitals in Romania
Newspapers in Romania: Newspapers published in Romania
Broadcasting in Romania: Broadcasting in Romania
Internet in Romania: Internet in Romania
Crime in Romania: Crime in Romania
Racism and anti-Semitism in Romania: Racism and anti-Semitism in Romania
Law enforcement and Romanian Police: Law enforcement in Romania - Romanian Police
Foreign relations of Romania: Foreign relations of Romania
Treaties of Romania: Treaties of Romania
Romanian membership in international organsisations and the EU: Romanian membership in international organsisations and in the European Union
Bilateral relations of Romania: Bilateral relations of Romania
Romania/Bulgaria relations: Romania/Bulgaria relations
Romania/Canada relations: Romania/Canada relations
Romania/Canada trade relations: Romania/Canada trade relations
Romania/Germany relations: Romania/Germany relations
Romania/Hungary relations: Romania/Hungary relations
Romania/Israel relations: Romania/Israel relations
Romanian Jews in Israel: Romanian Jews in Israel
Romania/Turkey relations: Romania/Turkey relations
Romania/United Kingdom relations: Romania/United Kingdom relations
Forests in Romania: Forests of Romania
Water in Romania and Black Sea: Water in Romania - Bodies of water of Romania - Black Sea
Natural disasters in Romania: Natural disasters in Romania


Serbia - Geography of Serbia - History of Serbia - Demographics of Serbia - Demographic history of Serbia
Agriculture in Serbia: Agriculture in Serbia
Banking in Serbia: Banking in Serbia
Taxation in Serbia: Taxation in Serbia
Elections and politics in Serbia: Elections in Serbia
May 2012 Serbian parliamentary election: Serbian parliamentary election 6 May 2012
May 2012 Serbian presidential and local elections: Serbian presidential election 6 May 2012 - Serbian local elections 6 May 2012 - 6 May 2012: Serbians will vote on Sunday in presidential, parliamentary and local elections - 7 mai: Boris Tadic et le nationaliste Nikolic au second tour - 9 May: The Socialists agree to revive their coalition with the Democrats saying they will back Tadic in the presidential run-off - 20 May: Incumbent President Tadic has conceded defeat in the presidential run-off against rightist opposition leader Nikolic - 10. Juli: Einigung von SPS, SNS und URS auf Koalitionsabkommen, Regierungschef soll am 23. Juli der sozialistische Parteichef Ivica Dacic werden - 27 July: Milosevic’s former spokesman Ivica Dacic became Serbia’s new Prime Minister promising to promote reconciliation in the Balkans - NZZ 3. August: Funktionär aus Milosevic-Ära wird Geheimdienstchef
1 November 2023 Serbia’s president dissolves parliament and sets date for early legislative vote: 1 November 2023: Serbia’s president dissolves parliament and sets date for early legislative vote, 'The Guardian' reported with live updates
Protests and social movements in Serbia: Protests in Serbia
October 2000 overthrow of Slobodan Miloševic: October 2000 protests and the overthrow of Slobodan Miloševic
28 May 2023 tens of thousands rally in Belgrade to protest against government rule: 28 May 2023: Tens of thousands rally in Belgrade to protest against government rule
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Serbia: Serbian society - Human rights in Serbia
Districts, municipalities and cities of Serbia: 29 districts of Serbia - Municipalities and cities of Serbia
Cities in Serbia: List of cities in Serbia
History of Novi Sad: History of Novi Sad
November 1918 end of German/Austro-Hungarian empires World War I, 20th/21st century history of Novi Sad: 20th/21st century history of Novi Sad, as Serbian troops entered the city on 9 November 1918 - two days before the end of German/Austro-Hungarian empires World War I - , and on November 25, 1918, the Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other nations of Vojvodina in Novi Sad proclaimed the unification of Vojvodina region with the Kingdom of Serbia (the assembly numbered 757 deputies, of which 578 were Serbs, 84 Bunjevci, 62 Slovaks, 21 Rusyns, 6 Germans, 3 Šokci, 2 Croats, and 1 Hungarian). Since December 1, 1918, Novi Sad is part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. According to the 1921 census, the city had 39,122 inhabitants, of which 16,071 were Serbs, 13,065 Hungarians, 6,486 Germans, 2,663 Jews, 1,294 Slovaks, 672 Russians, 613 Slovenes. In 1929, Novi Sad became the capital of the Danube Banovina. In 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded and partitioned by the Axis Powers - once again German empire, now including Italy's empire -, and its northern parts, including Novi Sad, were annexed by Hungary. During World War II, about 5,000 citizens were murdered and many others were resettled (in a 1942 raid alone, Hungarian gendarmerie killed 1,246 citizens, among them 809 Jews, 375 Serbs, 18 Hungarians, 15 Russians and 2 Rusyns, and threw their corpses into the icy waters of Danube [9]). During the war, the resistance movement was active in the city. Citizens of all nationalities – Serbs, Hungarians, Slovaks and others fought together against the Axis authorities. On August 7, 1944, the Allies bombed the Novi Sad oil facilities as part of the Oil Campaign of World War II. The partisan forces from Srem and Backa entered the city on October 23, 1944, and Novi Sad became part of the new socialist Yugoslavia. The post-war Yugoslav authorities punished those responsible for war crimes, as well as those that collaborated with the Axis authorities
Timeline of Novi Sad: History and timeline of Novi Sad
Arabs in Serbia: Arabs in Serbia
Bosniaks of Serbia: Bosniaks of Serbia
Hungarians in Serbia: Hungarians in Serbia
Romani people in Serbia: Romani people in Serbia
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Health in Serbia: Health in Serbia
Healthcare in Serbia: Healthcare in Serbia
Newspapers in Serbia: Newspapers in Serbia
Internet and telecommunications in Serbia: Internet in Serbia - Telecommunications in Serbia - Serbian Wikipedia
Crime in Serbia: Crime in Serbia
War crimes in Serbia: War crimes in Serbia
Axis occupation of Vojvodina: Axis occupation of Vojvodina
Serbian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars: Serbian war crimes in the Yugoslav Wars
1998/1999 Kosovo Albanian and Serbian war crimes in the Kosovo War: 1998/1999 Kosovo Albanian and Serbian war crimes in the Kosovo War
Corruption in Serbia: Corruption in Serbia
2014 political corruption in Serbia: 2014 overview of political corruption in Serbia
2015 stagnation in fight against corruption in Serbia: Stagnation in fight against corruption in 2015, according to Transparency Serbia
Organised crime in Serbia and Serbian mafia: Organised crime in Serbia - Serbian mafia
Terrorism in Serbia: Terrorism in Serbia
Law enforcement in Serbia: Law enforcement in Serbia
Foreign relations of Serbia: Foreign relations of Serbia
Treaties of Serbia: Treaties of Serbia
Immigrants to Serbia: Immigrants to Serbia
Serbia in intergovernmental organizations: Serbia in intergovernmental organizations
Bilateral relations of Serbia: Bilateral relations of Serbia
Serbia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations: Serbia/Bosnia and Herzegovina relations
Serbia/Croatia relations: Serbia/Croatia relations
1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II: 1914-1945 Croatia and Serbia in World War I and World War II
1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence: 1991-1995 Croatian War of Independence
The Holocaust in Serbia: The Holocaust in Serbia
Serbia/Italy relations: Serbia/Italy relations
Serbia/Lebanon relations: Serbia/Lebanon relations
Serbia/Romania relations: Serbia/Romania relations
Serbia/Syria relations: Serbia/Syria relations
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Serbia/Ukraine relations: Serbia/Ukraine relations
Political, economic and cultural relations betweem Serbia and Ukraine: Political, economic and cultural relations betweem Serbia and Ukraine
Forests of Serbia: Forests of Serbia
Water in Serbia: Water in Serbia
Natural disasters in Serbia: Natural disasters in Serbia
Earthquakes in Serbia: Earthquakes in Serbia
November 2010 Serbia earthquake: 3 November 2010 Serbia earthquake
Floods in Serbia: Floods in Serbia
February-_April 2006 European floods: February-_April 2006 European floods
May-June 2013 European floods: May-June 2013 European floods


Slovakia - Geography of Slovakia - History of Slovakia - Demographics of Slovakia
Mines in Slovakia: Mines in Slovakia
Forests of Slovakia: Forests of Slovakia
Water in Slovakia: Water in Slovakia
2015: Slovak same-sex marriage referendum February 2015 - 8 February 2015: Slovak conservatives receiving the support of Pope Francis fail to cement same sex marriages ban in referendum with a turnout of just 21.07%
Social movements and protests in Slovakia:
March 2018 protests following the murder of journalist Ján Kuciak: 2 mars 2018: Des milliers de personnes ont manifesté à Bratislava et dans d'autres villes de Slovaquie en mémoire du journaliste d'investigation Jan Kuciak assassiné, qui était spécialisé dans les enquêtes sur des fraudes fiscales et des détournements de subventions - 9 March 2018: In protests called the biggest since the 1989 Velvet revolution, tens of thousands of Slovaks have rallied to demand the resignation of PM Robert Fico’s government following the murder of journalist Ján Kuciak that has shocked the central European nation and stoked anger over sleaze in public life, also calling for foreign experts to join the team investigating the killings - 16 March 2018: Tens of thousands of protesters took to the streets across Slovakia on Friday to call for snap elections following crisis over journalist’s death, saying the premier’s resignation was not enough to address what they see as a corrupt government
Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Slovakia: Slovak society - Human rights in Slovakia
Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: Since 2014 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Education in Slovakia: Education in Slovakia
Schools in Slovakia: Schools in Slovakia
Universities and colleges in Slovakia: Universities and colleges in Slovakia
Health in Slovakia: Health in Slovakia
Telecommunications in Slovakia: Telecommunications in Slovakia
Internet in Slovakia: Internet in Slovakia
Crime in Slovakia: Crime in Slovakia
Racism and antisemitism in Slovakia: Racism in Slovakia - Antisemitism in Slovakia
Slovak mafia: Slovak mafia
Human trafficking in Slovakia: Human trafficking in Slovakia
Constitutional Court of Slovakia: Constitutional Court of Slovakia
Law enforcement in Slovakia: Law enforcement in Slovakia
Foreign relations of Slovakia: Foreign relations of Slovakia
Treaties of Slovakia: Treaties of Slovakia
Membership in international organisations: Slovakia's membership in international organisations
Bilateral relations of SlovakiaBilateral relations of Slovakia: Bilateral relations of Slovakia
Slovakia/Czech Republic relations: Slovakia/Czech Republic relations
Slovakia/Germany relations: Slovakia/Germany relations
1939-1945 Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia: Resistance in German-occupied Czechoslovakia
History of the Jews in Slovakia, the Slovak Republic 1939-1945 and the Holocaust: History of the Jews in Slovakia - The Slovak Republic and the Holocaust
1944-1946 anti-Jewish violence in Slovakia and Eastern Europe: Anti-Jewish violence in Slovakia and Eastern Europe 1944–46
August-October 1944 Slovak National Uprising: August-October 1944 Slovak National Uprising
Slovakia/Hungary relations: Slovakia/Hungary relations
Hungarians in Slovakia: Hungarians in Slovakia
Slovaks in Hungary: Slovaks in Hungary
February 1947 Paris Peace Treaties: February 1947 Paris Peace Treaties
2009 ban of Hungarian President from Slovakia: 2009 ban of Hungarian President from Slovakia
Slovakia/Italy relations: Slovakia/Italy relations
Slovakia/Russia relations: Slovakia/Russia relations
26 February 2022 tens of thousands of Ukrainians escape Putin's war by crossing borders to the west: 26 February 2022: Tens of thousands of Ukrainians are fleeing from Russian regime's war against Ukrainians, crossing borders to the west in search of safety as Putin regime pounded their capital and other cities with air raids, as cars were backed up for several kilometres at some border crossings, and as authorities in Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova mobilised to receive them, offering shelter, food and legal help. Many walked through the night while others escaped the east of the country by train, car or bus. Many were greeted by awaiting relatives and friends, as the UN refugee agency has said about 150,000 people have so far fled Ukraine into neighbouring countries in the wake of the Russian invasion.
Forests of Slovakia: Forests of Slovakia
Water in Slovakia: Water in Slovakia
Environmentalism in Slovakia: Environmentalism in Slovakia
Natural disasters in Slovakia: Natural disasters in Slovakia
2013 European floods: 2013 European floods


Spain - Espagne - Geography of Spain - History of Spain - 'Reconquista' period 718-1492 on the Iberian peninsula, coming before the discovery of the Americas and the period of colonial empires - Spanish colonization of the Americas since 1492 - Spanish American wars of independence 1808-1833 - Second Spanish Republic 1931-1939 - Demographics of Spain
Automotive industry in Spain: Automotive industry in Spain
Construction and civil engineering companies of Spain: Construction and civil engineering companies of Spain
Chemical and pharmaceutical industry in Spain: Chemical companies of Spain - Pharmaceutical companies of Spain
Forestry in Spain: Forestry in Spain
Drought in Spain: Drought in Spain
Transport in Spain: Transport in Spain
2011/2012 Spain's unemployment rate rose to 22,8%: 27 January 2012: Spain's unemployment figure passes five million (5,3 million) in the last quarter of 2011, the rate rose to 22,8% - 13. März 2012: In 2012 erwartet Spanien einen Rückgang seiner Wirtschaftsleistung um 1,7%, hat mit 22,9% bereits die höchste Arbeitslosenquote in der EU und bekommt sein Defizit von ca. 6% nicht unter Kontrolle - 3 April: Spain's jobless rate at 23.6% in February - 23. April 2012: Spanien zu Jahresbeginn 2012 in Rezession - 27 April: Spanish unemployment hits record 5.64 million at the end of March 2012 - 9 May: Spanish lender Bankia to be partly nationalised - 25 May: Spain's Bankia seeks 19bn-euro bailout from government - 1. Juni: Zunehmende Kapitalflucht aus Spanien - 10 June: Spain asks for eurozone help - 11. Juni: EU: Troika soll Spanien überwachen - 25 juin 2012: L'Espagne officiellement demande l'aide européenne pour sauver ses banques
Cooperatives in Spain: Cooperatives in Spain
Poverty in Spain:
Wealth in Spain: Wealth in Spain
Spanish billionaires: Spanish billionaires
Politics of Spain: Politics of Spain - Since 1812 Constitutions of Spain - March 1812 Spanish Constitution drafted and adopted by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, establishing the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy and freedom of the press, supporting land reform and free enterprise, one of the most liberal constitutions of its time - Federal Constitution of the First Republic of Spain 1873–1874 - December 1931 Constitution of Spain, approved by the Constituent Assembly in 1931, was the constitution of the Second Spanish Republic founded 14 April 1931 and in force until 1 April 1939, in the second period of Spanish history in which both head of state and head of government were democratically elected - The Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain enacted after the country's 1978 constitutional referendum in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy
Political parties in Spain: List of political parties in Spain
Elections, referendums and politics in Spain: Elections in Spain - Referendums in Spain
March 2004 election results: Electoral outcome, heavily influenced by the aftermath of the Madrid train bombings on 11 March, as the PP government kept blaming the terrorist organization ETA for the bombings, even in spite of mounting evidence suggesting the involvement of Islamist groups that would have been perceived as the direct result of Spain's involvement in the Iraq War, which had been highly unpopular among the public, then described by some media as an 'unprecedented electoral upset', following abuse of the PP's absolute majority throughout the legislature, with a focus on Spain's involvement in Iraq, was said to have helped fuel a wave of discontent against the incumbent ruling party, with the government's mismanagement on the bombings serving as the final catalyst for change to happen, as 11 million votes and 42.6%, the opposition Spanish PSO increased by 3.1 million, and the PP, which opinion polls earlier in the year had predicted would secure a diminished but still commanding victory, lost 35 seats resulting in the worst defeat for a sitting government since 1982, and as the 75.7% turnout was among the highest since the Spanish transition to democracy
November 2011 Spanish general election: Spanish general election 20 November 2011
September 2017: 21 September 2017: A day after Spanish Guardia Civil officers raided regional government buildings and arrested 14 senior officials, regional president of Catalonia Carles Puigdemont has accused the Spanish government of acting 'beyond the limits of a respectable democracy' and violating fundamental rights as it strives to prevent independence referendum - 27 September 2017: The Catalan regional government has accused the Spanish authorities of behaving like Turkey, China and North Korea by blocking websites designed to help people vote in Sunday’s independence referendum - 28 September 2017: UN human rights experts have weighed in on the escalating row over Catalonia’s independence referendum, warning the Spanish authorities that their 'worrying' efforts to halt Sunday’s poll appear to violate fundamental rights and risk stifling debate 'at a critical moment for Spain’s democracy'
October 2017 Catalan independence referendum: 1 October 2017 Catalan independence referendum - 1 October 2017: 38 injured as riot police attack protests, while Catalans cast independence votes in peaceful defiance of Spanish government - 2 October 2017: Preliminary results of Catalan referendum show 90% in favour of independence, after raids on ballot stations by riot police left hundreds of Catalans injured - 4 October 2017: Catalonia’s president Puigdemont has accused King Felipe of Spain of acting as a mouthpiece for the Rajoy government after Catalonia’s independence referendum was marred by police violence and as the country wrestles with the crisis - 6 October 2017: After hundreds of people were injured by Spanish police attempting to stop independence referendum by raiding polling stations, beating voters and firing rubber bullets at crowds, Spanish government has apologised for police violence strangely insisting that the region’s political leaders are to blame - 10 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont says he has mandate to declare independence but proposes waiting 'a few weeks' to encourage dialogue - 11 October 2017: Rajoy threatens Catalonia with direct rule after Catalan offer of talks - 12 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont accuses Rajoy of ignoring call for talks, as vice-president Junqueras says that 'a sincere dialogue is what the international community wants and what Catalonia expects, not confrontation and new threats', and as Human Rights Watch documents that police used excessive force in Catalonia during referendum, calling for an independent report into the violence - 13 October 2017: As the central government in Madrid appears to be hostage to some of the most reactionary forces in Spanish society, Spain’s need for a new constitution is greater than Catalonia’s need for independence, historian John Payne says - 16 October 2017: Catalan president Carles Puigdemont repeats his calls for negotiations with the Madrid government to resolve the country’s ongoing political crisis - 17 October 2017: Rajoy government has signalled a hardening line over Catalonia by jailing the leaders of two of the largest separatist organisations in a move seen as taking Rajoy closer to imposing central rule over Catalonia - 22 October 2017: Catalan president Puigdemont said in a televized speech that the decision by PM Rajoy to fire the regional government and force a new election is 'the worst attack against the institutions and the people of Catalonia since the military dictatorship of Francisco Franco' - 28 October 2017: Rajoy government takes direct control of Catalonia, firing the region’s defiant separatist government a day after Catalan lawmakers passed a declaration of independence for the prosperous northeastern region, and calls fresh elections - 28 October 2017: Calling for 'democratic opposition' to the takeover Catalonia's Puigdemont vows 'peaceful resistance' - 31 October 2017: Catalan leaders facing rebellion charges flee to Belgium - 2 novembre 2017: Certains membres du gouvernement catalan destitué ont comparu à Madrid dans une enquête pour sédition et rébellion
May 2019 Spanish regional and local elections: 26 May 2019 Spanish regional elections - 26 May 2019 Spanish local elections
May 2019 European Parliament election in Spain: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Spain
Social movements and protests in Spain: Protests in Spain - Labour movement in Spain
Since 1855 Labour disputes in Spain: Since 1855 Labour disputes in Spain
2011-2012 Spanish protests: 2011–12 Spanish protests
February-June 2012: 19 février 2012: Des centaines de milliers d'Espagnols sont descendus dans les rues pour protester contre la réforme du travail - 11 März: Hunderttausende demonstrieren in 60 spanischen Städten gegen die Arbeitsmarktreformen und Sparmassnahmen der Regierung, Gedenken an Bombenanschläge 2004 - 29. März: Generalstreik in Spanien - Protest gegen Arbeitsmarktreform - 30 March: Spanish workers angry at the labour 'reform' staged general strike on Thursday, bringing factories and ports to a standstill - protests across the country - 29. April 2012: Zehntausende Spanier demonstrieren gegen das neue Sparpaket, das insbesondere im Gesundheits- und Bildungsbereich Kürzungen vorsieht - 12 May: Spain's 'indignants' to take over streets - 13 May: Thousands march against economic gloom in Spain - 22 May: Spanish school and university protest at education cuts - 15 June: Striking Spanish miners clash with police in Asturias - Asturian miners' strike June 2012 - 28 June: Spanish pensioners are joining in a wave of social protests in Spain
July-December 2012: 11 juillet 2012: Arrivés à Madrid, les mineurs grévistes manifestent pour défendre leurs emplois - 11 July: Spain's government announces budget cuts, sales tax rising from 18% to 21% etc. amid protests of thousands - 16 juillet: Des milliers de fonctionnaires manifestent, spontanément, à Madrid contre le plan de rigueur du gouvernement - 20 juillet: Des centaines de milliers contre le plan de rigueur, manifestants dispersés violemment à Madrid - 22. Juli: Tausende arbeitslose Demonstranten gegen die unsoziale Regierungspolitik nach Sternmarsch in Madrid - 11 September: More than a million people gather in Barcelona, accusing Madrid government of dragging them into economic trouble - 15 September: Tens of thousands of people have rallied in Spain and Portugal to protest against fresh austerity measures - 22. September: Tausende protestieren in Madrid gegen Sparmassnahmen und fordern Entmachtung der Banker - 25 September: Spanish riot police fires rubber bullets at protesters injuring several people as thousands rally against austerity - 30 septembre: Une nouvelle manifestation anti-austérité dégénère à Madrid - 7 octobre: Quelques milliers de manifestants à Madrid contre l'austérité - 13 October: Thousands protest in Spain, Portugal against austerity cuts - 27 October: Several thousand people have marched to Spain's parliament in an anti-austerity protest, but were held back from surrounding the building - 10 November: Spain anti-bank protest decries second evictee suicide - 19 décembre: Des milliers de manifestants devant l'Assemblée régionale de Madrid pour protester contre les coupes dans le budget de la santé publique
January-June 2013: 14 January: Thousands demonstrated in Madrid against plans to privatise parts of their public health care system - 27 January 2013: Anger mounts over corruption in recession-hit Spain - 12 February: As Spain debates reform fresh anti-eviction protests after evictees committed suicide - 16 février: Manifestations dans toute l'Espagne pour mettre fin aux expulsions - 24 February: Tens of thousands marched through cities across Spain to protest economic policy, the privatisation of public services and political corruption - 10 March: Thousands march in cities across Spain protesting government austerity policies, unemployment - 14 mars: Des milliers d'étudiants espagnols ont manifesté jeudi à Madrid contre les coupes budgétaires qui frappent les écoles et les universités - 15 April: Thousands of protesters took to the streets of Madrid on Sunday to demand the abdication of Spain's scandal-hit monarchy - 18 avril: Pendant les députés adoptent une loi controversée contre les expulsions plusieurs dizaines de militants anti-expulsions ont manifesté leur colère près du Congrès des députés - 21 April: Thousands of doctors, nurses and other healthcare workers marched in Madrid to protest against government spending cuts and plans to partly privatise medical services - 25 avril: La police espagnole a dispersé jeudi à coups de matraque des manifestants rassemblés près du Congrès des députés à Madrid, ripostant à des jets de projectiles - 12 mai: Deux ans après, les Indignés sont de retour à la Puerta del Sol - 1 June: Thousands protest Europe crisis in Madrid on Saturday in a string of demonstrations across Europe
July-December 2013: 15 July: Protesters, outraged by the corruption allegations at a time of recession and record unemployment, rallied outside the Popular Party's Madrid headquarters - 19 août: Manifestation des pêcheurs espagnols contre la construction du récif de Gibraltar par les autorités britanniques - 12 septembre: Les partisans de l'indépendance de la Catalogne ont formé une chaîne humaine d'environ 400 km le long de la côte méditerranéenne pour réclamer un référendum sur l'autodétermination de la région autonome - 22 septembre: Manifestation à Madrid pour défendre la santé publique - 17 October: Scientists held a minute of silence at universities across Spain to protest against drastic cuts to the country's science budget - 17 October: Respite for families in Spain mass eviction protest - 27 octobre: Des victimes de l'ETA manifestent pour réclamer justice après l'arrêt des juges du CEDH qui pourrait entraîner la libération de dizaines de militants de l'ETA - 14 November: Madrid street sweepers and public parks gardeners strike against plans to cut their salaries by up to 40 percent and slash 1,135 jobs hampers Spanish capital's image and tourism - 24 novembre: Manifestations contre l'austérité en Catalogne et Andalousie - 1. Dezember: Im Nordwesten Spaniens haben tausende Menschen gegen das Urteil zum Untergang des Öltankers 'Prestige' protestiert - 5 décembre: Les victimes de la police franquiste réclament 'justice et vérité' à Madrid
2014: 12 January: Huge silent march in Bilbao after ban on Eta prisoner rally, victims of Eta violence said the march made a mockery of their suffering - 22 March: Tens of thousands 'marching for dignity' in Madrid against Rajoy's tax increases and budget cuts - 4 April: Tens of thousands took to the streets in cities across the country to demonstrate against the government’s austerity measures - 2 June 2014: Tens of thousands in more than 60 Spanish towns and cities took to the streets to demand a referendum on the future of the monarchy after Juan Carlos' abdication - 6 June: Spanish protesters across Spain and Europe call for a referendum on the monarchy and for a republic - 29 November 2014: Thousands stage anti-government protest in Madrid against austerity, unemployment and corruption - 20 December: Thousands of people protest in Spanish cities such as Barcelona, Bilbao and Madrid against a new law that sets hefty fines for offences such as burning the national flag and demonstrating outside parliament buildings or strategic installations
2015 anti-austerity movement and protests in Spain: 2015 anti-austerity movement and protests in Spain since 2011
January 2015 protests: 31 January 2015: Tens of thousands join Podemos anti-austerity rally in Madrid demanding change in Spain - 22 March: Thousands of people took part in a 'march for dignity' in Madrid to protest against austerity measures on the eve of a closely-watched regional election in Andalusia - 11 August 2015: About 200 people took to the square in Salou in protest against 50-year-old Senegalese Mor's death, who jumped from a balcony on the third floor in an attempt to escape police who raided his house on Tuesday morning - 11 September: Nearly 1.5 million Catalans took to the streets of Barcelona to rally for independence, as the region’s politicians launched their campaigns for a looming election - 5 November 2015: More than 430,000 people have signed a petition opposing government's plans to create optional bullfighting course for students aged 15 to 17
2017 protests: 18 February 2017: Tens of thousands of demonstrators march in Barcelona following mayor’s call to challenge the Spanish government over its failure to accept country’s quota of migrants agreed in 2015 - 27 August 2017: Hundreds of thousands march in Barcelona to show unity after terrorist attacks - 11 September 2017: Up to a million Catalans have gathered in Barcelona to call for independence less than three weeks ahead of referendum on 1 October - 20/21 September 2017: Protests in Barcelona after Spanish police raid Catalan government buildings, as tens of thousands rallied to protest searches and arrests - 21 September 2017: Podemos as well as regional parties backed a demonstration in Madrid to protest the raids in Barcelona against organizers of the independence referendum, saying 'Detencions NO', 'Democrácia SI'
October 2017 Catalonia general strike: 3 October 2017: Catalonia holds general strike in protest over referendum violence - 3/4 October 2017: An estimated 700,000 people rally in Barcelona outside the headquarters of Spain’s national police force amid strikes in protest at police violence during the Catalonian independence referendum - 8 October 2017: Mired by fascist salutes from Falange party members in Madrid, while shouting slogans such as 'Puigdemont to Prison' or 'Long live the National Police and Civil Guard', that injured 900 people in Barcelona, and organized by an anti-independence group under the slogan 'Let’s recover our senses', tens of thousands also took to Barcelona streets for anti-independence rally - 17 October 2017: Hundreds of thousands of people have taken to the streets of Catalonia to protest against a Madrid judge’s decision to detain pro-independence leaders Jordi Sánchez and Jordi Cuixart, as tensions between the Madrid and Barcelona governments continue to rise - 22 October 2017: 450,000 protesters rally in Barcelona after Rajoy government moves to impose direct rule over Catalonia and arrest region’s president


Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Spain: Spanish society - Human rights in Spain
Galicia autonomous community: Galicia autonomous community of Spain, located in the northwest Iberian Peninsula, and including the provinces of A Coruńa, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra. Located in Atlantic Europe, it is bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Cantabrian Sea to the north. It had a population of 2,701,743 inhabitants in 2018. Galicia has over 1,660km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, Cortegada Island, which together form the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park, and the largest and most populated, A Illa de Arousa. The area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, and takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people. - Economy of Galicia
Government and politics of Galicia: Government and politics of Galicia
History of Galicia: History of Galicia
October 2012 Galician parliamentary election: Galician parliamentary election 21 October 2012
Gijón port city: Gijón city and port in north-western Spain, the largest city and municipality by population in the autonomous community of Asturias. It is located on the coast of the Cantabrian Sea in the Bay of Biscay, in the central-northern part of Asturias, approximately 24km north-east of Oviedo and 26km from Avilés. With a population of 271,780 citizens in 2019, Gijón is the 15th largest city in Spain, forming part of a large metropolitan area that includes twenty councils in the center of the region, structured with a dense network of roads, highways and railways and with a population of 835,053 inhabitants in 2011. During the 20th century, Gijón developed as an industrial city in the steel and naval industries. However, due to the decline in manufacturing in these industries, in recent years Gijón is undergoing a transformation into an important tourist, university, commercial and R&D center.
Timeline of Santander since 13th century: Timeline of Santander since 13th century
Economy of Bilbao: Economy of Bilbao
19 June 1937 Franco fascists capture Bilbao following April 1937 Guernica masscre by NSDAP ruled German empire: 19 June 1937 Franco fascists capture Bilbao following April 1937 Guernica masscre by NSDAP ruled German empire and Italian fascists
Catalonia and Catalan history: Catalonia autonomous community of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Most of the territory (except the Val d'Aran), lies on the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, to the south of the Pyrenees mountain range. Catalonia is administratively divided into four provinces of Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city, Barcelona is the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the fifth-most populous urban area in the EU. It comprises most of the former Principality of Catalonia, with the remainder Roussillon now part of France's Pyrénées-Orientales. It is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan - History of Catalonia - Catalan constitutions, the first constitutions were promulgated by the Corts of 1283, the last ones were promulgated by the Corts of 1705 - Catalan Republic, proclaimed 1641, 1873, 1931 and 1934 - 1934 Proclamation of the Catalan Republic within the Spanish state by the President of the Generalitat Lluís Companys - 1939–1975 Catalonia under Franco's dictatorship - 1939/1940 Lluís Companys exiled, detained and extradited by Nazi German secret police Gestapo to their fascist Spanish allies, tortured and beaten, sentenced to death and executed at Montjuďc Castle in Barcelona on 15 October 1940 - 1979 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, a constitutional law defining the region of Catalonia as an autonomous community within the Kingdom of Spain and one of seventeen such statutes granted, in various forms and capabilities, to the different autonomous communities of Spain since 1970s transition to democracy of the, on 18 June 2006 a referendum altering the statute to expand the authority of the Catalan government was approved
Culture and languages of Catalonia: Catalan culture - Languages of Catalonia - Catalan language
Municipalities of Catalonia: 948 Municipalities of Catalonia as of 2015
May 2015 Barcelona City Council election: 24 May 2015 Barcelona City Council election
Girona and province of Girona: Province of Girona - Girona
Tarragona and province of Tarragona: Province of Tarragona - Tarragona
1980 first Catalan regional election since 1930s: 20 March 1980 Catalan regional election
June 2006 Catalan constitutional referendum: 18 June 2006 Catalan constitutional referendum
October 2017 Catalan independence referendum: 1 October 2017 Catalan independence referendum - 2 October 2017: The Catalan regional government is holding an emergency meeting to discuss the next steps towards declaring independence from Spain a day after millions of Catalans voted in a tumultuous poll that left more than 800 people injured - 6 October 2017: The Catalan government will defy the Spanish constitutional court by pressing ahead with a parliamentary debate to discuss Sunday’s referendum result - 9 octobre 2017: Maire de Barcelone Ada Colau s'est prononcée contre une déclaration d'indépendance - 10 October 2017: A group of members of the Catalan Parliament have taken Monday's plenary suspension imposed by the Spanish Constitutional Court to the European Court of Human Rights - 10 October 2017: Catalan government suspends declaration of independence, after Tusk appealed to Puigdemont to step back from a unilateral declaration of independence and begin dialogue with the Spanish PM Rajoy - 23 October 2017: Catalan MPs to discuss response to Rajoy government's move towards direct rule - 30 October 2017: Rajoy government’s resolve faces crucial test as Catalan independence group calls for widespread campaign of civil disobedience
Autonomous community of Castile and León does not have a legally established capital city: The Spanish autonomous community of Castile and León does not have a legally established capital city, because the region's 1983 statute of autonomy did not name a capital city. The articles referred only to the 'seat of government', that could only be fixed with a two-thirds approval in the Cortes of Castile and León. In 1987, President of the Junta of Castile and León José María Aznar approved that the basic bodies of regional rule - the presidency, Junta and the Cortes - would be located in Valladolid. One reason for the lack of the official capital is that the merger of Castile and León as one autonomous community caused uproar in the latter, which wanted to be separate. Other autonomous bodies are in the capitals of other provinces of the region. The High Court of Justice of Castile and León is in Burgos, the Court of Audits is in Palencia, the Advisory Council is in Zamora, the Ombudsman is in León. In March 2009, the Junta of Castile and León apologised for textbooks that named Valladolid as capital, saying that it was an honest confusion of its status as a seat. In February 2010, the PP party in Valladolid City Hall rejected a Spanish Socialist Workers' Party proposal for the city to become the official capital, saying it could 'provoke eight motions against it' from the other provincial capitals. In September 2019, José Antonio de Santiago Juárez of Valladolid's PP made a proposal of the same matter, which was opposed by the party leadership.
Valladolid city: Valladolid city, the primary seat of government of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is also the capital of the province of the same name. It has a population around 300,000 people in 2021, and located roughly in the centre of the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula's Meseta Central, at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers 15km before they join the Duero, surrounded by winegrowing areas. The area was settled in pre-Roman times by the Celtic Vaccaei people, after 1072 growing in prominence within the context of the Crown of Castile, being endowed with fairs and different institutions such as a collegiate church, University, Royal Court and Chancellery and a royal mint. The city was briefly the capital of the Habsburg Monarchy between 1601 and 1606. The city then declined until the arrival of the railway in the 19th century, and with its industrialisation into the 20th century.
Timeline of Valladolid since 920 CE: Timeline of Valladolid since 920 CE
Castile-La Mancha autonomous community: Castile-La Mancha autonomous community of Spain. Comprising the provinces of Albacete, Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara and Toledo, it was created in 1982. The government headquarters are in Toledo. The region largely occupies the southern half of the Iberian Peninsula's Inner Plateau, including large parts of the catchment areas of the Tagus, the Guadiana and the Júcar, while the northeastern relief comprises the Sistema Ibérico mountain massif. It is bordered by Castile and León, Madrid, Aragon, Valencia, Murcia, Andalusia, and Extremadura. It is one of the most sparsely populated of Spain's regions. Albacete, Guadalajara, Toledo, Talavera de la Reina and Ciudad Real concentrate the largest urban areas in the region. - 1230–1715 - Cortes of Castile-La Mancha
Toledo city: Toledo city, the capital of the province of Toledo and the de jure seat of the government and parliament of the autonomous community of Castilla–La Mancha. Located on the banks of the Tagus in central Iberia, Toledo is known as the 'Imperial City' because it was the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Spain, and as the 'City of the Three Cultures' for the cultural influences of Christians, Muslims, and Jews reflected in its history. It was the capital from 542 to 725 AD of the Visigothic kingdom, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, and the location of historic events such as the Councils of Toledo. By the end of the 7th century the bishop of Toledo was the leader of all other bishops in Hispania, a situation unusual in Europe. It was also unmatched as a symbolic center of monarchy. Under the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toledo multiple persecutions (633, 653, 693 CE) and stake burnings of Jews (638 CE) occurred; the Kingdom of Toledo followed up on this tradition (1368, 1391, 1449, 1486–1490 CE) including forced conversions and mass murder and the rioting and blood bath against the Jews of Toledo in 1212 CE, scetching Spain's further way into the early modern age, in European wars and Spanish empire's colonization of the Americas. The city had a long history in the production of globally feared bladed weapons. As of 2015, the municipality had a population of the small number of 83,226 citizens.
2011 Madrid Assembly election: Madrid Assembly election 22 May 2011
Andalusia autonomous community: Andalusia autonomous community the southernmost territory in Peninsular Spain. It is the most populous and the second largest autonomous community in the country, and officially recognised as a 'historical nationality'. The territory is divided into the eight provinces of Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, and Seville. Its capital city is Seville. The seat of the High Court of Justice of Andalusia is located in the city of Granada. Andalusia is located south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha, west of the autonomous community of Murcia and the Mediterranean Sea, east of Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean, and north of the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar. Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines. The small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a 1.2 kilometres land border with the Andalusian portion of the province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central. To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies mostly within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir river. - History of Andalusia - Parliament of Andalusia - 22 March 2015 Andalusian parliamentary election - 23 March 2015: The Socialists winning 35% percent of the vote will continue to govern Andalusia as anti-austerity party Podemos wins 15 seats
Timeline of Seville since 491 CE: Timeline of Seville since 491 CE
Timeline of Murcia since 8th century: Timeline of Murcia since 8th century


22 May 2011 Balearic Islands parliamentary election: 22 May 2011 Balearic Islands parliamentary election
22 May 2011 Balearic Islands parliamentary election: 22 May 2011 Balearic Islands parliamentary election


Demographics and ethnic groups in Spain: Demographics of Spain - Ethnic groups in Spain
1492-1968 Alhambra Decree against Jews and Spanish Inquisition: Alhambra Decree 1492-1968 - Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834 - Converso
Islam in Spain and 'Reconquista' 722-1492: Islam in Spain - Reconquista 722-1492
Immigration to Spain: Immigration to Spain
Culture and languages of Spain: Culture of Spain - Languages of Spain
Women in Spain: Women in Spain
Children in Spain:
Youth in Spain: Youth in Spain
Schools in Spain: Schools in Spain
Health in Spain: Health in Spain
2009 flu pandemic in Spain: 2009 flu pandemic in Spain
Since January 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Spain: Since January 2020 Chinese coronavirus pandemic in Spain
12 April 2020 Spain's overnight covid-19 death toll rises, total at 16,972: 12 April 2020: Spain's overnight covid-19 death toll rises, total at 16,972
15 April 2020 Spain records drop in daily virus death toll but number of new cases rises: 15 April 2020: Spain records drop in daily virus death toll, but number of new cases rises
Health disasters in Spain: Health disasters in Spain
Water supply and sanitation in Spain: Water supply and sanitation in Spain
October 2014 Spanish health workers attack poor training for combating Ebola virus: 8 October 2014: Spanish health workers attack poor training for combating Ebola virus after infection of Spanish nurse
Sport in Spain by sport: Sport in Spain by sport
Football in Spain: Football in Spain
Lists of Spanish media by autonomous community, province and city: Media in Spain by city - Spanish media by autonomous community - Catalan media - Agència Catalana de Notícies
Newspapers in Spain: Newspapers in Spain
Telecommunications in Spain: Telecommunications in Spain
Internet in Spain: Internet in Spain
Human rights in Spain: Human rights in Spain
1492-1968 Alhambra Decree against Jews and Spanish Inquisition: Alhambra Decree 1492-1968 - Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834 - Converso - Auto-da-fé
Republicanism in Spain: Republicanism in Spain
1873-1874 First Spanish Republic: First Spanish Republic 1873-1874
1931-1939 Second Spanish Republic: Second Spanish Republic 1931-1939
Contemporary Spanish monarchy: Contemporary Spanish monarchy
Royal household of Spain: Royal household of Spain
Racism and antisemitism in Spain: Racism in Spain - Antisemitism in Spain
1492-1968 Alhambra Decree against Jews and Spanish Inquisition: Alhambra Decree 1492-1968 - Spanish Inquisition 1478-1834
Slavery in Spain and in the Spanish New World colonies: Slavery in Spain - Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies
Crime in Spain: Crime in Spain
War crimes of the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939 and aftermath: War crimes of the Spanish Civil War
March 1937 Bombing of Durango: 31 March 1937 Bombing of Durango
1 April 1937 Bombing of Jaén: 1 April 1937 Bombing of Jaén
26 April 1937 Bombing of Guernica: 26 April 1937 Bombing of Guernica
May 1937 Bombardment of Almería: May 1937 Bombardment of Almería
May 1938 Bombing of Alicante: May 1938 Bombing of Alicante
January 1939 Bombing of La Garriga: 28/29 January 1939 Bombing of La Garriga
In 2012 Spain's Supreme Court barred Garzón, who also investigated Francoist crimes against humanity, from the legal profession for 11 years: 17. Januar 2012: Richter Garzón, der u.a. Franco-Verbrechen und einen Korruptionsskandal der Partido Popular untersuchen ließ, droht durch die spanische 'Justiz' Berufsverbot - 29 January 2012: Thousands have joined a demonstration in Madrid in support of human rights judge Baltasar Garzón - 1. Februar 2012: Erstmals sagen Opfer der Franco-Diktatur vor Gericht aus - 9. Februar 2012: Ein zu konsequenter Demokrat für ein überschätztes Spanien in der Krise - Berufsverbot gegen Richter Garzón verhängt mittels eines Schandurteils des Obersten Madrider Gerichts zugunsten der konservativen Volkspartei und der Franco-Anhänger - 9 February 2012: Spanish judge Baltasar Garzon vows to fight conviction - 20. Februar 2012: Amtsenthebung Garzóns endgültig - 27 February 2012: Spanish human rights investigator Baltasar Garzón escaped a second conviction for abuse of his powers when the supreme court declared him not guilty in a case involving his investigation of crimes committed under the Franco dictatorship, but the decision came too late to save Garzón's career as an investigating magistrate as the the supreme court had already disbarred him in a separate case for wiretapping conversations between defence lawyers and their clients in a corruption investigation involving PM Mariano Rajoy's People's party
Terrorism in Spain: Terrorism in Spain
Neo-Nazi terrorism in Spain:
2013-2016 Memoria de Yolanda González: 2013-2016 Memoria de Yolanda González
List of ETA attacks since 1961: List of ETA attacks since 1961 - ETA
2006 Madrid-Barajas Airport bombing: 2006 Madrid-Barajas Airport bombing
Islamist terrorism in Spain: Islamist terrorism in Spain
Corruption in Spain: Corruption in Spain
2013 Political corruption in Spain and Rajoy's Popular Party PP: 1 February 2013: The newspaper El País reports that PM Rajoy and other conservative politicians had received regular payments from a previously undisclosed account run by treasurers of his Popular Party - 3 April 2013: A Spanish judge charged King Juan Carlos's daughter in a corruption probe into alleged misuse of public funds by her husband Inaki Urdangarin - 9 July 2013: Spanish newspaper El Mundo has published documents, admitted by Barcenas for the first time, showing PM Mariano Rajoy and other top politicians received illicit payments - 15 juillet 2013: L'opposition exige la démission de Mariano Rajoy après la publication de messages échangés entre le Premier ministre et l’ex-trésorier du Parti populaire - 24 juillet 2013: Le président andalou démissionne, sur fond de corruption - 1 August 2013: Rajoy admits he trusted 'delinquent’ party official
White-collar crime in Spain:
Gangs in Spain: Gangs in Spain
October 2020 Spain becomes cannabis hub as criminals fill tourism void: 11 October 2020: Spain becomes cannabis hub as criminals fill tourism void
Violence against women in Spain: Violence against women in Spain
2015 list of incidents of violence against women in Spain: List of incidents of violence against women in Spain
Law and legal history of Spain: Law of Spain - Legal history of Spain - Since 1812 Constitutions of Spain - March 1812 Spanish Constitution drafted and adopted by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War, establishing the principles of universal male suffrage, national sovereignty, constitutional monarchy, freedom of the press, and supporting land reform and free enterprise - December 1931 Constitution of Spain, approved by the Constituent Assembly, was the constitution of the Second Spanish Republic founded 14 April 1931 and in force until 1 April 1939, in the second period of Spanish history in which both head of state and head of government were democratically elected - Spanish Constitution of 1978, enacted after the country's 1978 constitutional referendum in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy
Courts in Spain: Courts in Spain
14 June 2019 Catalan blocked from joining EU parliament: 14 June 2019: Spanish court blocks jailed Catalan leader from joining EU parliament
Foreign relations: Foreign relations of Spain
1492–1975 Spanish Empire: Spanish Empire 15th century to the 1970s
1415-2002 Portuguese Empire: Portuguese Empire 1415-2002
Spain/Africa relations:
1912-1956 Spanish protectorate in Morocco: 1912-1956 Spanish protectorate in Morocco established 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate, as Spanish protectorate consisted of a northern strip on the Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar, and a southern part of the protectorate around Cape Juby, bordering the Spanish Sahara, as the northern zone became part of independent Morocco in April 1956, shortly after France had ceded its protectorate French Morocco, as Spain finally ceded its southern zone through the Treaty of Angra de Cintra in April 1958 after the short Ifni War, and as the city of Tangiers was excluded from the Spanish protectorate and received a special internationally-controlled status as Tangier International Zone
1936-1939 Francoist military coup and war against the Spanish Republic since 1931: 1936-1939 Francoist military coup and war against the second Spanish Republic 1931-1939
1939-1975 Francoist Spain: 1936/1939-1975 Francoist Spain
1939-1945 Axis ship-watching activities in the Gibraltar area: 1939-1945 Axis ship-watching activities in the Gibraltar area
1940-1944 resupply of Nazi Germany's submarines in Spain: 1940-1944 Resupply of Nazi Germany's submarines in Spain
1940-1945 Occupation of Tangier: 1940-1945 Occupation of Tangier
1946-1958 Spanish West Africa grouping of Spanish colonies along the Atlantic coast: 1946-1958 Spanish West Africa, a grouping of Spanish colonies along the Atlantic coast of northwest Africa
Since 1986 Spain in the EU: Since 1986 Spain in the European Union
Bilateral relations of Spain: Bilateral relations of Spain
Spain/Bangladesh relations: Spain/Bangladesh relations - Inditex S.A.
Spain/Brazil relations: Spain/Brazil relations
Spain/Colombia relations: Spain/Colombia relations
Spain/Germany relations: Spain/Germany relations
1936-1939: 1936-1939 German involvement in the Spanish Civil War following the military coup of July 1936 against the Spanish democracy, with German dictator Hitler immediately sending in powerful air and armored units to assist General Franco and fascist Spain
Spain/Guatemala relations: Spain/Guatemala relations
Before the 15th century pre-Columbian societies in 'Mesoamerica': Before the 15th century pre-Columbian societies in 'Mesoamerica' - Pre-Columbian era
Since 15th century Spanish colonization of the Americas and Guatemala: Spanish colonization of the Americas since 1492
Since 1524 Afro-Guatemalan: Afro-Guatemalan since 1524
Spain/Israel relations: Spain/Israel relations
Spain/Latin America relations: Spain/Latin America relations
1519-1521 Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire: 1519-1521 Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire
1532-1572 Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire: 1532-1572 Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
Spain/Libya relations: Spain/Libya relations
Spain/Mexico relations: Spain/Mexico relations
March 2019 Mexican demand for apology for crimes against indigenous people but Sánchez reacts angrily: 26 March 2019: After Mexican president López Obrador wrote to King Felipe VI demanding that he apologise for crimes committed against Mexico’s indigenous people during the conquest 500 years ago, saying 'there were massacres and oppression', 'the so-called conquest was waged with the sword and the cross', 'they built their churches on top of the [indigenous] temples', and 'let us ask forgiveness first', Spain's Pedro Sánchez government reacted angrily to López Obrador’s letter, conservative People’s party leader says 'it’s scandalous ignorance and a real affront to Spain and its history', also saying 'we didn’t colonise, what we did was to make Spain larger', but Podemos party says López Obrador 'has every right to ask the king to apologise for the abuses of la conquista'
Spain/Morocco relations: Spain/Morocco relations
Since 1859 Spanish colonial wars in Morocco: Spanish colonial wars in Morocco since 1859
1913–1956 Spanish 'Protectorate' in Morocco: Spanish 'Protectorate' in Morocco 1913–1956
1497 Conquest of Melilla: 1497 Conquest of Melilla
1909-1910 Second Melillan campaign: 1909-1910 Second Melillan campaign
Spain/Netherlands relations: Spain/Netherlands relations
1549-1581 Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands: 1549-1581 Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands in the 15th and 16th century
Spain/Switzerland relations: Spain/Switzerland relations
April 2018: 5 April 2018: Italian and French national Hervé Falciani, the whistleblower who exposed wrongdoing at HSBC’s Swiss private bank freely sharing a list of 130,000 names of organisations and individuals who were using the Swiss banking system to launder money and evade taxes freely with authorities in the EU, India and Argentine, is facing extradition from Spain to Switzerland after his arrest in Madrid widely seen as a favour to the Swiss in the hope that Switzerland will extradite two Catalan and republican fugitives, after Spanish tax authorities recovered some €300m in unpaid tax from some of the 637 Spaniards who appeared on Falciani’s list and despite Spain’s national court rejected a Swiss extradition request in 2013 on the grounds that the charge of violating bank secrecy was not an offence in Spain if the secrecy was used as a cover for serious offences
Spain/Syria relations: Spain/Syria relations
Spain/Turkey relations: Spain/Turkey relations
Spain/United Arab Emirates relations: Spain/United Arab Emirates relations
24 June 2021 Gibraltar abortion referendum: 24 June 2021 Gibraltar abortion referendum
Spain/Holy See–Vatican relations: Spain/Holy See–Vatican relations
Environmental organisations based in Spain: Environmental organisations based in Spain
Natural disasters in Spain: Natural disasters in Spain
Earthquakes in Spain: Earthquakes in Spain
Heatwaves and wildfires in Spain: Weather events in Spain
2003 European heat wave in Spain: 2003 European heat wave in Spain
Storms and floods in Spain: Floods in Spain


Sweden - History of Sweden - Geography of Sweden - Urban areas in Sweden - Demographics of Sweden
Swedish Armed Forces: Swedish Armed Forces
Politics in Sweden: Politics of Sweden
Political parties in Sweden: - Political parties in Sweden
Swedish labour movement: Swedish labour movement
Trade unions in Sweden: Trade unions in Sweden
Elections and politics in Sweden: Elections in Sweden - Government of Sweden
Since 1969 policies and views of Swedish PM Olof Palme: Policies and views of Olof Palme, PM since 1969
September 2010 Swedish general election: Swedish general election 19 September 2010
April 2012 Swedish culture minister Liljeroth cutting cake designed like an African tribal woman: April 2012: Swedish culture minister Lena Adelsohn Liljeroth cutting cake designed like an African tribal woman - demands to resign
May 2019 European Parliament election in Sweden: 26 May 2019 European Parliament election in Sweden
10 June 2020 Sweden identifies dead man as main suspect in 1986 murder of PM Palme: 10 June 2020: Sweden identifies dead man, Stig Engstrom who died in 2000, as main suspect in 1986 murder of PM, closes probe
PM Andersson said 'it’s very important that we do have these security assurances' from Europe and Nato: 7 September 2022: Sweden’s Social Democratic PM Magdalena Andersson has said the country is at a pivotal moment as it prepares for its most critical election in years, in which rightwing populists with neo-Nazi roots are likely to become the second biggest party. The election comes at a tumultuous time for Sweden, against the backdrop of growing hostility from Russia as it prepares to join Nato, a Europe-wide energy crisis, and violence on the streets. PM Andersson said she did not consider Russia a 'direct military threat', but she added 'it’s very important that we do have these security assurances that we got from the UK, the USA, France, Germany and many other countries during our Nato application. We’re very grateful for that, it means a lot to us'. Calling for Europe to become less dependent on Russian gas, she said gas and electricity prices must be 'decoupled'.
Social movements and protests in Sweden: Protests in Sweden - Swedish labour movement


Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Sweden: Swedish society - Human rights in Sweden - Religion in Sweden
div>Smĺland province: Smĺland province in southern Sweden, as Smĺland borders Blekinge, Scania, Halland, Västergötland, Östergötland and the island Öland in the Baltic Sea
div>Östergötland province: Östergötland province in the south of Sweden, bordering Smĺland, Västergötland, Närke, Södermanland and the Baltic Sea. Today, the largest city in the province is Linköping, with Norrköping second. Skänninge is one of the oldest areas but small; Vadstena is also small. Additional towns without a royal charter that have emerged in the 20th century are Finspĺng and Ĺtvidaberg.
div>Norrköping city: Norrköping city in the province of Östergötland, the seat of Norrköping Municipality in Östergötland County, about 160 km southwest of the national capital Stockholm, 40 km east of county seat Linköping and 60 km west of the Södermanland capital of Nyköping. The city has a population of 95,618 inhabitants in 2016, out of a municipal total of 130,050, making it Sweden's tenth largest city and eighth largest municipality.
Economy, government agencies, logistics, infrastructure, and culture of Norrköping city: Economy, government agencies, logistics, infrastructure, and culture of Norrköping city
History and timeline of Norrköping city: History and timeline of Norrköping city


Demographics of Sweden and people by ethnic or national origin: Demographics of Sweden - Swedish people by ethnic or national origin and ethnic groups in Sweden
History of the Jews in Sweden: History of the Jews in Sweden
Contemporary immigration to Sweden and countries of origin: Immigration to Sweden - Contemporary immigration to Sweden - Countries of origin for persons born abroad
2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis: 2014/2015 International and European refugee and migrant crisis
Women and women's rights in Sweden: Women in Sweden - Women's rights in Sweden
Children and children's rights in Sweden: Ombudsman for Children in Sweden - Swedish children's literature
Health in Sweden: Health in Sweden
Medical outbreaks in Sweden: Medical outbreaks in Sweden
Since January 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Sweden: Since January 2020 covid-19 pandemic in Sweden
Hospitals in Sweden: Hospitals in Sweden
Media of Sweden: Media of Sweden
Crime in Sweden: Crime in Sweden
Tax evasion in Sweden: Tax evasion in Sweden
Racism in Sweden: Racism in Sweden
Nazism and antisemitism in Sweden: Nazism in Sweden - Antisemitism in Sweden
Organized crime in Sweden: Organized crime in Sweden
28 February 1986 Assassination of Olof Palme: 28 February 1986 Assassination of Olof Palme
2010 Stockholm bombings: 2010 Stockholm bombings
Violence in Sweden: Violence in Sweden
Arson in Sweden: Arson in Sweden
October 1998 Gothenburg discothèque fire: 29 October 1998 Gothenburg discothèque fire
April 2000 Bäckaby Old Church arson attack: 28 April 2000 Bäckaby Old Church arson attack
2014 mosque arson attacks in Sweden: 2014 mosque arson attacks in Sweden
Since 2014/2015 Arson attacks on asylum centres in Sweden: Since 2014/2015 Arson attacks on asylum centres in Sweden
May 2016 riots in Sweden: May 2016 riots in Sweden
October 2016 Malmö Muslim community centre arson: October 2016 Malmö Muslim community centre arson
2017 Rinkeby riots: February 2017 Rinkeby riots
Judiciary of Sweden: Judiciary of Sweden
Supreme Court of Sweden: Supreme Court of Sweden
Law enforcement in Sweden: Law enforcement in Sweden
Swedish Prosecution Authority: Swedish Prosecution Authority
Foreign relations of Sweden: Foreign relations of Sweden
Sweden's participation in international organizations: Sweden's participation in international organizations
March 1953 UN Secretary-General selection of Dag Hammarskjöld for a 5-year term: March 1953 United Nations Secretary-General selection of Dag Hammarskjöld for a 5-year term
September 1957 UN Secretary-General selection of Dag Hammarskjöld for a second term: September 1957 UN Secretary-General selection of Dag Hammarskjöld for a second 5-year term
June 2015 UN's Ban Ki-moon receives report on Dag Hammarskjöld’s death: 12 June 2015: UN's Ban Ki-moon receives report probing new information on Dag Hammarskjöld’s death
Bilateral relations of Sweden: Bilateral relations of Sweden
Sweden/Bangladesh relations: Sweden/Bangladesh relations
Sweden/China relations: Sweden/China relations
Humanitarian efforts during World War II: Sweden's humanitarian efforts during World War II
Sweden/Iran relations: Sweden/Iran relations
Sweden/Israel relations:Sweden/Israel relations
Timeline of Israel-Sweden relations written by the 'Times of Israel': Timeline of Israel-Sweden relations written by the 'Times of Israel'
Since 1953 Sweden–Israel Friendship Association: Since 1953 Sweden–Israel Friendship Association, nationwide since 1978
Nobel Prize since 1901 and Right Livelihood Award: Nobel Prize since 1901 - Right Livelihood Award
2014 Nobel prizes: 6 October 2014: British-American John O'Keefe, Norwegian Edvard and May-Britt Moser win the Nobel Medicine Prize for discovering how the brain navigates - 8 October: Eric Betzig, William Moerner and Stefan Hell win the Nobel Prize in chemistry for developing optical microscopy to study the interplay between molecules inside cells, including the aggregation of disease-related proteins - 9 October: French novelist Patrick Modiano wins the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature - 10 octobre: Prix nobel de la paix 2014 pour leur lutte contre l'oppression des enfants et pour le droit à l'éducation à Malala Yousafzai et Kailash Satyarthi - 25 September 2014: USA whistleblower Snowden wins Swedish human rights award for 'revealing the unprecedented extent of state surveillance' - 2 December 2014: Co-winning 'alternative Nobel', Snowden calls on UN to protect privacy
Sweden/Poland relations: Sweden/Poland relations
Sweden/Russia relations: Sweden/Russia relations
Sweden/Rwanda relations: Sweden/Rwanda relations
Sweden/South Africa relations: Sweden/South Africa relations
Sweden/Turkey relations: Sweden/Turkey relations - Turks in Sweden
Sweden/United Kingdom relations: Sweden/United Kingdom relations
Sweden/USA relations: Sweden/USA relations
Since 17th-century Swedish colonization of the Americas: Swedish colonization of the Americas since 17th-century
19th and early 20th centuries Swedish emigration to the USA: Swedish emigration to the USA in the 19th and early 20th centuries
Climate change in Sweden: Climate change in Sweden
Natural disasters in Sweden: Natural disasters in Sweden
Weather events in Sweden: Weather events in Sweden
2005 Cyclone Gudrun: January 2005 Cyclone Gudrun
2007 Cyclone Per: January 2007 Cyclone Per
Landslides in Sweden: Landslides in Sweden
Heat waves and wildfires in Sweden: Skogsbränder i Sverige
2014 Swedish heat wave: 2014 Swedish heat wave
2010 Swedish cold waves: 2010 Swedish cold waves


Ukraine - Geography of Ukraine - History of Ukraine - Demographics of Ukraine
Metal mining and production: Metal mining and production in Ukraine
Fossil fuels in Ukraine: Fossil fuels in Ukraine
Coal in Ukraine: Coal in Ukraine
15/17 March 2022 huge harvest losses feared following Russian agression according to APK-Inform and FAO: 15 March 2022: Russian invasion poses ‘clear, growing threat’ to food security in Ukraine and in many other countries, FAO says - 15 March 2022: 'After the invasion of Russian troops into the territory of Ukraine' around 2m hectares of winter wheat, barley and rye sown for 2022 harvest could be damaged or unavailable for harvest due to the hostilities and only around 5.5m hectares of winter grain crops could be threshed, 'it means 28% losses', according to APK-Inform reported by Reuters, Lviv, as Ukraine has already suspended exports of rye, oats, millet, buckwheat, salt, sugar, meat and livestock in the face of the invasion, and introduced licenses for wheat, corn and sunflower oil exports - 17 March 2022: Ukrainian 2022 grain crop to decline substantially
Forests of Ukraine: Forests of Ukraine
Fishing in Ukraine: Fishing in Ukraine
Aviation in Ukraine: Aviation in Ukraine
Ports of the Danube Delta: Ports of the Danube Delta
Izmail Sea Commercial Port: Izmail Sea Commercial Port, a state-owned and multidisciplinary port located in the waters of the Kiliia River estuary of the Danube, and an important transport hub of Ukraine. The functions of the seaport administration are performed by the Izmail branch of the state enterprise of the Ukrainian AMPU. The number of employees at Port of Izmail as of 2009 was 2,520 people - Izmail city and municipality on the Danube river in Odessa Oblast, serving as the administrative center of Izmail Raion, one of seven districts of Odessa Oblast. It is the largest Ukrainian port in the Danube Delta, on its Chilia branch. As such, Izmail is a center of the food processing industry and a popular regional tourist destination. It is also a base of the Ukrainian Navy and the Ukrainian Sea Guard units operating on the river.
Ust-Danube Seaport at the mouth of the Ochakiv estuary of the Danube Delta: Ust-Danube Commercial Seaport, a state-owned enterprise of the Ukrainian transport system located in the southern part of the Zhebriyans'ka Bay of the Black Sea and at the mouth of the Ochakiv estuary of the Danube Delta, since 1970. The port administration is located in Vylkove in Odessa Oblast. - 9 December 2021: Ust-Danube commercial seaport to be privatized - Port of Kiliya, a river port of the Ust-Danube Commercial Seaport located on the 47-km section of the Kiliya estuary of the Danube River, as the port was founded in the late 19th century, during the active development of the Port of Odessa. The port specializes in handling bulk cargo, including grain, which is exported to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The port has a grain processing complex and equipped warehouses.
Foreign trade of Ukraine: Foreign trade of Ukraine, Ukraine trade law and free trade agreements of Ukraine
Banking and banks of Ukraine: Banks of Ukraine - National Bank of Ukraine
Economic history and economic cycles in Ukraine: Economic history of Ukraine 2000-2014 and since 2014
2008/2009 Ukrainian financial crisis: 2008-2009 Ukrainian financial crisis
Cooperatives in Ukraine: Cooperatives in Ukraine
Unemployment in Ukraine: Unemployment in Ukraine
Poverty in Ukraine: Poverty in Ukraine


Armed Forces of Ukraine: Armed Forces of Ukraine
Structure of the Armed Forces of Ukraine: Structure of the Armed Forces of Ukraine
Military history of Ukraine: Military history of Ukraine
Budget of the Armed Forces of Ukraine: Budget of the Armed Forces of Ukraine
Taxation and budget in Ukraine: Taxation in Ukraine
2014 loans worth $37bln had gone missing from state coffers during Yanukovich's rule: 27 February 2014: New Ukraine PM says loans worth $37 billion had gone missing from state coffers during Yanukovich's rule - 28 March 2014: The IMF announced a $14-$18 billion bailout for Ukraine as UN rejects Russia's Crimea annexation - 1 May 2014: IMF approves $17 billion two-year aid program for Ukraine - 13 May: Donbas provides itself only for 40%, Ministry of Finance says - 26 June: The deficit of Ukraine's state budget in the first five months of 2014 shrank by 33.9% year-on-year, to UAH 12.224 billion - 2 July: Ukraine's state budget grew by UAH 13 billion in January through June 2014 - 22 December: Ukraine's defense and security budget for 2015 will amount to UAH 86bln, Oleksandr Turchynov says - 23 December 2014: Main macroeconomic indicators of draft budget for 2015


Politics of Ukraine: Politics of Ukraine
Political parties in Ukraine: Political parties in Ukraine
Constitution and parliament 'Verkhovna Rada' of Ukraine: Constitution of Ukraine - Legislation of Ukraine - Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine - Ukraine's parliament
Since May 2019 Volodymyr Zelenskyy elected, sworn in 6th President of Ukraine: Since 21 April, 20 May 2019 Volodymyr Zelenskyy elected, sworn in 6th President of Ukraine
Since 24 September 2021 video collection of president Zelenskyy's speeches: Since 24 September 2021 video collection of president Volodymyr Zelenskyy's speeches and addresses
Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine: Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine
Politics and elections in Ukraine: Elections in Ukraine
2008 Ukrainian political crisis: 2008 Ukrainian political crisis
2010 Ukrainian presidential election 17 January and 7 February: Ukrainian presidential election 17 January and 7 February 2010
31 October 2010 Ukrainian local elections: Ukrainian local elections 31 October 2010
November 2013 Ukrainian opposition calls for early elections and national strike: 30 November 2013: Ukrainian opposition calls for early elections and national strike
January-May 2014 Ukrainian parliament votes to oust Yanukovich, set an early election for May 25: 17 January 2014: MPs loyal to Yanukovych have rushed through sweeping legislation aimed at curbing continuing anti-government protests - 22 February 2014: Ukrainian parliament votes to oust President Yanukovich, set an early election for May 25 and votes for Yulia Tymoshenko's release - 23 February 2014: Speaker of Ukrainian parliament Oleksandr Turchinov appointed interim president - 24 February: Interior minister says warrant issued for arrest of Yanukovych - 25 February: Ukraine's interim President Turchynov is due to form a unity government - 25 February 2014: Ukraine parliament votes to have Yanukovych tried in The Hague - 26 February 2014: Nominated PM Arseniy Yatsenyuk warns of tough days ahead - 25 March 2014: Ukrainian lawmakers dismissed acting defense minister Tenyukh over his handling of the Crimea crisis - 29 March 2014: Klitschko's withdrawal sets stage for election contest between billionaire Poroshenko and former PM Yulia Tymoshenko - 7 April 2014: Ukraine's president to hold emergency meeting after eastern Ukraine attacks - 22 April 2014: Crimean Tatars living in Crimea will be able to elect Ukraine's president on the border area, Mejlis member Bariev says - 7 May 2014: Verkhovna Rada adopts law on partial mobilization - 8 May 2014: Ukrainian PM Yatseniuk will propose a provision according to which local councils can grant official status to Russian and other languages while maintaining the status of Ukrainian as a sole state language - 9 May 2014: A nationwide unity roundtable is scheduled for May 14, PM Yatseniuk says - 13 May 2014: Unity dialogue roundtables will be held in all regions, coordinated by a high Ukrainian representative and the OSCE, Ukraine's Danylo Lubkivsky says - 14 May: Round table for the national unity to take place today in Kyiv, involving PM Yatsenyuk, Parliament's Oleksandr Turchynov and expecting mayor of Donetsk and Luhansk regions as well as invited local businessmen - 15 May: Next roundtable to be held no later than Monday, Leonid Kravchuk says - 16 May: 'The national round table can be attended only by officially registered non-governmental organizations that have a charter and a program', Kravchuk says - 17 May: At the second national roundtable in Kharkiv PM Yatseniuk promises to give Russian language special status - 20 May: Ukraine brings suits against Russia in international, national courts, Petrenko says - 21 May 2014: Third round table for national unity ends in Mykolayiv, calling all Ukrainians to take part in Sunday elections
June/July 2014 69% of Ukrainians want early parliamentary elections this year: 5 June 2014: 69% of Ukrainians want early parliamentary elections this year, DIF poll in all regions except Crimea finds - 6 June 2014: PM Yatseniuk vows Donbas to be freed from terrorists - 19 June 2014: The parliament approved Valeria Hontareva as governor of the National Bank of Ukraine - 24 July 2014: Parliament fails to pass law to increase army financing and regulate country's energy situation - 24 July: 'I am announcing my resignation due to the collapse of the coalition and the blocking of government initiatives', PM Arseniy Yatseniuk says - 31 July: Verkhovna Rada does not accept Yatseniuk's resignation, now supporting allocation of UAH 9bn for the army until the end of 2014 and UAH 2bn for renewal of the regions in the east of Ukraine - 31 July 2014: Government will not stop financing social payments in east
September 2014 Poroshenko calls on world's democracies to unite in fight against terrorism: 11 September: Ukraine's Poroshenko calls on world's democracies to unite in fight against terrorism - 16 September: Verkhovna Rada, European Parliament have ratified association agreement simultaneously - 16 September: Ukraine draws closer to EU and passes legislation to grant autonomy to rebel-held parts in east - 17 September: Verkhovna Rada passes law on lustration - 25 September: Poroshenko orders government to abandon Ukraine's non-aligned status - 25 September: Ukraine should hold early elections of local governments after the parliamentary elections, Poroshenko says - 26 September: CEC finished registering the nationwide party lists, a total of 29 parties will participate in the parliamentary election - 29 September: Ukrainian people will not allow reanimation of fascism, and the Babyn Yar tragedy should serve as a reminder, Petro Poroshenko says during a ceremony of honoring the victims of Babyn Yar - 29 September: Starting in Kharkiv, Ukraine opens first proceeding for bribing voters
October-December 2014 anti-corruption, taxation reform efforts: 29 October: 222 officials included in lustration register - 29 October Yatseniuk invites Poroshenko Bloc, Batkivshchyna, Samopomich, Radical Party to coalition - 27 November: With the backing of 341 deputies out of 390 Ukraine's parliament confirms PM Arseniy Yatsenyuk to lead a new coalition government - 3 December: Ukrainian new government - 9 December: PM Yatseniuk presents government action program, announcing new economic policy and full-scale health insurance - 18 December: Anti-Corruption Bureau to be created in Ukraine on January 14, Poroshenko says - 23 December: The Cabinet of Ministers will submit to the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine the bills envisaging an increase in taxes for oligarchs - 23 December: Verkhovna Rada cancels Ukraine's non-bloc status - 29 December: MPs adopt state budget for 2015, envisaging the Ukraine's GDP at minus 4.3%, nominal GDP at UAH 1.721 trillion, inflation at 13.1%
January-May 2015 Donbas conflict, Poroshenko appoints Georgia's failed Saakashvili governor of Odessa: 1 January: Poroshenko says in his New Year address to the nation that Ukrainians will win the imposed war 'because for us, it is just' - 5 January: Parliamentary immunity will be cancelled in 2015 through amendments to the Constitution, Yuriy Lutsenko says - 13 January: Ukraine ready to provide Donbas status of special economic zone with its own regime of relations with the EU and Russia, Poroshenko says - 22 January: Ukraine marks Unity Day - 26 February: Cabinet extends emergency measures in energy sector - 6 March: The Ukrainian government fears a GDP decline to 11.9% in 2015 - 17 March: , Supported by 265 members of parliament, separate areas in Donbas receive special local government rule - 18 March: 341 members of parliament out of 450-seat assembly support appeal to UN and EU for peacekeepers - 25 March: Ukraine's president fires oligarch Kolomoisky as regional chief of Dnipropetrovsk, after armed men that lawmakers said were linked to the oligarch raided a state-owned oil firm - 2 April: Ukrainian PM Yatseniuk announces an international business forum in July on attracting investment in agricultural, infrastructure and energy sectors, confirming that Ukraine is holding up its side of the Minsk II agreement - 4 April: The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine starts drastic personnel reshuffles - 9 April 2015: Ukrainian Parliament declares May 8 as Remembrance and Reconciliation Day, passing the law on perpetuation of victory over fascism in the WWII of 1939-1945 - 28 April 2015: Kyiv hosts International Support for Ukraine Conference, aiming to present the investment opportunities of Ukraine, not to get donor assistance, as Poroshenko says at the 7th EU-Ukraine summit, that Ukraine should apply for EU membership in five years - 13 May 2015: Ukraine's government approves privatization of more than 300 companies - 20 May 2015: PM Yatseniuk asks MPs to let peacekeepers in Ukraine - 21 May: New Ukrainian law outlaws the display of Nazi and Communist symbols but another law requires that nationalist groups involved in the killings of Jews and Poles be honored - 30 May 2015: Ukraine's Poroshenko appoints former Georgian leader Mikheil Saakashvili governor of the strategic Odessa region, who once began a war with Russia in 2008 and is now wanted by Georgia over criminal charges - August 2008 Battle of Tskhinvali, fight for the city of Tskhinvali after Georgian ground troops entered the city on early 8 August 2008 following artillery assault, parts of Tskhinvali were devastated in the three-day fighting - Humanitarian impact and casualties of the Georgian-Russian War 2008
June-September 2015: 16 June 2015: Ukrainian Anti-Corruption Bureau to start operating in October - 12 July: Government forces barricade bases of nationalist militia in western Ukraine, which has helped it battle pro-Russian forces, after gunfight reportedly killed two people - 17 July: Parliament adopts resolution on the appointment of regular elections of members of local councils and village, town and city mayors on 25 October 2015 - 28 July: In by-elections in Chernihiv 'Bloc of Petro Poroshenko's' Serhiy Berezenko scored 35.90% of votes and UKROP party's Hennadiy Korban 14.76% - 12 August: Poroshenko signs bill to hike defense spending by UAH 5.3 billion in 2015 - 1 September 2015: National Guard soldiers killed and more than 140 people injured in clashes among the law enforcers and demonstrators against voting for amendments to the Constitution paving the way for further decentralization, as a grenade was thrown at the law enforcers near the Ukrainian Parliament by suspected Ihor Gumenyuk - 1 September: Ukraine raises minimum wages, pensions and scholarships on 1 September 2015
November/December 2015: 12 November: The Parliament of Ukraine passes an anti-discrimination amendment to the Labour Code of Ukraine - 29 November: Ukrainian local elections in several areas near frontline, as residents in Mariupol and nearby Krasnoarmiysk are voting for city council deputies and other mayors - 2 December: Independent becomes mayor, opposition wins council in Mariupol elections - 15 December 2015: Spat between Ukrainian interior minister Arsen Avakov and former Georgian warmonger Mikheil Saakashvili follows a brawl between MP Oleh Barna, from Poroshenko’s ruling coalition, attempting to remove Ukrainian PM Yatsenyuk from the speaker’s podium forcefully last week - 25 December: Ukraine's parliament passes 2016 budget, providing expenditures at UAH 667.733bln, raising of the minimum salary, increased spending on the national defense and security, limiting the deficit to 3.7% of gross domestic product, outlays to $ 40bln and expexting 1.7bln more from the IMF and an additional $ 2.3bln from other benefactors
2016 Ukraine's ruling coalition in turmoil, ongoing Russian aggression: 17 February 2016: Former premier Tymoshenko’s party Batkivshchyna exits the parliament coalition - 18 February: Ukraine's ruling coalition in turmoil after government narrowly survives no confidence vote - 19 February: Ukrainian Parliament's Volodymyr Groysman announces Samopomich fraction's exit from the ruling coalition - 21 February: Ukrainian MP's must still pass a law to unlock $1.5 bln worth of funds seized from allies close to ex-president Yanukovych, according to PM - 11 April: New parliament coalition expected to be created on 12 April, following resignation of Yatsenyuk - 14 April: Parliament chairman Groysman replaces PM Arseniy Yatsenyuk - 15 October 2016: Ukrainian president Poroshenko believes that Russia will not terminate its policy of aggression until the world is united to stop Russian Putin regime, calling 'to make every effort to unmask the manifestation of Russian aggression wherever we only can – in Donbas, in the case of the downed MH17, and in Aleppo', emphasizing the importance of solidarity of the whole world in this issue and further extension of sanctions against Russia - 7 November 2016: Georgia's Saakashvili announces he is leaving his position as Odesa Regional State Administrator due to 'a difficult situation'
12-20 April 2019 Kolomoisky's straw man Zelensky's evasion from the army: 12 April 2019: Ukrainian Defense Ministry will check reports of Volodymyr Zelensky's evasion from the army, after deputy of the Verkhovna Rada Tatyana Chernovol demanded to check the information that the presidential candidate Vladimir Zelensky allegedly declined to be called up for military service and refused to act as a defender - 14 April 2019: Statement from the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense accusing Vladimir Zelensky of evading citations - 19 April 2019: While Zelensky portraying himself as a fighter against oligarchs, in reality he is clearly linked to the Ukrainian oligarch Ihor Kolomoisky, the owner of 1+1 TV, where the candidate’s show has appeared since 2012, and according to an investigation led by Volodymyr Ariev the start of this TV cooperation coincided with large financial transactions between Privat Bank, Ukraine’s largest bank which was at that time owned by Kolomoisky, and Zelensky and other team members, 2012-2016 $41 million was directed from the bank through a series of intermediary companies into the accounts of Zelensky and Co. companies as Ariev contends that Kolomoisky used Zelensky’s companies for money laundering
27 October 2019 Ukrainian PM, minister attended neo-Nazi concert: 27 October 2019: Ukrainian PM, minister attended neo-Nazi concert in Kyiv
1 May 2022 commemoration of the dead in Ukraine, today including the victims of ongoing Russian war crimes: 1 May 2022: Annual commemoration of the dead in Ukraine, as the country marks the commemoration day a week after Easter when people are visiting cemeteries to remember the dead. This year has been especially poignant. Thousands of people fell victim of the Russian invasion. In Irpin, a city on the outskirts of the capital Kyiv, there are dozens of new graves. Civilians and military killed when Russian troops advanced on the city are buried at the local cemetery. Ukrainian authorities have accused Russia's departing forces of committing war crimes and leaving behind devastating scenes in Irpin and other towns surrounding Kyiv, 'africanews' reports with a video showing destroyed cities, villages without further comment


Social movements and protests in Ukraine: Protests in Ukraine - Social movements in Ukraine
2008 Ukrainian political crisis: 2008 Ukrainian political crisis
March 2012 murder of Oksana Makar and protests: 8 March 2012 murder of Oksana Makar and protests demanding justice
November 2012 protest against alleged fraud in parliamentary elections: 5 November 2012: Opposition rally in Kiev to protest against alleged fraud in parliamentary elections
November 2013 pro EU protests: 22 November 2013: Thousands of protesters are rallying across Ukraine for the second day, angry at the government's move to delay an association deal with the EU - 24/25 novembre: Des dizaines de milliers d’Ukrainiens ont à nouveau battu le pavé de la capitale pour dénoncer le revirement de leur gouvernement qui a décidé de renoncer à un accord d’association avec Bruxelles - 26 novembre: Les manifestants pro-européens continuent de mettre la pression sur le gouvernement - 29 November: Ukrainian opposition at a mass rally in Kiev on Friday demanded that President Yanukovych step down after refusing to salvage a key deal with the European Union - 30 November: Tear gas fills Kiev's Liberty Square as critics of president's decision to block EU trade deal are dispersed by force
December 2013 rallies demanding the resignation of Yanukovich: 1 décembre: L'opposition ukrainienne exige une élection présidentielle anticipée et le départ du président Ianoukovitch - 2 December: Hundreds of thousands of protesters defied a government ban on public rallies to mass on Kiev’s Independence Square on Sunday, demanding the resignation of Yanukovich - 3 décembre: Assiégé par plusieurs milliers de manifestants pro-européens, le Parlement ukrainien examine une motion de défiance - 4 December: Kiev's pro-EU protesters brave freezing temperatures - 4 décembre: La mobilisation continue malgré l'échec d'une motion de défiance à Kiev - 5 décembre: Dans une lettre ouverte, trois ex-présidents de l'Ukraine ont apporté mercredi leur soutien à la contestation pro-européenne - 5 December: OSCE summit in Kyiv calls respect for the rule of law and basic freedoms - 6 December: Calling for anti-government march at weekend after Yanukovych visit in Russia - 8 December: Hundreds of thousands of pro-EU Ukrainians rallied in Kiev for a new protest aimed at forcing Yanukovych to resign, furious over the decision to back out of a historic agreement with the EU under Kremlin pressure - 10 décembre: La police démonte les barricades des manifestants pro-Europe - 11 décembre: La police donne l'assaut à la mairie de Kiev - 11 December: Ukrainian police storm Kiev's Independence Square in a move that sparked immediate international concern - 12 December: Ukraine protesters defy police, leaders reject talks with president after the destruction of a protest camp - 13 December: Ukraine protesters rebuild barricades in centre of Kiev - 13 December: Ukrainian court frees nine pro-EU protesters, but talks between opposition and Yanukovych have made little progress - 14 décembre: L'administration Ianoukovitch fait un geste à l'égard de l'opposition, en révoquant deux hauts responsables qui avaient fait disperser violemment la manifestation du 30 novembre - 15/16 December: Hundreds of thousands of Ukrainians demanding political change braved freezing temperatures and aggressive policing in Kiev - 18 December: Yanukovych under pressure over deal with Russia - 22 December: Ukraine’s opposition continues rallies against the regime, encouraging the pro EU-protests to spread across the country by announcing the creation of a new movement - 25/26 December: Outrage in Ukraine after brutal attack on Ukrainian civic activist and journalist Tetyana Chernovil, hundreds of journalists and opposition activists demand the resignation of interior minister - 26 December: Journalist Tetyana Chernovil in intensive care after beating as protesters rally in Kiev holding photos - 29 décembre: Nouvelle mobilisation massive de l'opposition à Kiev - 29 December: Tens of thousands of irate Ukrainians rallied amid swelling anger over the brutal beating of the pro-European journalist Tetyana Chernovil
January 2014 pro-EU protests: 1. Januar: Rund 200.000 pro-europäische Demonstranten protestieren in Kiew und fordern Neuwahlen - 11 January: Several people, including former minister and leading opposition figure Yuriy Lutsenko, injured in clashes between protesters and riot police in Kiev - 12 January: Ex-Interior Minister Yuriy Lutsenko has been moved from intensive care after reportedly attacked by baton-wielding police in Kiev - 12 janvier: Environ 50.000 personnes ont manifesté dimanche en plein centre de Kiev contre le tabassage de l'opposant Iouri Loutsenko - 13 janvier: À Kiev, la mobilisation anti-Ianoukovitch reprend de l'ampleur - 19 January: Pro-EU demonstrators are preparing for a big rally in Kiev, in defiance of recently adopted laws aimed at curbing public protests - 19 January: Up to 100,000 pro-Europe Ukrainians protest in Kiev in defiance of sweeping new laws aimed at stamping out anti-government rallies - 20 January: After violent clashes in Kiev and calls for an end to the violence and political talks, Yanukovych has agreed to negotiate with pro-EU protesters and opposition leaders - 21 January: Clashes have continued for a second consecutive night in Kiev - 22 January: After police stormed barricades in Kiev two people reported dead on Wednesday morning, one man reportedly shot four times - 22 janvier: La police a lancé mercredi un assaut contre les manifestants pro-européens rassemblés à Kiev, faisant plusieurs morts et 300 blessées - 23 janvier: Au lendemain d'une journée sanglante qui a fait 5 morts, les chefs de file de l'opposition menacent de passer à l'offensive ce jeudi si Ianoukovitch ne fait pas de concessions - 24 January: Opposition leaders who held discussions with Yanukovich told protesters that Yanukovich called for an emergency session of parliament next Tuesday to end the country's political crisis - 24 January: Protesters in Ukraine built more barricades in Kiev early on Friday, after opposition leaders emerged empty-handed from initial direct negotiations - 25 January: As protests spread from Ukraine's capital to nearly half of the country and protesters occupy government buildings in a number of cities, Kiev protesters demand Yanukovych's resignation and clashes resume - 25 janvier: Le gouvernement ukrainien se trouve samedi sous une pression accrue de la contestation, à Kiev et dans l'ouest du pays, et de l'UE qui intensifie les contacts à l'issue d'une semaine de violences - 26 January: Ukraine opposition seek early elections and the repeal of an anti-protest law after offer of top government posts - 26 January: Reports of unrest in the north, east and south of Ukraine (Chernihiv, Sumy, Cherkasy, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Odessa), as in Kiev thousands mourned the 25-year-old protester Mikhail Zhiznevsky, who died of gunshot wounds - 27 January: Ukraine protests spread as the EU delegation in Ukraine on Monday urges the government to uphold the promises made during negotiations with the opposition - 28 janvier: Avant la session extraordinaire du Parlement ukrainien, Ianoukovitch a accepté d'abolir les lois anticontestation votées le 16 janvier - 29 janvier: Le Parlement doit discuter de nouvelles concessions dont une amnistie de manifestants en prison - 30 janvier: Le gouvernement annonce une amnistie, l'opposition dénonce un chantage - 30 January: Yanukovych reportedly ill but defiant amid turmoil - 31 January: Ukrainian opposition activist Dmytro Bulatov, who vanished for eight days, emerged bloodied and badly beaten, saying his captors cut off an ear and drove nails through his hands before dumping him in a forest
February 2014 Ukrainian revolution: February 2014 Ukrainian revolution - 2 February: Opposition politician Vitali Klitschko and FM Kozhara clashed face to face at Munich summit, as EU's Herman Van Rompuy and USA's John Kerry backed Ukraine's 'fight for democracy' - 3 February 2014: Ukrainian regime allows injured activist Dmytro Bulatov to receive treatment in Lithuania - 4 February: Opposition MPs seek to curb president's powers, as parliament begins a new term and thousands of people remain on the streets - 9 February: An estimated 70,000 pro-Europe Ukrainians rallied in Kiev on Sunday vowing never to give up their drive to oust Yanukovych for his alliance with Putin's regime - 16 February: Amnesty will come into force after Ukraine protesters and police pulled back in contest over Yanukovich - 19 February: More than 20 people dead as riot police move in to clear Kiev's Independence Square, and defiant Yanukovych rejects calls to halt the ferocious assault - 20 February: EU and US consider sanctions against Yanukovich's regime - 20 February: Crackdown and clashes continue in Kiev despite truce and crisis talks with foreign ministers from France, Germany and Poland - 21 February: Statement that Yanukovych has reached a deal with the opposition to end the crisis, after all-night talks mediated by EU foreign ministers - 22 February: Yanukovych reportedly flees Kiev for his support base in Ukraine's Russia-leaning east - 22 February: President's Kiev offices are unguarded, with opposition protesters reportedly in full control of the government district - 22/23 February: After her release from prison former PM Yulia Tymoshenko addresses protesters on Kiev's Independence Square - 23 February: Ukraine's parliament, exercising power since Yanukovych's flight, names its new speaker as acting president and works to form a new government - 25 February 2014: Promising that his coalition administration will be a 'government of the people', interim President Turchynov is due to form a unity government
2016 political, economic and anti-corruption protests: 20 February 2016: Ukraine honours 2014 Maidan massacre victims - 9 March 2016: Ukraine's activists march on international women's day in support of gender equality and women's rights - 13 March: Professional sportsmen, social activists and ordinary citizens take part in 'Run for Crimea' event in Kyiv aimed to raise political awareness - 8 April: Ukrainian protesters rallied in Kyiv demanding corrupt officials and separatists be dismissed from their senior positions in law enforcement agencies across Ukrainian regions, as earlier in the day farmers rallied outside the Cabinet of Ministers, demanding milk purchase prices be increased - 16/17 April 2016: Many of Poroshenko's supporters are disappointed in the slow pace of reforms and an apparent unwillingness to crack down on corrupt officials, as Ukrainian president is facing a crisis of confidence after his name appeared in the 'Panama Papers' leak and the country's PM, with whom he clashed, stepped down - 15 November 2016: Several hundred people gathered in front of the Russian Embassy in Kyiv, condemning the aggression of the Russian regime against Ukraine - 16 November 2016: Protests in central Kyiv go on for second day, as protesters against the Ukrainian government, mostly older people and students, came to the National Bank office


Society, demographics, culture and human rights in Ukraine: Ukrainian society - Human rights in Ukraine
24 July 2022 Dmytro Lubinets appointed as the Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human Rights: 24 July 2022: Dmytro Lubinets appointed as the Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human Rights
Oblasts, raions, cities and local government in Ukraine: Administrative divisions of Ukraine - Oblasts of Ukraine - Raions of Ukraine - Local government in Ukraine
History of Volhynia since the Middle Ages: History of Volhynia, as Volyn was once part of Kievan Rus' before becoming an independent local principality and an integral part of the Halych-Volynia, one of Kievan Rus' successor states. In the 15th century, the area came under the control of neighbouring Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1569 of Poland and then in 1795 - since the partitions of Poland and the '1814/1815 Congress of Vienna' until 1914-1918 Central Powers WWI to the Russian Empire where it was a part of the Volynskaya Guberniya. In the interwar period most of the territory, organized as Wolyn Voivodeship was under Polish control. In 1939 Poland was invaded and divided by NSDAP-rule German empire and the Soviet Union, as Volyn was joined to Soviet Ukraine as 'Volyn Oblast districts' and many Ukrainians rejoiced at the 'reunification', after WWI and the November revolution in 1917 no longer in the Tsardom of Russia with its ruling Romanov dynasty. In July 1941 Volyn along with the Soviet Union was invaded by the Nazi Germany's 'Barbarossa Offensive'. Nazis alongside Ukrainian collaborators completed their Holocaust of the Jews of Volhynia in late 1942, despite partisan activity started in Volyn in 1941, soon after German occupation. Partisans were involved in the Rail War campaign against German supply lines and were known for their efficiency in gathering intelligence and for sabotage. The region formed the basis of several networks and many members of the local population served with the partisans. The Poles in the area became part of the Polish Home Army, which often undertook operations with the partisan movement. UPA initially supported Nazi Germany which had in turn supported them with financing and weaponry before the start of World War II. Many served in the various RONA and SS units. Once they became disillusioned with the Nazi program, they independently began to target all non-Ukrainians (Poles, Jews, Russians, among others) for extermination. Thousands of Poles, Czechs, remaining Jews, and Ukrainians who tried to help others escape were killed in retaliation until in January 1944 the Red Army recaptured the territory from the Nazis. The area underwent rapid industrialisation including the construction of the Lutskiy Avtomobilnyi Zavod. Nevertheless, the area remains one of the most rural throughout the former Soviet Union.
History of Kovel city: History of Kovel city
History of Lutsk city since WWI: Since 1918/19 Second Polish Republic, following 1914-1918 World War I including history of Volyn Oblast and Lutsk since then, 1919-1921 Polish–Soviet War, and 1939-1945 World War II, as 7 September 1939 the Polish government, which had left Warsaw the day before, arrived at Luck (Lutsk city). German NSDAP intelligence quickly found out about it, and the city was twice bombed by the German Luftwaffe on 11 and 14 September. After German 'Blitzkrieg' panzer units of the Wehrmacht had crossed the Bug river on 14 September the government of Poland left Luck and headed southwards, to Kosow Huculski, which at that time was located near the Polish–Romanian border. As a result of the invasion of Poland and the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Luck, along with the rest of western Volyn, was annexed by the Soviet Union. After the start of German empire's 'Operation Barbarossa' the city was captured by the Wehrmacht on 25 June 1941. Upon Nazi occupation most of the Jewish inhabitants of the city were forced into a new Luck Ghetto and then murdered at the execution site on Górka Polonka hill not far from the city. In total, more than 25,000 Jews were executed there at point-blank range, men, women and children. The Luck Ghetto was liquidated entirely through the Holocaust by bullets. During the massacres of Poles in Volhynia approximately 10,000 Poles were murdered by the Ukrainian 'Insurgent Army' in the area. It was captured by the Soviet 'Red Army' on 2 February 1944.
20th/21st century history of Rivne city: 20th century history of Rivne city, as on 28 June 1941 Rivne was invaded by the 6th army of the NSDAP ruled German empire, which later established the city as the administrative centre of Reichskommissariat Ukraine on 20 August. A prison for the Gestapo was created on Belaia Street. At the time, roughly half of Rivne's inhabitants were Jewish. About 23,000 were taken to a pine grove in Sosenki and killed between 6–8 November. A ghetto was established for the remaining 5,000 Jews. In July 1942, its population was sent 70km north to Kostopil where they were killed, and the ghetto was subsequently liquidated. On 2 February 1944, the city was captured by the Red Army in the Battle of Rovno, and remained under Soviet control until Ukraine regained its independence on the break-up of the USSR in 1991, following the failure of Mikhail Gorbachev's 'glasnost' and 'perestroika'
Timeline and history of Lviv: Timeline and history of Lviv city since 1256
18th-19th centuries history of Lviv: 18th-19th centuries history of Lviv
Since 1914 amid German-Russian conflict 1914/1915 Russian occupation: Since 1914 amid German-Russian conflict 1914/1915 Russian occupation
21st century history of Lviv: 21st century history of Lviv
7 March 2022 united in defiance, residents fortify Lviv against Russian attack: 7 March 2022: United in defiance, residents fortify Lviv against Russian attack, Canada's 'Global News' reports
1941-1944 NSDAP ruled German empire's occupation of Yavoriv city: 1941-1944 Yavoriv city, as its Jewish population before the German occupation on 26 June 1941 was around 3000. Immediately after the Germans arrived, antisemitic Ukrainians launched a pogrom, robbing and killing Jews. German forces took 15 Jews to a nearby forest and shot them. After that, for several months, Jews lived in their own homes but were banned on the main street and had a 6 pm curfew. The Ukrainian police brutalized them, with beatings and some plunder and rape. Several hundred Jews were sent to local forced labor camps. In November 1942, German and Ukrainian police rounded up 1200 Jews, killed 200 on the spot, and sent the others to the Belzec killing camp where they were immediately murdered. A few days later, German and Ukrainian police hunted Jews in hiding and murdered about 200 at the Jewish cemetery. After that, the Germans established a Jewish ghetto which housed about 600 Jews. Soon after, Jews from a few neighboring villages were brought to Yavoriv bringing the ghetto population to 6000. The overcrowding, starvation, and poor sanitary conditions soon led to a typhus epidemic. After about 500 more able-bodied Jews were sent to a labor camp, on 16 April 1943, the German and Ukrainian police took more than 3500 Jews to the Porudno forest and murdered them. More than 2500 Jews were murdered before noon on the 16th, the rest over the next few days. The Germans and Ukrainians burned the ghetto and searched for those in hiding. Those found were shot. A few were transferred to a labor camp in Lwow. In 1944 the town was liberated and re-occupied by the Soviets, as they soon continued their resistance war in Poland before liberating Berlin in May 1945.
20th/212st centuries history of Ivano-Frankivsk city: 20th/212st centuries history of Ivano-Frankivsk city
Zakarpattia Oblast: Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, coterminous with the historical region of Carpathian Ruthenia. Its administrative centre is the city of Uzhhorod, as other major cities include Mukachevo, Khust, Berehove and Chop which is home to railroad transport infrastructure. Situated in the Carpathian Mountains of western Ukraine, Zakarpattia Oblast is the only Ukrainian administrative division which borders upon four countries, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. The Carpathians are an important tourist and travel destination housing many ski and spa resorts, meaning that they play a major part in the oblast's economy. The oblast was established in January 1946, attached to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic under a treaty between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union.
21st century history of Uzhhorod: 21st century history of Uzhhorod
20th century history of Vynohradiv and demographics: After in 1910 Vynohradiv city had a population of 7,811 citizens the religious make-up was 3,311 Greek Catholics (42.5%), 2,237 Jews (28.6%) and 1,124 Calvinists (14.4%). After German empire's invasion of Poland and the Soviet Union, the city became a Jewish ghetto amid the Holocaust. At its height from May to June 1944, most of the Jews of this section of northern Transylvania were deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp to be gassed shortly after arrival. Jews from the area typically spent about two weeks in the ghetto before being deported. Conditions were extremely cramped with many families housed in a single room, a deliberate arrangement meant to cause suffering and disease. In late 1944, Carpathian Ruthenia was liberated by Soviet Union Red Army and eventually became part of the state established in 1917-1922 in 1946. The city name became Vinogradovo (Russian), Vynohradiv (Ukrainian), or Vynohradovo (Rusyn). All mean 'Grape City'. A local newspaper is published since December 1945.
History of Chernivtsi oblast since the Neolithic era: History of Chernivtsi oblast, as archaeological evidence discovered in the area surrounding Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabited it since the Neolithic era. Later settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, the Corded Ware culture, as artifacts from the Bronze and Iron Ages were also found in the city. In the Middle Ages there lived East Slavic tribes, White Croats and Tivertsi. A fortified settlement located on the left (north-eastern) shore of the Prut river dates back to the time of the Principality of Halych and is thought to have been built during the reign of Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl. Legendary accounts refer to this fortress-city as Chern', or Black city, said to owe its name to the black color of the city walls, built from dark oak layered with local black-colored soil. This early stronghold was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe by Boroldai in 1259.
20th/21st century history of Chernivtsi oblast, the Holocaust, 'Bericha Movement': 20th/21st century history of Chernivtsi oblast, as under the regime of military dictator Ion Antonescu, Romania had switched from an ally of France and Britain to one of NSDAP ruled German empire. Subsequently in July 1941, the Romanian Army retook the city as part of the Axis attack on the Soviet Union during World War II. Chernivtsi would become the capital of the 'Romanian Bukovina Governorate'. In August 1941, Antonescu ordered the creation of a ghetto in the lowland part of the city, where 50,000 Bukovina Jews were crammed, two-thirds of whom would be deported in October 1941 and early 1942 to Transnistria, where the majority perished. In 1944, when Axis forces were driven out by the Red Army, the city was reincorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. Over the following years, most of the Jews emigrated to Israel, as the city was an important node in the Berihah network, also called the 'Bericha Movement' underground organized effort that helped Jewish Holocaust survivors escape post–World War II Europe to the British Mandate for Palestine
20th century, WWII, the Holocaust, since late 1944 'Bericha Movement', escape routes: Bericha Movement that helped Jewish Holocaust survivors to escape late WWII and post–World War II Europe to the British Mandate for Palestine, after Soviet, USA, British armed forces liberated German concentration camps, and survivors suffered from disease, severe malnutrition and depression. Many were displaced persons who were unable to return to their homes from before the war. In some areas the survivors continued to face antisemitic violence, as during the 1946 Kielce pogrom in Poland 42 survivors were killed when their communal home was attacked by a mob. For many of the survivors, Europe had become 'a vast cemetery of the Jewish people' and 'they wanted to start life over and build a new national Jewish homeland in Eretz Yisrael'. In late 1944 and early 1945, Jewish members of the Polish resistance met up with Warsaw ghetto fighters - only a very small number survived by fleeing through Warsaw's sewers - in Lubin to form Bricha as a way of escaping the antisemitism of Europe, where they were convinced that another Holocaust would occur. After the liberation of Rivne, Eliezer and Abraham Lidovsky, and Pasha (Isaac) Rajchmann, concluded that there was no future for Jews in Poland. They formed an artisan guild to cover their covert activities, and they sent a group to Cernauti, Romania to seek out escape routes
Chernivtsi city: Chernivtsi city in Southwestern Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the Prut River, and the administrative center of Chernivtsi Oblast, which includes the Ukrainian part of Bukovina. Chernivtsi is also the administrative center of Chernivtsi Raion and hosts the administration of the Chernivtsi urban hromada. In 2001 the population of the city was 240,600 citizens. The current population is 265,471. Chernivtsi is viewed as one of Western Ukraine's main cultural centers. The city is also considered one of Ukraine's important educational and architectural sites. Historically a cosmopolitan community, Chernivtsi was once dubbed 'Little Vienna' and 'Jerusalem upon the Prut'. The city is a major regional rail and road transportation hub, also housing an international airport.
Sadigura Hasidic dynasty: Sadigura Hasidic dynasty named for the city of Sadhora (Sadigura in Yiddish), which belonged to Austria in the 19th and early 20th century. The dynasty began in 1850 with Rabbi Avrohom Yaakov Friedman, and was based in Sadigura until 1914. During the interwar period the dynasty was led by Rebbes in Vienna and Przemysl, Poland, and on the eve of World War II was transplanted to Israel, where it thrives to this day. As Sadigura is one of the branches of the Ruzhiner dynasty, in 2013 Sadigura has several hundred members in Israel, the USA and Europe. Its members reside in Israel in Jerusalem, Ashdod, Los Angeles, New York City, Modiin Ilit, Beitar Ilit, and Elad, and in Europe in London and Antwerp. The dynasty today is centered on the current Sadigura Rebbe's beis medrash in Bnei Brak, Israel.
Since 1918 'Hava Nagila' to celebrate the Balfour Declaration and British victory over the Ottomans: Since 1918 Hava Nagila (Hebrew Havah Nagilah, 'Let us rejoice'), a Jewish folk song, traditionally sung at celebrations, such as weddings. Written in 1918 and attributed to the Sadigurer Chasidim, it quickly spread though the Jewish diaspora, as one of the first modern Jewish folk songs in the Hebrew language. It went on to become a staple of band performers at Jewish weddings and bar and bat mitzvah celebrations. The melody is based on a Hassidic Nigun. It was composed in 1918 to celebrate the Balfour Declaration and the British victory over the Ottomans in 1917. It was first performed in a mixed choir concert in Jerusalem. - Original version of 'Hava Nagila', performed in November 2019, performed in May 2021
Economy and transportation in Ternopil oblast: Economy and transportation in Ternopil oblast, as its economy is predominantly agriculturally oriented. Among industries, there is a well developed food industry particularly sugar production, alcohol, and dairy such as butter. There is also number of factories such as 'Vatra' lighting equipment, Ternopil Harvester Plant, 'Orion' radio communication among a few. Ternopil Oblast has an adequate network of highways, while the city of Ternopil is located at the intersection of main European corridors along the E50 and E85 highways, and there is a small airport and a well developed railroad network which is a part of the Lviv Railways. Water transportation is limited and mostly along the Dniester River, that finally connects with Moldova breakaway territory of Transnistria (with Russian military presence) and cities like Rybnytsia - Dniester river in Eastern Europe, running first through Ukraine and then through Moldova - from which it more or less separates the breakaway territory of Transnistria -, finally discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again
Since 12th century history of Ternopil oblast: History of Ternopil oblast since 12th century, as in the 21st centuries in 2005 the population of the oblast had grown to roughly 225,000 inhabitants, consisting primarily of ethnic Ukrainians with a large Russian-speaking minority. The city of Ternopil has important institutions of higher education, including two teacher's colleges, an international medical school with instruction in English, and one of three economics institutes in Ukraine. The religion of the majority is Eastern Rite Catholic, though there is a notable Orthodox presence and a small Protestant minority. The local Jewish community, which was very large before 1939, disappeared in the Holocaust due to mass murder including German extermination camps mainly established in occupied Poland. There are no active synagogues in the oblast and only a few isolated individuals affiliating with the Jewish faith.
Other cities in Ternopil Oblast: Other cities in Ternopil Oblast
Administrative divisions of Khmelnytskyi Oblast: Administrative divisions of Khmelnytskyi Oblast, subdivided into raions which are subdivided into amalgamated territorial hromadas (communities). The oblast was established on 22 September 1937 named the 'Kamianets-Podilskyi Oblast' to replace the Kamianets Okruha and other neighboring administrative regions in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Its administrative center was moved from Kamianets-Podilskyi to Proskuriv in 1941, and when Proskuriv's name was changed to Khmelnytskyi, the oblast's name was changed as well. The administrative divisions in the oblast have remained the same since January 2006, as its population was 1,426,649 citizens in 2001, and as the oblast borders upon Rivne Oblast to the northwest, Zhytomyr Oblast to the northeast, Vinnytsia Oblast to the east, Chernivtsi Oblast to the south, and Ternopil Oblast to the west. In the 21st century the oblast has 24 urban-type settlements, 568 rural municipalities, 1409 villages, and five rural settlements
Cities in Khmelnytskyi Oblast: Cities in Khmelnytskyi Oblast