Geography of 'Europe', a large landmass and northwestern peninsula of Eurasia (or even the larger Afro-Eurasia), as Europe's eastern frontier is delineated by the Ural Mountains in Russia, as the southeast boundary with Asia in the modern definition is generally the Ural River (Emba River), as the boundary continues to the Caspian Sea, the crest of the Caucasus Mountains (river Kura in the Caucasus), and on to the Black Sea, as the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles conclude the Asian boundary, and as the Mediterranean Sea to the south separates Europe from Africa - Geology of Europe is varied and complex, and gives rise to the wide variety of landscapes found across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands to the rolling plains of Hungary, as Europe's most significant feature is the dichotomy between highland and mountainous Southern Europe and a vast, partially underwater, northern plain ranging from England in the west to the Ural Mountains in the east, and as these two halves are separated by the Pyrenees and the Alps-Carpathians mountain chain

'Prehistoric' Europe is Europe with human presence but before the start of recorded history, beginning in the Lower Paleolithic, as considerable regional irregularities of cultural development were emerging and increasing, as the region of the eastern Mediterranean is, due to its geographic proximity, greatly influenced and inspired by the classical Middle Eastern civilizations, and adopts and develops the earliest systems of communal organization and writing - Paleolithic Europe, the Lower or Old Stone Age in Europe, encompasses the era from the arrival of the first archaic humans, about 1.4 million years ago until the beginning of the Mesolithic (also Epipaleolithic) around 10,000 years ago, as this period thus covers over 99% of the total human presence on the European continent - Social history of Europe listed by today's countries - Economic history of Europe since Middle Ages following the decline and downfall of the Roman empire - Slavery in Europe

1219-1806 Europe's free imperial city states, prosperity, becoming targets of more or less brutal wars, first completed by Napoleon's wars: 1219-1806 Free Imperial City of Nuremberg - independent city-state - within the Holy Roman Empire, after Nuremberg gained piecemeal independence from the Burgraviate in the High Middle Ages, leading to the economic and cultural flowering of the city and surrounding areas in the 15th and 16th centuries, making it the center of the German Renaissance also with increased trade routes and therefore becoming a target for in the coming periods of war, as the ravages of the major European wars of the 17th and 18th centuries caused the city to decline and incur sizeable debts, resulting in the city's absorption into the new Kingdom of Bavaria on the signing of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806, becoming one of the many territorial casualties of the Napoleonic Wars
July-September 1632 Siege of Nuremberg: July-September 1632 Siege of Nuremberg, a battle campaign that took place in 1632 about the Imperial City of Nuremberg during the 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War - Simplicius Simplicissimus, written in 1668 by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen and probably published the same year, inspired by the events and horrors of the 'Thirty Years' War' which devastated Germany from 1618 to 1648, and regarded as the first adventure novel in the German language and the first German novel masterpiece
Organization of medieval 'Free imperial city' states: Organization and development of medieval 'Free imperial city' states in Europe
Since 15th century development of medieval 'Free imperial city' states in central Europe including later Switzerland: 16th and 17th century, a number of Imperial Cities separated from the Empire, including cities connected to the 'Old Swiss Confederacy', gaining its formal independence from the Empire in 1648 after de facto independence since 1499, as also tthe independence of the Imperial Cities of Basel, Bern, Lucerne, St. Gallen, Schaffhausen, Solothurn, and Zürich was formally recognized by the empire - Territorial growth of Bern, the largest free imperial city until 1798
Territory of independent city-state Nuremberg, and after city of Bern left to join the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1353: Territory of independent city-state Nuremberg, comprising some 1,200 square kilometres, making it one of the largest imperial cities territories, after the Imperial City of Bern left to join the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1353, only the Imperial Cities of Ulm and Strasbourg had anything like the same amount of land
1799-1804 from French Consulate to 'First French Empire': From 9 November 1799 Coup of 18 Brumaire, that brought General Napoleon Bonaparte to power as First Consul of France, ending the French Revolution since 1789, as Napoleon now established a political system of 'dictatorship by plebiscite', as Napoleon resorted to regular electoral consultations with the French people on his road to imperial power, drafting the Constitution of the Year VIII securing his own election as First Consul, taking up residence at the Tuileries, and as the constitution was approved in a rigged plebiscite held the following January with 99.94% officially listed as voting 'yes', and as in 1800, Napoleon and his troops crossed the Swiss Alps into Italy, aiming to surprise the Austrian armies that had reoccupied the peninsula when Napoleon was still in Egypt imitating Roman empire's Caesar, followed by Napoleon's invasion of Haiti to knock down the revolution of former slaves, followed by 'First French Empire' since 2 December 1804, when Napoleon used assassination plots to justify the creation of an imperial system based on the Roman model, 18 centuries earlier, as at Napoleon's coronation with Pope Pius VII in Notre Dame de Paris on 2 December two separate crowns were brought for the ceremony, a golden laurel wreath recalling the Roman Empire and a replica of Charlemagne's crown
Since 1802 German mediatisation under pressure from emerging emperor Napoleon, e.g. 1806 Nuremberg city state part of the Kingdom of Bavaria: 1802-1814 German mediatisation, the major territorial restructuring in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatisation and secularisation under relentless military and diplomatic pressure from France and and emerging emperor Napoleon of a large number of Imperial Estates, as free imperial cities, secular principalities, most ecclesiastical principalities, and other minor self-ruling entities of the Holy Roman Empire lost their independent status, as by the end of the mediatisation process the number of German states had been reduced from almost 300 to just 39 - 1806 Nuremberg City becomes part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, per July 1806 'Treaty of Confederation of the Rhine' directed by emperor Napoleon of the 'First French Empire' in his function as leader also of the 'Confederation of the Rhine' 1806-1813

Alpine countries, the territory of eight European countries in the Alpine region, and more groups clockwise: Alpine countries, the territory of eight countries in the Alpine region in the 21st century including Switzerland, France, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and in another group Germany, Italy and Austria - Landesflächen und Alpenfläche der acht europäischen Alpenländer, aufgelistet und betrachtet in alphabischer Reihenfolge - Regionale Staatengruppen in Europa, zusammenfaßt in Alpenländer, Balkanhalbinsel, Westbalkan, EU-Südstaaten, Mittelmeeranrainerstaat, Iberische Halbinsel, Britische Inseln, Benelux Länder, Skandinavische Halbinsel und nordische Länder, Lublin-Dreieck (dreigliedrige Plattform für die politische, wirtschaftliche, kulturelle und soziale Zusammenarbeit zwischen Litauen, Polen und der Ukraine zur Unterstützung der Integration der Ukraine in die EU)

1st/2nd centuries renaming of Israel, Judah, Iudaea to Syria Palaestina by the Roman empire after its war crimes: As Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa, the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age, the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE, then Judah was later conquered by the Babylonian, Persian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces, then the successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, and in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea, then Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction and mass murder, the expulsion of the Jewish population, and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina

Texts and subject areas of ancient Israeli education: Texts and subject areas of ancient Israeli education included texts, the Mishna and later the Talmud and Gemora, all hand-written as emphasis was placed on developing good memory skills in addition to comprehension by practice of oral repetition, as the children (girls were not provided with formal education) would be taught from the six broad subject areas into which the Mishna is divided, including Zeraim ('Seeds'), dealing with agricultural laws and prayers, Moed ('Festival'), pertaining to the laws of the Shabbat and the Festivals, Nashim ('Women'), concerning marriage and divorce, Nezikin ('Damages'), dealing with civil and criminal law, Kodashim ('Holy things'), regarding sacrificial rites, the Temple, and the dietary laws, and Tohorot ('Purities'), pertaining to the laws of purity and impurity
8th-century BC Israelite prophete Isaiah in Judah: Isaias (Jesaja), der erste große Schriftprophet der hebräischen Bibel, der zwischen 740 und 701 BCE im damaligen Südreich Juda und verkündete diesem wie auch dem Nordreich Israel und dem anrückenden Großreich Assyrien das Gericht Gottes, und verhieß den Israeliten aber auch eine endzeitliche Wende zum Heil, das heißt zu universalem Frieden und Gerechtigkeit, und kündigte erstmals einen zukünftigen Messias als gerechten Richter und Retter der Armen an - Ancient Israel and Judah since 1550 BCE

Since 4th century 'translation', succession of imperial transfers, Grundeigentum (real estate), and new forms of forced labour replacing slavery: The origin and name of the 'Holy Roman Empire' 800/962–1806 and its history - 'Translatio imperii' (transfer of rule) concept that originated from the Middle Ages, in which history is viewed as a linear succession of transfers of an imperium that invests supreme power in a singular ruler, an 'emperor' (or sometimes even several emperors, e.g., the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Holy Roman Empire), as the concept is linked to 'ecclesiastical translation' (including the transfer of a bishop from one episcopal see to another, 'apostolic succession'), taken from the 'translatio studii' with origins in the Hebrew Bible and history
Since Middle Ages territorial domination, 'Grundeigentum' and 'Territorialisierung': Territorial domination and 'Territorialisierung' - Since Middle Ages list of duchies in European countries - Die Arbeitsrente, wo der unmittelbare Produzent einen Teil der Woche mit Pflug, Vieh etc. den Boden bestellt und Tage der Woche auf dem Gute des Grundherrn arbeitet für den Grundherrn unentgeltlich in einem unmittelbaren Herrschafts- und Knechtschaftsverhältnis sanktioniert durch die hierarchische katholische Kirche, Rente und Mehrwert sind identisch (Rente, nicht der Profit, die Form, worin sich hier die unbezahlte Mehrarbeit ausdrückt), mit dem Problem, wieweit der Arbeiter (self-sustaining serf) hier einen Überschuß über seine unentbehrlichen Subsistenzmittel gewinnen kann, was bei sonst gleichbleibenden Umständen wiederum von dem Verhältnis abhängt, worin seine Arbeitszeit sich teilt in Arbeitszeit für ihn selbst und Fronarbeitszeit für den Grundherrn, ganz und gar bestimmt durch die Höhe der Grundrente, welche hier nicht nur unmittelbar unbezahlte Mehrarbeit ist, sondern auch als solche erscheint
Parenting and society by European territory and later 'country': Parenting by 'country', Maternity by 'country', Family by 'country' and since early new ages gradually by 'nationality', Society by European country
All people equal at birth: Following pregnancy all people equal by and at birth by mother, then relationships with other people begin

Since 1st–10th century territorial disputes and wars: Territorial disputes ('Gebietsansprüche') - Since 1st–10th century AD conflicts and wars in Europe to gain territories, slaves and serfs and unpaid work and extra work - Roman and European 'right' of conquest, i.e. to use military force (even to wipe out people) in relation to other people in their home, settled (always less unsettled) region(s), to gain economic advantages
Since the Middle Ages agricultural and economic history of Europe by 'country': Agricultural history and agriculture in Europe by country - Economic history of Europe by country
Since 1789 and 1848 Revolutions and Counter-Revolution in European countries: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany, a book by Friedrich Engels, with contributions by Karl Marx, and originally a series of articles in the New York Daily Tribune published from 1851 to 1852. first published in book form under the editorship of Eleanor Marx Aveling in 1896 - 18th/19th centuries and 1851-1852 'Revolution und Konterrevolution in Deutschland und Europa'

Since 19th centuries and modern economic crises also vulgar economics: Since 19th centuries and modern economic crises vulgar economics feels completely at home, and that these relationships appear all the more self-evident to it, the more their inner interconnection remains hidden to it, even though these relationships are comprehensible to the popular mind
Class conflict, struggle, analysis and development of the political form of the community: Class conflict, also referred to as class struggle and class warfare, is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society consequent to socio-economic competition among the social classes or between rich and poor - 1847/1848 Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei, in welchem die Kommunisten ihre Anschauungsweise, ihre Zwecke, ihre Tendenzen vor der ganzen Welt offen darlegen und dem Märchen vom Gespenst des Kommunismus ein Manifest der Partei selbst entgegenstellen, verfaßt von K. Marx und Fr. Engels und in London versammelten Kommunisten der verschiedensten Nationalität, dann in englischer, französischer, deutscher, italienischer, flämischer und dänischer Sprache veröffentlicht - 1872 angesichts der Fortentwicklung der großen Industrie in den letzten 25 Jahren und der mit ihr fortschreitenden Parteiorganisation der Arbeiterklasse, den praktischen Erfahrungen, zuerst der Revolutionen 1848 ff. und noch weit mehr der Pariser Kommune 1871, wo das Proletariat zum erstenmal zwei Monate lang die politische Gewalt innehatte, ist heute dies Programm stellenweise veraltet, und namentlich hat die Kommune den Beweis geliefert, daß 'die Arbeiterklasse nicht die fertige Staatsmaschine einfach in Besitz nehmen und sie für ihre eigenen Zwecke in Bewegung setzen kann' - 1893, die Früchte der Revolution 1848 wurden von der Kapitalistenklasse eingeheimst, während in den anderen Ländern, in Italien, Deutschland, Österreich, Ungarn, die Arbeiter von Anfang an nichts anderes taten, als die Bourgeoisie an die Macht zu bringen, nur in keinem Lande ist die Herrschaft der Bourgeoisie ohne nationale Unabhängigkeit möglich - daher ggfs. 'Unionen' -, und 1848 mußte somit die Einheit und Unabhängigkeit derjenigen Nationen nach sich ziehen, denen es bis dahin daran gebrach - Italien, Deutschland, Ungarn, Polen wird zu seiner Zeit nachfolgen
Difficulties of unterstanding, 'Forschungs- und Darstellungsweise': 1872, die Untersuchungsmethode, deren ich mich bedient habe und die auf ökonomische Probleme noch nicht angewandt wurde, macht die Lektüre der ersten Kapitel ziemlich schwierig, und es ist zu befürchten, daß das ... Publikum, stets ungeduldig nach dem Ergebnis und begierig, den Zusammenhang zwischen den allgemeinen Grundsätzen und den Fragen zu erkennen, die es unmittelbar bewegen, sich abschrecken läßt, weil es nicht sofort weiter vordringen kann, sagt Karl Marx und fügt hinzu: Das ist ein Nachteil, gegen den ich nichts weiter unternehmen kann, als die nach Wahrheit strebenden Leser von vornherein darauf hinzuweisen und gefaßt zu machen
In the exchange process acts of common will: 'Um diese Dinge als Waren aufeinander zu beziehn, müssen die Warenhüter sich zueinander als Personen verhalten, deren Willen in jenen Dingen haust, so daß der eine nur mit dem Willen des andren, also jeder nur vermittelst eines, beiden gemeinsamen Willensakts sich die fremde Ware aneignet, indem er die eigne veräußert. Sie müssen sich daher wechselseitig als Privateigentümer anerkennen. Dies Rechtsverhältnis, dessen Form der Vertrag ist, ob nun legal entwickelt oder nicht, ist ein Willensverhältnis, worin sich das ökonomische Verhältnis widerspiegelt. Der Inhalt dieses Rechts- oder Willensverhältnisses ist durch das ökonomische Verhältnis selbst gegeben

Legal history of European countries since early new period after the development of towns across the whole continent, seeing a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, economic growth, as the period saw major technological advances, and the development of medieval schools, hospital and universities

Since 1914 and 1939 war objectives in world wars of Central and Axis powers: Les buts de guerre des Empires centraux sur le plan territorial, politique et économique de la Première Guerre mondiale - 20th century Axis powers' ideology and wars as their primary goal was territorial expansion at the expense of their neighbors

May 1949 Council of Europe: May 1949 Council of Europe founded by Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, as more countries joined later, and in 2021 it has 47 member states
1953 European Convention on Human Rights and 1959/1998 ECHR: Since 1950/1953 European Convention on Human Rights - Since 1959 and 1998 European Court of Human Rights ECHR, also known as the Strasbourg Court, an international court of the Council of Europe which interprets the European Convention on Human Rights, as the court hears applications alleging that a contracting state has breached one or more of the human rights enumerated in the Convention or its optional protocols to which a member state is a party, and as jurisdiction of the court has been recognized to date by all 47 member states of the Council of Europe, and as on 1 November 1998 the court became a full-time institution, and the European Commission of Human Rights, which used to decide on admissibility of applications, was abolished - European Court of Human Rights case law

Following WWII 'Cold War', wars in Korea, Indochina etc., two German states and remaining (Neo) Nazism:: Allied-occupied Germany, the administration of the territory upon defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, when the victorious Allies asserted joint authority and sovereignty, and then governance and the emergence of two German states since 1949 - Since 1945 central European post-Nazi Germany co-governed and even governed by former NSDAP authorities, supported by newly formed BND (Gestapo) and more secret services, police agents, lawyers, teachers, celebrating NSDAP-state's generals (Heinz Guderian, Erwin Rommel etc.), also engaged in the newly formed military etc., as the German economic giants like Thyssen-Krupp partially and economically powerful class factions kept and keep going etc.
Since 1993–2004 creation of the European Union and history: 1993–2004 creation and history of the European Union
1992/1993 'Maastricht Treaty', foundation treaty of the European Union EU: 1992/1993 'Maastricht Treaty' concluded between the 12 member states of the European Communities, the foundation treaty of the European Union EU, announcing 'a new stage in the process of European integration' chiefly in provisions for a shared European citizenship, for the eventual introduction of a single currency, and (with less precision) for common foreign and security policies, then undergoing expansions and secessions that have taken it from 6 member states to 27, a majority of the states in Europe in 2021 and covering a large portion of the European continent, following ideas of a union since 1815/1818 at conferences of European emperors, dukes and kings - Idée des 'États-Unis d'Europe' depuis 16ème siecle - Chronologie de l'Union européenne
Since 1972 elections of the European Parliament, powers and functions: Since 1952 European Parliament and elections, since 1972 - Powers and functions of the European Parliament
2005 Constitution of the EU rejected in France and the Netherlands, more 'Referenda' cancelled: On 29 May 2005 the French people rejected the Constitution of the EU by margin of 55% to 45%, as on 1 June, the Dutch rejected the constitution by a margin of 61% to 39%, as later Luxembourg's referendum on 10 July 2005 approving the Constitution was the last referendum to be held on the Constitution as all of the other member states that had proposed to hold referendums cancelled them

Since early 2000s Russia's Putin regime threating Europe and the EU: Since early 2000s European states' Russian Putin regime and his alliances threating Europe, the European Union and a peaceful and democratic future

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